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MEASURING THE DYNAMIC MODEL OF EMPLOYEE RESOURCING STRATEGIES, CORPORATE IMAGE AND JOB PERFORMANCE IN ICT DRIVEN UNIVERSITIES

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International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET)
Volume 10, Issue 03, March 2019, pp. 1065–1077, Article ID: IJCIET_10_03_104
Available online at http://www.iaeme.com/ijmet/issues.asp?JType=IJCIET&VType=10&IType=3
ISSN Print: 0976-6308 and ISSN Online: 0976-6316
© IAEME Publication
Scopus Indexed
MEASURING THE DYNAMIC MODEL OF
EMPLOYEE RESOURCING STRATEGIES,
CORPORATE IMAGE AND JOB
PERFORMANCE IN ICT DRIVEN
UNIVERSITIES
Adeniji, A. A; Falola, H. O, Osibanjo, A.O and Ogueyungbo O.
Department of Business Management, Covenant University,
Ota, Ogun State, Nigeria
Adeyeye, J. O
Department of Business Administration, Federal University,
Abakaliki, Ebonyi
Correspondent Author Email: [email protected]
ABSTRACT
Employee resourcing strategies are fundamental to the survival and sustainable
development of any institution in the face of increasingly competitive academic
environment. This study investigates the effect of employee resourcing strategies on job
performance and corporate image in some selected private universities in Southwest
Nigeria. In order to achieve the objectives of the study, a total of 500 copies of the
questionnaire were given to the Faculty and Principal Officers of the six (6) selected
private universities with the adoption of stratified and simple random sampling
methods, from which four hundred and forty- three (443) were collected and analysed.
Structural Equation Model (AMOS 22) was used for the analysis. The results showed
significant effect of employee resourcing strategies on job performance and University's
corporate image. The insights gained from this study would help stakeholders in higher
education institutions to develop all- inclusive resourcing strategies and strong
institutional policies and procedures to maintain and sustain competitiveness.
Key words: Employee Resourcing, Strategies, Corporate Image, Job Performance,
Private Universities.
Cite this Article: Adeniji, A. A; Falola, H. O, Adeyeye, J. O, Osibanjo, A.O and
Ogueyungbo O., Measuring the Dynamic Model of Employee Resourcing Strategies,
Corporate Image and Job Performance in ICT Driven Universities, International
Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology 10(3), 2019, pp. 1065–1077.
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1. INTRODUCTION
Talent development have always been one of the strategies used to build sustainable economic
and social development in a knowledge-based economy (OECD, 2012). Tertiary education
plays an important role in the development of skills and knowledge of employees and the
economic wealth of any nation (Dill & Van- Vught, 2010; Jain, 2015). Universities in Nigeria
are characterized by massive growth, greater participation and a high student enrolment rate
due to the public demand for university education, thus allowing new universities to emerge.
Public universities obviously cannot meet the demand for people seeking university education.
Private providers now have the opportunity to meet the growing demand for university
education, which has led to the rapid growth of private universities in Nigeria. (Adeyeye, 2009).
Universities in Nigeria are rising rapidly, but ironically, the numbers of academic staff are not
increasing proportionately (National Universities Commission (NUC,2015). This necessitates
effective and efficient resourcing strategies. Employee resourcing strategies nevertheless
describe what a university intends to do with its human resources planning, recruitment,
selection, placement, retention in alignment with university overall strategic goals (Armstrong,
2010; 2014). Clearly, human resources are the backbone and lifeblood of any organization that
can be engaged for exceptional job performance, culminating in a positive corporate image.
Universities are supposed to step up their game by means of strategic modalities and corporate
initiatives in the area of resourcing and retain of talented faculty and staff to achieve the overall
strategic objective of the University (Gberevbie, 2006; Kanyemba, Iwu & Allen-Ile, 2015;
Vander, Basson & Coetzee, 2009). Employee talents, expertise and intellectuality are the
university's unique competence and abilities. The attraction, selection and retention of talented
faculty members will end in a sustainable job performance (Minchington, 2010; Prinsloo,
2008).
