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FLEXIBLE WORK ARRANGEMENT INITIATIVES AND COMMITMENT OUTCOME OF SELECTED TECHNOLOGY-BASED BANKS

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International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET)
Volume 10, Issue 03, March 2019, pp. 161–171, Article ID: IJMET_10_03_016
Available online at http://www.iaeme.com/ijmet/issues.asp?JType=IJMET&VType=10&IType=3
ISSN Print: 0976-6340 and ISSN Online: 0976-6359
© IAEME Publication
Scopus Indexed
FLEXIBLE WORK ARRANGEMENT
INITIATIVES AND COMMITMENT OUTCOME
OF SELECTED TECHNOLOGY-BASED BANKS
Oludayo, O.A.; Salau, O.P.; Falola, H.O; Atolagbe, T. M.;
Ogueyungbo, A.; Fatogun, T.O.
Business Management Department, College of Business & Social Sciences,
Covenant University, Km. 10, Idiroko Road, Canaan Land, Ota, Nigeria
Correspondence Author‟s Email: [email protected]
ABSTRACT
There have been dramatic changes in workforce demographics over the past few
decades affecting employment relation. As a result, flexible work pattern became a
common initiative used by organizations globally in response to various challenges
faced in demanding industries like the banking sector. Despite the efforts of
management to facilitate quality life, concerns regarding how this practice contributes
to greater commitment remain worrisome. Descriptive approach was used and the
target respondents comprises purposively selected commercial banks staff in Lagos
state. Data collected were through the use of questionnaire and analysed through a
variance-based model. Findings revealed that the strongest predictor of flexible work
pattern initiatives is flex location specifically telecommuting, followed by flexitime
which comprises of the use of shifting swaps, flex-hours and compressed work weeks
while flexitime-off had the least.
Key words: Flexible work pattern, Flextime, Flex location, Behaviour, Commitment
Cite this Article: Oludayo, O.A.; Salau, O.P.; Falola, H.O; Atolagbe, T. M.;
Ogueyungbo, A.; Fatogun, T.O., Flexible Work Arrangement Initiatives and
Commitment Outcome of Selected Technology-Based Banks, International Journal of
Mechanical Engineering and Technology 10(3), 2019, pp. 161–171.
http://www.iaeme.com/IJMET/issues.asp?JType=IJMET&VType=10&IType=3
1. INTRODUCTION
Flexible working arrangements is commonly a practice in organizations where employees are
apt to decide when and where they work from to fulfil their work obligations (Grzywacz,
Carlson, & Shulkin, 2008). Giannikis and Mihail (2011) indicates that flexible working
arrangement (FWA) is an essential aspect of many Work-Life Balance (WLB) initiatives that
organizations across the globe use to comfortably support employees to balance work and
family, and to actualize both their family and work obligations. These Work-Life Balance
initiatives can also be referred to as an all-inclusive family friendly workplace practices.
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Flexible Work Arrangement Initiatives and Commitment Outcome of Selected Technology-Based Banks
Globally, every human being struggles to survive in the wake of competing challenges
due to innumerable wants but limited resources. As organizations strive to meet stakeholders
demand of capital appreciation, increasing market share, survival in the industry and
successful retention of valuable workers among others, workers too are in a stiff competition
to utilize their time among competing needs such as attending to family affairs, social and
political events as well as other personal activities which sometimes conflict with
organizational goals. This particular situation always makes it difficult for some workers to
have time for their private life once their office work takes most of their time. Similarly,
organizations sometimes suffer from incessant absenteeism or inefficiency of some workers
who engage in other social activities which affects their efficiency at work.
Scholars from different disciplines, including human resource management,
organizational behavior, psychology, economics, and sociology, have contributed to the
theoretical development of our understanding of workplace flexibility. Despite the increasing
attention given to workplace flexibility, previous studies such as Muchiti & Gachunga (2015)
and Syed &Akhtar (2014) have emphasized on managing work-life balance in relation to
employees‟ and the organizational performance, the study has discovered that most studies
have not delved into how flexible work arrangement iniatives, a strategy for promoting work
life balance, affect commitment outcomes of workers.
