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FIELD PERFORMANCE OF THE ROTARY PRICKLE CHAIN TILLAGE TOOL

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International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET)
Volume 10, Issue 03, March 2019, pp. 546-554. Article ID: IJMET_10_03_056
Available online at http://www.iaeme.com/ijmet/issues.asp?JType=IJMET&VType=10&IType=3
ISSN Print: 0976-6340 and ISSN Online: 0976-6359
© IAEME Publication
Scopus Indexed
FIELD PERFORMANCE OF THE ROTARY
PRICKLE CHAIN TILLAGE TOOL
Maxat Amantayev, Alexandr Kurach
Kostanay Department of Scientific Production Center of Agricultural Engineering LLP,
Kostanay, Kazakhstan
ABSTRACT
One of the effective farm practices of moisture accumulation is the pre-seed
harrowing in early spring. A rotary prickle chain tillage tools are the most suitable for
this agricultural practice. However, the process of their interaction with the soil has
not been drawn a research attention. Hence, this research was aimed to field
investigation of the performance of the developed rotary prickle chain tillage tool for
the pre-seed harrowing. In this paper the field performance of the developed tillage
tool in terms of the work quality and specific draught resistance are presented. The
obtained data allowed us to determine the parameters and operation modes of the
developed tillage tool under which the required quality is provided. The research
results will be used in the development of the implement for the pre-seed harrowing.
Keywords: pre-seed harrowing, rotary chain harrow, soil tillage quality, rotary prickle
chain tillage tool, field performance.
Cite this Article Maxat Amantayev and Alexandr Kurach, Field Performance of the
Rotary Prickle Chain Tillage Tool, International Journal of Mechanical Engineering
and Technology, 10(3), 2019, pp. 546-554.
http://www.iaeme.com/IJMET/issues.asp?JType=IJMET&VType=10&IType=3
1. INTRODUCTION
One of the main factors, limiting and determining the crop yields in Northern Kazakhstan is
the soil moisture. It is as important for plants life as heat or light and plays a leading role in
future crop yield formation, especially in the initial period of plant growth and development
[1–2]. In Northern Kazakhstan, the soil moisture reserves at the time of sowing are
accumulated due to the winter precipitation, the average annual amount of which is 300-350
mm [3–4]. Moreover, the warm weather with the positive temperature and draining winds in
the pre-sowing period, i.e. from snow melting to the sowing in this region lasts about 30 days.
During this period a significant loss (up to 30%) of productive soil moisture by evaporation
occurs [2]. In doing so, the maximum retaining of crop residues on field surface to reduce soil
moisture loss is ineffective. So, it is revealed that with an average crop yield of 10-15
hundreds kilograms per hectare, the scattered straw does not provide full coverage of the soil
surface and, as a result, it contributes to the formation of soil surface crust and cracks, through
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Field Performance of the Rotary Prickle Chain Tillage Tool
which the soil moisture is intensively evaporated by the convection-diffuse method [5]. It is
also revealed that even with full coverage of the field surface with crop residues, the process
of soil moisture evaporation does not stop; it only slows down for a period of 7 to 20 days [6–
7].
In this regard, one of the effective farm practices of moisture accumulation in the period
of prior to the sowing process is the pre-seed harrowing in early spring. This operation is
carried out when the soil workability is achieved for breaking up the top layer of the soil to
the tilling depth of 4-6 cm (in order to destroy the soil capillarity) and smoothing out the
surface with maximum retaining of crop residues. The fast drying and friable top layer and
crop residues on the soil surface significantly slow down and reduce the evaporation of
moisture from the lower soil layers [4, 8]. The research results of the Kostanay Scientific
Research Institute of Agriculture show that without pre-seed harrowing in early spring, by the
time of sowing about 30% of available moisture is lost in the layer of 1 m, and only 10-12% is
lost during harrowing [4].
The following quality parameters for the process of the pre-seed harrowing in early spring
are required [9]:
- tilling depth should be 5 ±1 cm;
- breaking up the soil surface crust should be at least 75%;
- should be provided finely and crumbly clod size distribution with a clod content of at
least 80% of clod size from 1 to 25 mm, while the clod size of larger than 50 mm is not
allowed;
- after passing of the implement, on the field surface should be retained not less than 70%
of stubble and crop residues from initial amount;
- after the passage of the implement, the amount of the erosion-hazardous particles of soil
less than 1 mm in the layer of 0-5 cm should not be increased against initial amount;
- the field surface after the passage of the implement should be smoothed, the average
height of the ridges and the depth of the furrows is allowed no more than 3 cm;
- tillage tools should not accumulate the crop residues and soil mass.
For the pre-seed harrowing of fields cultivated in autumn with a small amount of stubble
as well as the summer fallows a heavy and medium tine harrows BZTS-1.0 and BZSS-1.0 and
on stubble fields a rotary hoe harrows BIG-3A and BMSH-15, heavy and medium spring tine
harrows are used. However, harrows BZTS-1.0 and BZSS-1.0 accumulate crop residues, the
rotary hoe harrows BIG-3A and BMSH-15 have high power consumption and low working
capacity, and the spring tine harrows have a poor penetration ability and accumulate crop
residues as well [10].