The main objective of any university, whether private or public, is to develop the whole
person physically, morally and mentally, and thus to confer degrees on its products, that are
deemed worthy of character and education (Idogho, 2011). They are also expected to offer
quality leadership training and mentoring as well as providing good quality education via
comprehensive courses and modules that will transform theories into practices (Adeyeye, 2009;
Aina, 2010; Gberevbie, 2006). This can only be achieved by the availability of concentration
of talents and competent faculty members. Nevertheless, employee resourcing strategies are
essential for universities to achieve a positive performance (Kibui, Gachunga, & Namusonge,
2014). It is equally important to note that employee resourcing strategies are not limited to
attraction of ‘eggheads’, but continuous process of attraction, acquisition, deployment and
retention of talents among others (Venkateswaran, 2012). University management should,
therefore develop capability to identify individuals with distinctive competencies as well as
intensify efforts to retain them. This can be achieved via competitive rewarding system, career
advancement, job security, and other motivating factors (Gberevbie, 2010).
Employee resourcing strategies are an important and dynamic tool for university survival
and worthwhile achievements (Ngui, Elegwa, Gichuhi & Waititu, 2014). To a large extent, the
survival of any university depends on its ability to tactically attract and retain faculty members
with distinctive skills who formulate and implement strategies to promote excellent academic
performance and thus enhance the institutional image. (Armstrong, 2010; CIPD, 2015; Dhar,
2015). According to Ogunyomi and Ojikutu (2014), types of talent to succeed in a competitive
academic environment. In addition, as Antonio and Luis (2015) noted, Universities are
supposed to respond to drastic changes in their academic environment by recognising pertinent
skills required for steady growth and sustainable development at present and in the future. This
study becomes necessary because it concerns the integration of employee resourcing strategies
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into the overall strategic objective, which cannot be negotiated for the performance of
universities and the sustainable corporate image of companies.
2. LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1. Employee Resourcing Strategies
Employee resourcing is fundamental to the existence of any institution in the face of
increasingly competitive academic environment (Katua et al, 2014; Ogunyomi & Ojikutu,
2014). Employee resourcing strategy takes into consideration organisation’s decision
concerning where to find and acquire employees with distinctive capabilities that will possibly
engaged to gain competitive advantage (Ngui, Elegwa & Gichunga, 2014). Employee
resourcing strategies play a significant role in providing people and skills required to meet the
needs that will support the business strategy of any organisation (Armstrong & Taylor, 2014).
They involve a series of techniques and approaches used by employers of labour in re- sourcing
organisations in a way that the strategic goals of the organisation will be actualised (Karikari,
Boateng & Ocansey, 2015). Resourcing strategies require that organisations use several
approaches in choosing the right talent that reflects the philosophy and core values of their
organisations (Armstrong, 2014; Ngui et al., 2014). Employee resourcing strategies take into
consideration the flexibility of working practices which requires multi-skilled workers and
sophisticated assessment as well as strategic development programme.
Similarly, employee resourcing refers to general activities regarding recruitment, retention
and productive engagement of employees in an organisation. On the other hand, it ensures that
the organisation attracts, obtains and retains competent employees needed and efficiently
engage them toward the actualisation of the strategic goals of the organisation (Armstrong, et
al., 2014). It is imperative to note here that employee resourcing strategies play a key role in
the strategic human resource management process, which is very crucial for the integration of
human resources to the overall strategic goals of the institutions. This will help in ensuring the
optimal utilisation of employees (Karikari, Boateng, & Ocansey, 2015). Expectedly, the pivotal
goal of employee resourcing strategies is to ensure that organisations gain competitive
advantage by productively engaging employees with distinctive capabilities. What gives an
organisation an edge over others is a wider and deeper range of skills of an organisation’s
workforce. Employee resourcing strategies emphasise more on attracting people with good
attitudes, behaviours and right disposition to work and are most likely to conform to
management believes and policies.