In Nigeria, flexible working arrangement is increasingly embraced as a result of unstable
economic conditions and ever changing demographics have pressurised organizations to adopt
flexibility in retaining skilled individuals and preventing them from longer period (Mukururi
& Ngari, 2014). The nature of work available sometimes also calls for more flexible work
arrangements such as flexi-time, job sharing, maternity and paternity leave, and child care
amongst others (Rabinowitz, 2016; Muli, Muathe, & Muchiri, 2014). Studies have revealed
that managerial response to issues of flexible work arrangement (FWA) has become very
crucial especially in the banking sector which contributes to 37.6% to Nigeria Domestic
product (GDP) (NBS, 2016).
The interest in and importance of flexible work arrangement is increasing especially
among the banks‟ staff who have been found of using more time at office and on the road in
cities making them arrive home lately and leaves early in order to beat traffic. Over the years,
the substantial restructuring of the Nigerian banking sector has resulted to the increase in the
demands from supervisors (managers) and customers with reference to the availability of
employees and quality of service delivered (Ugwu, Amazue & Onyedire, 2017). Research has
been able to identify various factors that influence work-life balance in a fast growing change
of business in Nigeria. Lingard and Francis (2004), identified these factors to include work
life conflict, workloads, weekend work and irregular hours.
The competitiveness of the Nigerian banking sector has also contributed to the harrowing
experience that the employees are subjected to in a bid to realise individual and corporate
targets. Chief of these demands are overwhelming workload culture and long hours which
often result in the neglect of other areas of life. Fapohunda (2014) affirms that the imbalance
in the workplace follows a critical result on the society as a whole, the organisation as well as
the individual employees. These demands have had negative impact on employees‟ family life
leading to increase in marital conflicts, separation, divorce, and ineffective parenting amongst
other issues (Vlems, 2008). It is against this background that this study examined whether
flexible work arrangements has any effect on employee commitment across the commercial
banking sector in Lagos state.
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2. LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1. Flexible Work Arrangements defined
This concept is interchangeably used with flexible work pattern initiatives. There is no
universal definition of what constitute FWA. Flexible work Arrangement (FWA) are
programmes designed by employers to show greater scheduling freedom for employees to
perform the obligations of their positions. FWA simply explains „when‟, „where‟, or „how‟
much one works. This implies that with FWA, employees have superior control over the
choices of time or location (place) in which they work. It is different from some work
arrangements that refer to employers‟ ability to change work schedules and lay off employees
(Edward et al., 1996). There are three major forms of FWA: flexibility in arranging work
hours, the location of the workplace, and the amounts of work hours. The flexibility in the
scheduling of hours usually includes flexi-time, compressed workweek, and scheduling of
breaks and overtime. Unlike employees who use flexi-time, compressed workweek, or
working from home, employees who use reduced work hours and job sharing often change
their employment status from full time to part time.
2.2. Flexible Work Arrangement Initiatives Measures
There have been dramatic changes in workforce demographics overtime. These changes have
amplified greater demands for workplace flexibility. Hence, the major measures put in place
by organisations to promote flexible work arrangement initiatives include:
2.2.1. Flex-time
This allows staff to decide or be involved in the decision pertaining to the start and end times
of their working day, provided a set number of hours/days worked (Lazar, Osoian, Raţiu,
2010). This provided enough space to attend to personal commitment and circumstances as
the case maybe.
Compressed Work Weeks
This requires the ability to work for longer hours every day to lessen the number of days in a
work cycle. Here, employers extend the daily operating hours of staff with less need to turn to
overtime. This gives staff added advantage in having extra days off work such as lengthier
weekends and abridged commuting time (Shagvaliyeva & Yazdanifard, 2014).
Flexible Working Hours
This gives staff the opportunity to determine and vary their start and stop times as long as
they work the equivalent of a full work week. This approach permits staff to select the period
they commence and complete day by day task, provided they finish in a stipulated number of
hours (Perrin, 2001). According to (Perrin, 2001), flexible work hours can further be
categorised into three which includes Part-time work (where workers work not as much as the
full customary weekly or monthly hours, or less than an entire year, and is qualified for work
benefits, such as, yearly and health leave), flexitime (flexible scheduling i.e. allows
employees to choose, within set boundaries, when to begin and conclude work), and
teleworking (This enables employees do their work without physical barriers).
Banking Time
This is a pragmatic and evidence-based strategy that focuses on the ability of the organisation
to offer work flexibility by varying the work hours through job sharing and reduction in work
hours.