At present for the operation of pre-seed harrowing in early spring implements with the
rotary prickle chain tillage tools are widely used. They are harrows of Russian (BTSD-12) and
Kazakhstan production (BZTS-12, BZTS-24) with the tillage tools in the form of round link
of chains rotating in bearing assemblies, at each link of which there are two oppositely
oriented and sharpened teeth [11–12]. The tillage tools are set on the frame of harrow at an
angle of attack with the «diamond-shaped» scheme. However, the tillage tools of such
harrows due to the low weight of the chains do not sufficiently break up the top layer of the
soil and do not provide the required tilling depth when the soil hardness is above 1 MPa [13].
The rotary prickle chain tillage tools have been developed by V.I. Taranin, N.I. Bezdolnyj,
V.M. Kotenov, A.A. Kem, L.C. Phillips, R.K. Clark, G.A. Sauder and etc. [14–20]. However,
the process of their interaction with the soil has not been drawn a research attention.
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Maxat Amantayev and Alexandr Kurach
Hence, the purpose of the research is to assess the effect of parameters and operation
modes on the work quality produced by the rotary prickle chain tillage tool and its power
requirement.
2. MATERIALS AND METHODS
In the Kostanay department of «Scientific Production Center of Agricultural Engineering»
LLP a new rotary prickle chain tillage tool with the setting load on the tooth for pre-seed
harrowing in early spring has been developed and manufactured, Figure 1.
a
b
a – front view; b – side view; 1 – round link of the chain; 2 – double-ended tooth
Figure 1. Rotary prickle chain tillage tool with the setting load on the tooth
The tillage tool is made in the form of a round link chain, consisting of connected
consistently identical links 1. In each link 1 there are X-shaped two double-ended teeth 2 of
circular section. The ends of the tillage tool are fixed in the bearing assemblies in stretched
position with the possibility of rotation. Tillage tools set at an angle of attack to travel
direction. The load on the tooth and tilling depth can be adjusted depending on the hardness
of the treated soil layer. The spacing of the teeth is L=0.102 m, the radius of the circumscribed
circle at the ends of the teeth is R=0.18 m, the radius of the section of the teeth is r=0.01 m,
the number of teeth on one chain link is n=4, the angle between adjacent teeth in link is
equaled to =45°.
Field experimental studies were conducted in the Kostanay region of the Republic of
Kazakhstan to assess the effect of the parameters and operation modes on the work quality
produced by the developed rotary prickle chain tillage tool and its power requirement.
As a laboratory-field setup the BTSD-12 harrow frame was used, on the side sections of
which were installed the investigated tillage tool sections with the ability to adjust the angle
of attack and the vertical load on the teeth, Figure 2.
The soil tillage process occurred as follows. During movement across the field, the teeth
of the tillage tools under the action of a fixed load are penetrated into the soil at a set tilling
depth and rotated due to their interaction. In doing so, the teeth of the tillage tools performed
the soil pulverization in the top layer, breaking up the soil surface crust, uprooting the weeds,
redistributing crop residues over the surface, smoothing out the soil surface and mulching its
top layer.
The main investigated parameters and operation modes were the angle of attack, specific
vertical load on the tooth and travel speed. The work quality produced by the tillage tools to
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Field Performance of the Rotary Prickle Chain Tillage Tool
be studied was assessed in terms of changing in tilling depth, clod size distribution, breaking
up the soil surface crust and roughness of the soil surface. The soil parameters characterizing
the field conditions and work quality were determined and assessed according to the
Standards [21, 22]. Draught resistance of the tillage tools was determined by the method of
the strain gage measurement and measured using a tensometric unit with the data acquisition
unit and transducer of the company «Tenso-M». All instrumentations were installed in the
MTZ-80 tractor cab.
a
b
а – general view; b – operational view
Figure 2. Laboratory-field setup with the rotary prickle chain tillage tool sections
The experiments were conducted on a fallow field in the following soil conditions: soil
type is chernozem with the texture of medium loam; soil moisture content was in the layer of
0-5 cm – 21.7%, 5-10 cm – 19.2% and 10-15 cm – 18.3%; the mean penetrometer resistance
is 0.35, 0.82 and 1.12 MPa respectively. During the experiments the angle of attack was 30°,
35° and 40°. The specific vertical load on the teeth was adjusted by the weight of the section
and was 50, 70, 90 and 110 N/unit. The magnitude of the travel speed varied from 6 to 15
km/h.
3. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
In Figure 3 the research results of determining the effect of the specific vertical load on one
tooth and travel speed on the tilling depth are presented.