2.2. Job Performance in University System
The pivotal goal of any university is to develop and raise new generation of leaders who are
adequately equipped mentally, morally and physically. Universities are also expected to
orchestrate the advancement and suitable use of manpower, provide high quality leadership
training, develop strong economies and society, as well as provide high quality education via
rigorous training. Primarily, Universities are saddled with the responsibility of: teaching and
project supervision of students; research and publication; community impact; innovation;
product development among others.
The performance of academic staff saddled with the responsibilities of the above listed
institutional service was measured through: the number of research output per time, the student
pass rate, the number of courses taken per semester, the number of supervisees, the number of
committees serving, the involvement in community service among others. It is also important
to note here that performance measures in the University system include the ability of an
academic to impact knowledge through good teaching pedagogies and learning aids and ability
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to carry out independent research. Evidently, the level of performance of academic staff in
Nigerian Universities is declining. These can be attributed to some factors like, industrial
actions, dilapidated facilities, aging teaching and research aids, shortage of competent senior
academic staff, inadequate funding among others (Ajayi, Awosusi, Arogundade & Ekundayo,
2011; Okebukola, 2010, Manafi and Subramaniam, 2015).
2.3. Corporate Image in Universities
Competition in higher education institutions is growing exponentially in this modern society.
As a result, competition for good home and international students, faculty of research and
teaching and new funding sources have become essential for the continued survival and
sustainability of institutions. (Bloemer & Ruyter, 2008, OECD, 2012). Universities and other
higher education institutions should be independent institutions with the responsibility to create
and disseminate autonomous knowledge (Jarvis, 2001). However, Universities and other higher
education institutions have moved in the midst of competitiveness in the education sector
towards a business-like, competitive operating model and services that can be aggressively
marketed well beyond national boundaries (Bunzel, 2007). Universities with a strong distinctive
image in this context will likely survive the growing competition in the education sector
(Bloemer et al. In 2008).
It is equality important to state that universities in this hyper competitive academic
environment are usually competition with each other for the enrolment of good potential
students, (Adeniji, Osibanjo, Abiodun & Oni-Ojo, 2014). One of the things that attract good
students to any institution is the image of such institutions. The year of establishment of the
universities in most cases is immaterial to prospectus good students (Smaiziene & Jucevicius,
2013). Although, some universities have well-established infrastructures and faculty members
with distinct and unique skills, while others employ new strategies to start developing their
infrastructure and deepen efforts to attract and retain the desired faculty members who are
committed to quality teaching, outstanding research and innovation that will inevitably promote
the image of the universities (Moogan, 2010). Building corporate image has become more
relevant to the promotion of the reputation of an institution, the patronage of students (home
and international students) and the generation of additional income for the institution.
University’s brand image becomes very important for growth and sustainable development.
Attracting good students and academic staff depends on the image and reputation of the
institutions. One of the major yardstick used in determining the reputation of the universities
is ranking by various academic rankings, such as the Times Higher Education (THE),
Webometrics Ranking, National Ranking, and Professional Ranking among others. Besides,
services offer by a University determines the impression, whether positive or negative that the
public will have about the institution’s corporate image (Anderson,2004; Adeniji, Salau, Awe
& Oludayo, 2018). A university's ability to create a positive impression in the psyches of
potential candidates, parents, faculty and other potential clients will be an added advantage to
such university.
Research is vital for scientific discoveries, inventions, the advancement and proper
diffusion of knowledge in various fields (Altbach & Balan, 2007). Universities are anticipated
to be research centres and assets in which society's stakeholders can invest to secure a nation's
future in an increasingly sensitive and volatile environment (Creswell, 2008; Hanan & John,
2013). Unfortunately, research, which is one of the primary reason for the establishment of
universities has suffered a significant decline in Nigeria since the late 1980s. (Faborode, 2016).