Shift Swaps
Swap permits shift-workers to exchange shifts with each other, enabling them the flexibility
to meet both their work duties and individual needs without sacrificing one or the other.
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Swaps happens automatically when a demand complement a cancellation between two
employees (TalentCorp, 2013)
2.2.2. Flexi-time off
Flexibility in the place of work allows employees to perform tasks at places other than their
primary workplace during their work schedule.
Reduced Hours
This refers to a situation in which an employee works less than a full work week with
compensation adjusted accordingly.
Extra Vacation
Vacation to employee‟s provides merited time off from work. It is regarded as leave from
work (or pay in lieu of time off) giving on a yearly basis and typically taken in specific of
days or weeks. It has been discovered to increase mental and physical well-being as well as
profitability and focus which includes taking time off responding to e-mails and work related
issues. Matos (2014) describes vacation as taking time form work and work related activities
for other planned purpose or objectives which is usually planned for in advance.
Personal Days
This is also referred to as general purpose leave (U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, 2009).
Personal days is designed as a “catch-all” to provide the worker with time off from work for
random purposes that might possibly be covered by other sorts of leave designs. It can be
used for any purpose the worker chooses.
Annualized Hours
Annual hours operate by dividing hours worked over the year as opposed to the week or
month. A yearly compensation is paid all the time however hours worked can differ, as
required by the season or demand. The structure is designed such that employees work simply
when they are required, thereby decreasing frivolous time (White and Wallace, 2008).
Long-term Time off
The motivation behind this strategy is to enable a worker give considerable or full time care
for a spouse, partner, civil partner, parent or other relative who lives with and relies upon
them.
2.2.3. Flex-Location
Telecommuting
Telecommuting is a type of flexible work arrangement that can be formal or informal in
nature that is, it can be stated in the organisational policy or be made through liaising with the
manager. It is becoming a trend for work to be done from the comfort of the home instead of
the regular form of going to the office which is referred to as „telework‟ or „telecommuting‟.
(Lazar, et al, 2010). This is of great advantage to the employee by allowing them: coordinate
their work day around their personal and family needs; to lessen work-related expenses; and
to work in a less stressful and disordered environment.
2.3. Commitment Outcomes
Commitment is very important human resource behavior as it is tied to performance and
achievement of corporate goals, even though defining commitment seem to prove a difficult
task (Ahmad, 2013). Commitment can be applied to various areas which include occupation,
and organization, supervisor and team, customer and association (Daneshfard & Ekvaniyan,
2012). All the same, many definitions of commitment abound - some are similar in definition,
while others differ. While commitment can be looked at either from the organization or
employee perspective; this study focuses on the employee perspective, which covers three
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areas – work commitment, career commitment and organisational commitment (Khan,
Ziauddin, Jam & Ramay, 2010).
Commitment is seen as the process whereby an individual is bound to some behavioural
acts; thus one definition of commitment is “the degree of an employee's intention to stay in an
organization (Meyer and Herscovitch, 2001). Commitment is also defined as employees‟
devotion to the organization (Akintayo, 2010); while Ongori (2007) defines commitment as
the degree of employee‟s affective response and loyalty to the whole organization. On the
other hand, employee commitment is simply defined as employee‟s attitude toward the
organization (Zheng, 2010). Commitment is when an employee continues to work in that job
and feels psychologically bound to the organization, regardless of whether it is fulfilling or
not (Iles, 2005). A committed employee increases value to that organization and has tendency
to be more determined in their work. Committed employees show positive behavior towards
the organization.
The significance of employee commitment cannot be over emphasized because high
employee commitment leads to high levels of favourable work outcomes, especially if the
conditions are right. This infers that there are antecedents of employee commitment, which
leads to higher employee performance (Ali, 2010; Ajila and Awonusi, 2004); this is the
reason why the subject of commitment has attracted much research as organisations depend
on employees to gain competitive advantage and achieve excellent performance (Akintayo,
2010; Tumwesigye 2010). Employees provide the intellectual capital base of the organization
and are the primary asset of the organization: hence they must be motivated to enable them
wholeheartedly contribute their time and energy to achieve organisational goals (Hunjra,
2010). However, there are antecedents of employee commitment; these include leadership
style (Lo, 2009); organizational fairness (Ponnu and Chuah, 2010); and corporate social
responsibility (Ali et al, 2010); also job enrichment (Salau, Adeniji, & Oyewunmi, 2014),
employee empowerment and compensation (Ongori, 2007) as well as educational level,
personality and position (Camilleri, 2002).