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Analysis of the results shows that the increase in the vertical load on the tooth from 50 to
110 N/unit causes an increase in the tilling depth for all range of travel speeds. So, at the
speed of 6 km/h, the tilling depth increases from 3.7 to 8.1 cm, at the speed of 9 km/h – from
3.4 to 7.1 cm, at the speed of 12 km/h – from 3.0 to 6.6 cm and at the speed of 15 km/h – the
tilling depth increases from 2.7 to 6.1 cm. With the increase in the travel speed from 6 to 15
km/h the tilling depth decreases for all values of the vertical load on the tooth by 2.2-2.3
times, which is associated with the increase in the dynamic component of the soil resistance
force. From Figure 3 is seen that the tilling depth of 5 ±1 cm (green zone), corresponding to
quality requirements, is provided with the vertical load on the tooth 70-80 N/unit for the range
of travel speeds of 6-15 km/h.
▬♦▬– 6 km/h; ▬■▬– 9 km/h; ▬▲▬– 12 km/h; ▬●▬– 15 km/h
Figure 3. Effect of the specific vertical load on the tooth and travel speed of the tillage tool on the
tilling depth
Figure 4-6 show the results of the assessment of the effect of the angle of attack and travel
speed on the work quality produced by the tillage tool in terms of clod size distribution,
breaking up the soil surface crust and roughness of the soil surface at the value of the vertical
load on the tooth, providing the required tilling depth.
From the graphs in Figure 4 is seen that with increasing the angle of attack from 30 to 40°
clod size distribution increases by 1.1-1.2 times for all travel speed range. With the increase in
travel speed from 6 to 15 km/h clod size distribution also increases due to the higher dynamic
effect of the teeth on the soil. The clod size distribution satisfied the quality requirement (clod
content at least 80% of clod size from 1-25 mm, the green zone on the graph) is provided at
the angles of attack of 35-40° for all travel speed variations.
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Field Performance of the Rotary Prickle Chain Tillage Tool
▬♦▬– 30°; ▬■▬– 35°; ▬▲▬– 40°
Figure 4. Effect of the travel speed and angle of attack of the tillage tool on the clod size distribution
at the specific vertical load on the tooth 70 N/unit
▬♦▬– 30°; ▬■▬– 35°; ▬▲▬– 40°
Figure 5. Effect of the travel speed and angle of attack of the tillage tool on the breaking up the soil
surface crust at the specific vertical load on the tooth 70 N/unit
From the graph in Figure 5 is seen that the increase in the angle of attack from 30 to 40°
leads to the increase in the breaking up the soil surface crust from 71.8 to 78.7% at the speed
of 6 km/h and 79.2 to 91.1% at the speed of 15 km/h. With the increase in speed from 6 to 15
km/h the breaking up the soil surface crust also increases by 1.1-1.2 times due to the growing
in intensity of the impact of the teeth on the soil. Breaking up the soil surface crust satisfied
the quality requirements (not less than 75%, the green zone on the graph) is provided at the
angles of attack of 35-40° at any given travel speed.
It is revealed that the rotary prickle chain tillage tool has high level of smoothing of the
soil surface – for all range of the angle of attack and travel speed the roughness of soil surface
meets the quality requirements – not more than 3 cm, Figure 6.
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▬♦▬– 30°; ▬■▬– 35°; ▬▲▬– 40°
Figure 6. Effect of the travel speed and angle of attack of the tillage tool on the roughness of the soil
surface at the specific vertical load on the tooth 70 N/unit
Figure 7 shows the results of the assessment of the effect of the travel speed and angle of
attack of the tillage tool on the specific draught resistance at the value of the vertical load on
the tooth, providing the required tilling depth.
From the graphs is seen that with the increase in the angle of attack from 30 to 40° the
specific draught resistance increases by 1.7-1.8 times. With the increase in the travel speed
from 6 to 15 km/h the specific draught resistance also increases by 1.2 times, which is
associated with the increase in the dynamic component of the soil resistance force.
▬♦▬– 30°; ▬■▬– 35°; ▬▲▬– 40°
Figure 7. Effect of the travel speed and angle of attack of the tillage tool on the specific draught
resistance at the specific vertical load on the tooth 70 N/unit
Thus, the obtained data allowed us to select the parameters and operation modes of the
tillage tool to be studied, providing the required quality of the pre-seed harrowing process in
early spring. The research results will be used in the development of the implements for the
pre-seed harrowing in early spring.
4. CONCLUSION
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Field Performance of the Rotary Prickle Chain Tillage Tool
1. Field experimental studies show that the specific vertical load on the tooth should be 70-80
N/unit to provide the required tilling depth.
2. It is revealed that the required quality in terms of the clod size distribution, breaking up
the soil surface crust and roughness of the soil surface is provided at the angle of attack of the
tillage tool of 35-40° for the range of the travel speed of 6-15 km/h.
3. Experimental studies show that at the angle of attack of 35-40°, travel speed of 6-15
km/h of the investigated tillage tool and vertical load on the tooth, providing the required
tilling depth, the specific draught resistance is 0.65…1.0 kN/m.
4. The obtained data allowed us to select the parameters and operation modes of the tillage
tool to be studied, providing the required quality of the pre-seed harrowing process in early
spring. The research results will be used in the development of the implement for the pre-seed
harrowing.
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
These studies were financially supported by the Ministry of Education and Science of the
Republic of Kazakhstan (Grant No. АР05130663).
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