Before then, the National Universities Commission (NUC) noted that the research outputs in
terms of quality and quantity in Nigerian tertiary institutions was the best in sub-Saharan Africa
(Okebukola, 2010; Imhonopi & Urim, 2013). At the outset of the “holocaust” years, 1980 to
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2000, the pertinent factors for outstanding research, such as experienced academics, training,
motivation, availability of equipment, funding and facilities, had more or less faded away
(Faborode, 2016). What took over was a “vicious national dilemma of a badly managed and
plundered non-commodity economy and a self-afflicted and degraded education system that
ultimately lost its once vivacity and global reputation” (Faborode, 2016:12). By the mid-90s,
the quantity and quality of research had declined to an alarming low (Okebukola, 2008). This
is not unexpected as Nigeria was spending an average of 5% of its budget instead of 26%
recommended by the UNESCO on education.
Okebukola (2008) and Imhonopi and Urim, (2013) listed other factors accountable for the
decline in research output. This include lack of suitable research skills, unavailability of modern
facilities for state- of- the- art research, overload teaching, administrative responsibilities, poor
mentoring and motivation for research, constant industrial action and difficulty in accessing
research grants. Indeed, for the quantity and quality of research outputs to make the desired
impacts on national development, universities in Nigeria must achieve research focus, research
motivation, integration of information technology in the delivery of teaching and excellent
research and commercialisation of research results (Faborode, 2016). Scientists are attracted to
universities with a good research image and suitable research laboratories and other modern
research facilities that allow research at the highest possible level (Altbach et al. 2007;
Creswell, 2008; Okiki, 2013; Kazeem & Ige, 2010).
3. METHODOLOGY
In this study, a descriptive design was adopted for this study. What informed the choice of
descriptive design was on the basis that the researcher adopted one time observation, including
proximate and conclusive variables essentially needed to address the research problem of the
study as suggested by Creswell (2003). However, descriptive design focuses on the
phenomenon of interest, which according to this study is to provide precise answers to questions
concerning the measurement of variables. Analysis was carried out using SPSS and AMOS 21.
Structural equation modelling was used for the determination of the degree of fitness between
the variables. Meanwhile, the sample for this study consisted of 500 respondents randomly
selected from the best six (6) selected private Universities in Southwest, Nigeria. This includes
faculty members and principal officers of the selected Universities. The rationale behind the
choice of private universities was not farfetched from the fact that most people cannot afford to
enrol in private universities because of the financial implication of private education at that
level. Competition to attract good students that can afford private university education becomes
more intense and all the private universities go to the same market for their prospective students
for possible enrolment. The choice of Southwest as the study area was because of the fact that
most of the private universities in Nigeria are situated within the geo-political zone. For
instance, twenty-eight (28) private universities representing 46% of the sixty-one private
universities in Nigeria established before 2016 are located in Southwest Nigeria, while the
remaining 33 private universities represent 54% are spread across geo-political zones.
3.1. Model Testing and Discussions
SEM (AMOS 22.0) was used to determine the degree of fitness of the variables. Comparative
Fit Index( CFI); Standard Fit Index( NFI); Relative Fix Index( RFI); Incremental Fix Index(
IFI); Root Mean Square Approximation Error( RMSEA). In view of the scores obtained from
the analysis and in comparison, with the benchmarks as proposed by Awang, (2012);
Tabachinck and Fidell, (2007), it may therefore be concluded that the level of fitness is good
and acceptable. The summary of the regression weights and fitness index measurement is
depicted in Tables 1 and 2 respectively.
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Table 1 Regression Weight for Modified Model
Note: C.R. = Critical Ratio; S.E. = Standard Error; * significant at 0.05
Table 2 Fitness Index Measurement
Source: Researcher’s Field Survey Result (2016)
The structural model depicted in figure 1, the results show the regression between human
resource planning strategies (HRP_stra), employee recruitment strategies (recruit_stra),
employee selection strategies (selectn_stra), employee retention strategies (retentn_stra) on job
performance (teaching supervision, research output, community service and service to the
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University) and University’s corporate image (brand image, research image, corporate
reputation, corporate identity). The result shows that all variables tested under an independent
structure have positive trajectory coefficients as factors in employee resourcing strategies that
influence employee performance and corporate image. This is shown in figure 1.