Affective Commitment (AF)
Affective commitment, which is the best and most desirable commitment type for
organisational benefit, has to do with employees‟ emotional attachment to an organization.
Affective commitment is characterized by employees‟ acceptance of organizational values
and willingness to remain and contribute meaningfully to the achievement of corporate goals.
Employees that are affectively committed identify with organization in as much as
organisational goals are congruent with theirs‟. Identification with the organization and
internalization of organisational values are elements of the developmental stages of affective
commitment (Muhammad & Basharat, 2011). It is noteworthy that certain factors influence
affective commitment; among these are job challenges, clarity of roles and goals; also
management response, dependability, feedback as well as equity, team cohesion and selfworth (Allen, 1997).
Normative Commitment (NC)
Normative commitment is the second commitment types and it is characterized by a feeling of
personal conviction to remain with an organisation. The decision to remain is a function of
moral feeling of obligation to the organization because of the benefits derived from the
organization; irrespective of the effect of actual experience. An example of normative
commitment is unwillingness to exit and work for a competitor in consideration of all that the
present employer has done for the employee (Meyer & Allen, 1997).
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Continuance Commitment (CC)
Continuance commitment is the third type of commitment, which is characterized by a false
desire to remain with an organization routed in consideration of fear of the high cost
associated with exiting the organisation such as uncertainty of securing another employment
(Meyer & Allen, 1997). Employees in this commitment category remain because it is needful
as there is no ready viable alternative employment; thus they possess very high exit intension,
which they implement as soon as opportunity shows up.
2.4. Flexible Work Arrangement Initiatives in the Banking Industry
Research have been able to identify that employee develop a positive perspective towards
engaging in prospective work-life initiative that has enabling and empowering environment
provided along with the policies which enables organisation adopt a work-life culture
(Thompson et al. 1999). The identified Work-life balance initiatives such as flexible work
arrangements, parental leave have been found to be significant for employees‟ retention and
engagement particularly in a business environment that shows support for the family (Baruah,
2013). According to Baruah (2013), there are low rate turnover among employees that make
use of the child-care initiative provided in the organisation and are more likely to stick to
established date of return for approved leaves (Kossek and Nichol, 1992).
Customers and regulators over the years have been demanding modification and increase
in service quality and delivery in the Nigeria‟s banking industry. This modification (Ojo,
Salau, & Falola, 2014), has its influence in the banking world and have raised the challenges
of work-life balance among employees. Prominent in the Nigerian banking sector is its late
hour work culture and high work loads of employee in the sector resulting in a lag in other
personal affair of the workers life. This thus, has a negative effect on the family system which
significant value is placed on in Nigeria‟s society. The Nigerian banking sector is
characterised by long work periods, pressure in the workplace and rigorous managerial
supervision. Maximizing customer‟s satisfaction in relation to organisational behaviour might
lead to more demand on the part of the workers to satisfy such demands (Ugwu, et al. 2017).
Meanwhile, research conducted by Adekola (2010) attempted to identify and relate work
demand to work-life conflict and it was discovered that career salience, hours of work and
work involvement were associated with work interference and family conflict (Ugwu, et al.
2017). Work-life according to (De Bruin and Dupuis, 2004) propose the importance of
maintaining a balance in an employee work-life which has spanned over 20 years and have
recorded measurable changes that has direct impact on the issue. Another is the demographic
nature of the workforce has been notably modified from the predominant norm of been
occupied by man. In recent times, an influx of the female gender are debunking the acclaimed
notion of male dominated work zone.
2.5. Theoretical Synthesis
The segmentation theory was adopted and it assumes that work and family are two distinctive
domains, indicating that work and family are separate spheres (Edwards & Rothbard, 2000).
This theory facilitated understanding of establishing influence of flexible working schedules
on employee productivity). Invariably, it explains further the needs to ensure moderate
freedom is given to both the employees and the employers in discharge of their roles. This
affords each party to have total control and plan its activity in line with convenient time to
have the roles performed.
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3. METHODOLOGY
The population of this study comprises staff of selected Deposit Money Banks (DMBs).