Figure 1: Employee Resourcing Strategies, Job Performance and Corporate Image Model
The regression weight between recruitment strategies and teaching / supervision is.218(
p<0.001), which indicates that when recruitment strategies increase by 1 standard deviation, the
teaching and supervision of the project of students increases by 0.218 standard deviations. The
implication of this is that if the institutions have concentration of faculty members with
distinctive competences, the teaching quality and project supervision will be enhanced. This
will likely promote the image of the institutions. This assumption was validated by Falola,
Oludayo, Olokundun, Salau, and Ibidunni, (2018). In addition, the regression weight between
recruitment strategies and research output is .051 (p<0.001) which indicates that when
recruitment strategy goes up by 1 standard deviation, research output goes up by 0.051 standard
deviations. This finding suggests that the ability of the institutions to attract and acquire talented
faculty members who are cut out for quality research will promote the research image of the
institutions. Since research productivity is one of the major criteria for the universities ranking,
having faculty members that are research inclined will help in this regard. This submission was
corroborated by Falola, Olokundun, Salau, Oludayo and Ibidunni, (2018) and supported by
Kazeem and Ige (2010). Meanwhile, the regression weight in the prediction of teaching /
supervision and research output for employee recruitment strategies is significantly different
from zero at level 0.05. The implication is that employee recruitment strategies will help in
improving employee job performance which will invariably motivate quality teaching and
research image. This was corroborated by Gberevbie (2008). Also, the effect of employee
retention strategies on service to the University, shows the path coefficient of .091 (p <0.05).
Therefore, when employee retention strategies go up by 1 standard deviation, service to the
University goes up by 0.091 standard deviations. The implication of this is that if the institutions
of higher learning are able to retain their good hands in the hyper competitive academic
environment where the faculty move from one institution to another, it will help the institutions
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to have the pool of competent faulty member. As suggested by Falola et al (2018), some of the
strategies that can be used for the retention of faculty members include but not limited to
competitive pay, employer brand image, institutional supports in the areas of grants,
conferences, publications among other. It is also important to note that the effect of employee
retention strategies on corporate identity shows the path coefficient of .095 (p <0.05).
Therefore, when employee retention strategy goes up by 1 standard deviation, corporate identity
goes up by 0.095 standard deviations. The effect of employee retention strategy on corporate
image shows the path coefficient of .113 (p <0.05). Therefore, when employee retention
strategy goes up by 1 standard deviation, corporate image goes up by 0.113 standard deviations.
The regression weight for employee retention strategies in the prediction of corporate
identity and corporate image differs considerably from zero at level 0.05. Consequently,
employee recruitment strategies have a positive influence on the corporate identity and the
corporate image of the university. The effect of human resource planning strategies on
teaching/supervision shows the path coefficient of .507 (p <0.05). Thus, when human resource
planning strategies go up by 1 standard deviation, teaching/supervision goes up by .507
standard deviations. It is also important to note that the direct effect of human resource planning
strategies on corporate image shows the path coefficient of. -.249 (p <0.05). Hence, when
human resource planning strategies go up by 1 standard deviation, corporate image goes down
by -0.249 standard deviations. The regression weight for human resource planning strategies in
the prediction of corporate image is negative. It is therefore suggesting that there is no direct
relationship between human resource planning strategies and corporate image. The Table also
revealed the effect of employee selection strategies on research output, service to the University
and community service show the path coefficient of .169 (p <0.05), .133 (p <0.05) and .150 (p
<0.05) respectively. Therefore, when employee selection strategies go up by 1 standard
deviation, research output, service to the University and community service go up by 0.169,
0.133 and 0.150 standard deviations. The regression weight for employee selection strategies
in the prediction of research output, service to the University and community service is
significantly different from zero at the 0.05 level. This means that employee selection strategies
have a positive influence on research output, service to the University and community service.
The effect of employee service to the University on corporate reputation and corporate identity
shows the path coefficient of. .058 (p <0.05) and .030 (p <0.05) respectively. The implication
is that when employee service to the University goes up by 1 standard deviation, corporate
reputation and corporate image go up by 0.058 and 0.030 standard deviations in that order. This
was corroborated by Faborode (2016) Supported by Falola, Oludayo, Akinnusi, Osibanjo and
Salau, (2018). The regression weight for service to the University in the prediction of corporate
reputation and corporate image is significantly different from zero at the 0.05 level. The effect
of research output on brand image and research image show the path coefficient of. .151 (p
<0.05) and .263 (p <0.05) respectively. The outcome is that when research output goes up by
1 standard deviation, brand image and research image go up by 0.151 and 0.263 standard
deviations in that order.
The regression weight in the prediction of brand image and research image for research
output differs significantly from zero at level 0.05.The resultant effects of community service
on corporate reputation and research image show the path coefficient of. .243 (p <0.05) and
.100 (p <0.05) respectively. The consequence is that when community service goes up by 1
standard deviation, corporate reputation and research image go up by 0.243 and 0.100 standard
deviations in that order. The regression weight for community service in the prediction of
corporate reputation and research image is significantly different from zero at the 0.05 level.
The effects of teaching and supervision on brand image ad research image show the path
coefficient of. .775 (p <0.05) and .088 (p <0.05) respectively. This suggests that when teaching
/ supervision increases by 1 standard deviation, the brand image and the research image increase
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by 0.775 and 0.088 standard deviations in that order. The regression weight for
teaching/supervision in the prediction of brand image and research image is significantly
different from zero at the 0.05 level. Not only that, the effects of research image on corporate
image show the path coefficient of .014 (p <0.05) while the relationship between brand image
and corporate image shows the path coefficient of 0.946 and corporate identity on corporate
image shows 0.044. The implication is that when the research image increases by 1 standard
deviation, the corporate image increases by 0.014 standard deviation; if the brand image
increases by 1 standard deviation, the corporate image increases by 0.946 standard deviation
and if the corporate identity increases by 1 standard deviation, the corporate image increases
by 0.044 standard deviation. The significant effect of retention strategies on corporate image
show the path coefficient of .113 (p <0.05) while that of corporate reputation on corporate
image shows the path coefficient of .035 (p <0.05). Therefore, when retention strategies go up
by 1 standard deviation and corporate reputation goes up by 1 standard deviation, then corporate
image goes up by 0.113 and 0.035 respectively. The implication is that if the institutions have
been able to build good brand image, it will make their institutions centre of attraction to
potential employees. Therefore, if faculty are working in the institutions of their choice, most
likely, they will be satisfied with their job and this will aid retention and the stress will also
reduce. This was validated by Osibanjo, Salau, Falola, and Oyewunmi (2016).
4. CONCLUSIONS
The study has been able to demonstrate how fundamental a well guided resourcing strategies
could enhance survival and sustainability of corporate image in the face of keen competition
for the share of students’ enrolment and attraction of experienced Faculty members into private
universities, particularly within Southwest Nigeria. Specifically, the conclusions of this study
are based on the findings from test of hypotheses. This provides answers to the formulated
research questions. This study concludes that manpower planning strategies (gap analysis, job
analysis, manpower inventory among others) have positive significant effect on Universities’
brand image (product and service). The implication of this is that, if manpower planning is
given necessary attention, Universities would effortlessly achieve minimum required staff mix
and staff-students ratio as recommended by NUC. The study also concludes that, employee
recruitment and selection strategies have positive significant effect on Universities’ research
image and corporate reputation. However, it is evidence from the results that recruitment and
selection strategies can help in promoting Universities’ research image and corporate reputation
via scholarly research outputs published in good indexed academic journal outlets. Besides,
study also concludes that employee retention strategies could be used as a platform to drive
Universities’ corporate identity. However, if this is given necessary attention, it would compel
faculty members with distinctive capabilities to stay, and at the same time, attract others to join
the University. The study also concludes that job performance such as teaching and
supervision, research productivity, community service and service to the University play a very
significant mediating role between employee resourcing strategies and corporate image.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
Our sincere appreciation to CURID for financial support
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