These technology-driven banks were selected based on several indicators such as international
reckoning, branch networks, profitability index, total assets and earning and customers‟
deposits. The banks were Zenith Bank Plc; Guaranteed Trust Bank; First Bank; Access Bank
Plc; and United Bank for Africa Plc. The research was conducted in Lagos as it serves as the
central commercial nerve of Nigeria and where 85% of the DMBs are headquartered. The
population of the selected banks is known as 33,027 and using Kriejie sample size
determination table, 339 was selected as the sample size which formed the basis of our
analysis. The need for primary source of data was employed in collecting data through the use
of a structured questionnaire. The items in the questionnaire were adapted from previous
works. The instrument for flexible work arrangement was categorized into formal and
informal initiatives. Data gathered were analysed using variance-based model (structural
equation modelling/SPSS version 21).
4. SCALE VALIDATION AND MEASUREMENT MODEL
Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) was conducted to confirm the development of the
measurement scale as established and ensure the validity/reliability of the constructs. The
CFA helps to measure the consistency of variables which is composed by several items. As
Pablo Valencia mentioned, CFA makes sure that all the items included in the analysis belong
to a pre-assumed factor. It can be observed that the use of CFA warrants that the results
obtained are reliable, independent from the instrument's validity. The result of confirmatory
factor analysis is displayed in table below. The study followed the conditions as
recommended by Fornell and Larcker (1981) and Bagozzi and Yi (1988) to assess convergent
validity.
Measurement
FT1
FT2
FT3
FT4
FT5
FT6
FT7
FT8
FTO1
FTO2
FTO3
FTO4
FTO5
FTO6
FTO7
FTO8
FTO9
FTO10
FL1
Loading
Indicator
Reliability
Error
Compose
Variance
Reliability
> 0.7
< 0.5
> 0.8
A. FLEXIBLE WORK ARRANGEMENT
Flextime: In my bank ….
0.802
0.643
0.357
0.957
0.865
0.747
0.253
0.925
0.855
0.145
0.810
0.656
0.344
0.883
0.779
0.221
0.889
0.790
0.210
0.882
0.778
0.222
0.805
0.649
0.351
Flextime_Off: In my bank ….
0.698
0.789
0.211
0.947
0.792
0.626
0.374
0.776
0.602
0.398
0.789
0.623
0.377
0.669
0.448
0.552
0.762
0.581
0.419
0.801
0.641
0.359
0.885
0.783
0.217
0.796
0.634
0.366
0.888
0.788
0.212
Flex_Location: In my bank ….
0.765
0.585
0.415
0.810
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Ave. Variance
Estimated
> 0.5
0.859
0.800
0.826
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Flexible Work Arrangement Initiatives and Commitment Outcome of Selected Technology-Based Banks
FL2
0.883
CO1
CO2
CO3
CO4
CO5
CO6
0.997
0.788
0.827
0.922
0.630
0.972
0.780
0.220
B. COMMITMENT OUTCOMES
0.993
0.007
0.923
0.621
0.379
0.683
0.317
0.851
0.149
0.397
0.603
0.944
0.056
0.869
It can be observed from the above that the values of factors loading were above 0.70 while
those below were not included in the computation. For the composite reliability, this indicates
that the values met the requirements as recommended by Hair, et al., (1996) that the values
are considered fit if they are above 0.8. The same is also applicable to average variance
extracted whose values were also above the recommended thresholds of 0.5. After
determining the normality of the data, Pearson correlation test was used to measure the
relationship and the degree of correlation between the variables as shown in Table 4.
Table 4. Results of Pearson correlation test
Measures
Mean
Standard
deviation
1
2
Flexible Work
3.6871
.47007
Arrangements
1. Flexitime_Off
3.5630
.74553
1 .354*
2. Flex_Location
4.1929
.61145
1
3. Flex_Time
4.0249
.49107
Commitment
3.8862
.33071
Outcomes
4. Continuance
3.9685
.67983
5. Affective
4.0682
.63292
6. Normative
4.0026
.62196
**. Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).
*. Correlation is significant at the 0.05 level (2-tailed).
3
4
5
6
.311**
.408**
1
.229**
.352**
.416*
.424**
.310*
.384**
.278**
.408*
.322*
1
.360**
1
.331*
.320**
1
4.1. Structural Equation Modelling
To support the normality and measurement model, structural model was also conducted to
establish the degree of association among the variables as presented in Figure 2 and Table 5
respectively.
Table 2: Model fit index of Flexible Work Arrangements and Employee Commitment Outcome
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Table 5. Results of the structural model
Independent
Variable
Flexitime_Off
Flex_Location
Flex_Time
Independent
Variable
Comm_Outcome
Comm_Outcome
Comm_Outcome
Standardized
Coeeficient
Standard
Error
0.173
0.144
0.294
0.027
0.039
0.087
C.R
p
Results
2.069 * Supported
2.175 ** Supported
4.052 ** Supported
The figure above explains the co-efficient path and estimates of the variance-based model.
This indicates a significant and close direction of relationship between and among the
constructs. The regression weights indicate that when flexible work arrangements go up by 1,
commitment outcome goes up by 30%. It indicated that flexible work arrangements play a
vital role in facilitating employee commitment outcome. The result is consistent with previous
studies.
Variation in the significant role of demographic characteristics on Employee Commitment Outcome
Gender
Age
Grade
6.183
2
.039
Test Statisticsa,b
Marital
Highest
Status Education
6.814
7.357
2
2
.046
.416
Chi-Square
.527
Df
2
Asymp. Sig.
.632
a. Kruskal Wallis Test
b. Grouping Variable: Commitment Outcome
Religion
4.853
2
.233
Job
Years Spent in
Position
the Bank
9.621
8.672
2
2
.032
.013
Using employee commitment outcome as the dependent variables and the demographic
characteristics of the respondents (gender, age, marital status, highest education, religion, job
position, and years spent in the bank) as the independent variables. Kruskal Wallis Test was
carried out. The test showed that difference in the perception of staff and management on the
relationship between flexible work arrangement initiatives and job commitment outcome by
gender (λ2 = .527, education (λ2 = 7.357, df=2, P>0.05) and religion (λ2 = 4.853, df=2,
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Flexible Work Arrangement Initiatives and Commitment Outcome of Selected Technology-Based Banks
P>0.05) are not statistically significant. This means that the difference in the perception of job
commitment outcome are not due to gender, education and religion. While their perception of
job commitment outcome by age (λ2 = 6.183, df=2, P<0.05), marital status (λ2 = 6.814, df =
2, P<0.05), job position (λ2 = 9.621, df = 2, P<0.05), and years spent in the bank (λ2 = 8.672,
df=2, P<0.05) are statistically significant.
5. DISCUSSIONS AND MANAGERIAL IMPLICATIONS
The workplace in the 21st century, demands goal-oriented organisations to step-up in the
midst of advantageous competition. From the analysis carried out, it was discovered that Coworkers support is the strongest predictor of absenteeism and work-life conflict. It further
discloses that co-workers support has significant effect on employee‟s behavioural outcome.
This means that the job performance of employees depends on the informal co-worker support
initiative because the absence of these initiative brings about a negative influence in employee
behavioural outcome which include: absenteeism and work-life conflict. The result did not
negate other influencers of work-life but prominent among, co-worker support tends to have
the greatest influence. Thus, it is pertinent to pay attention to this area as it concerns two
major players in the world of business i.e. the employer and the employee, who must
necessarily work in harmony to achieve the purpose for which the business entity and
relationship is established. effort must be made to achieve a win-win position in the
provisions of WLB to gain acceptance by employees and satisfaction; mutual communication
and agreement is crucial in this respect.
This study concludes that a well-balanced work environment is attainable when effective
work-life balance is established. It has also been established that the diverse demands of
employees can be met through the incorporation of work-life initiative that cuts across formal
and informal policies. The research work has contributed to the body knowledge by
examining flexible policies pattern in Nigeria context and other organizations policies on
work flexible pattern. With these findings it shows that the expectation of an employee from
her organization are very high. If organizations are willing to support employee by creating a
work life balance pattern policy convenient for employee it might motivate them to perform
better for example provision daycare for nursing mothers, encouraging compress work and
shift among employee, and provision restaurant for employee
In preceding flexible work arrangement, the banking industry needs to implement policies
like over-time, flexi-time, part-time, shift, subcontracting, moonlighting which allow
employee to have sense of affection and harmonization both from the work and family lives.
reconsideration of dynamic programs and advancement of recent practices on flexible
working activities is essential. And equal and uniform work-life balance policies execution is
essential regarding workloads and non-work predictable hours. To reduce the pressure at
workplace, it becomes important that regular medical checkup should be available for
employee to check their health status and balance their emotional and work life.
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