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THE EFFECT OF TOURISM SPACE ON REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN KAWASAN PANATAPAN DANAU TOBA SIMALUNGUN DISTRICT

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International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET)
Volume 10, Issue 03, March 2019, pp. 1038-1045, Article ID: IJCIET_10_03_101
Available online at http://www.iaeme.com/ijciet/issues.asp?JType=IJCIET&VType=10&IType=03
ISSN Print: 0976-6308 and ISSN Online: 0976-6316
© IAEME Publication
Scopus Indexed
THE EFFECT OF TOURISM SPACE ON
REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN KAWASAN
PANATAPAN DANAU TOBA SIMALUNGUN
DISTRICT
*Muhammad Ade Kurnia Harahap, Sirojuzilam, R. Hamdani Harahap and Beny O. Y.
Marpaung
Universitas Sumatera Utara, Medan, Indonesia
*Cooresponding Author
ABSTRACT
This study aims to analyze the influence of open space tourism on regional
development. This research was conducted in several Panatapan spots as open-air
tourist spaces in Simalungun, North Sumatra, Indonesia with a total of 313
respondents. The data sources used are primary and secondary data obtained through
questionnaires and documentation. Analysis of the data used in this study using
Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) with SmartPLS 3.0 tools. The results of the study
show the importance of developing open-air tourism in an effort to build a tourism
image, tourist satisfaction, interest and loyalty of visitors, in supporting regional
development in Simalungun District.
Keywords: Satisfaction, image, loyalty, regional development.
Cite this Article: Muhammad Ade Kurnia Harahap, Sirojuzilam, R. Hamdani Harahap
and Beny O. Y. Marpaung, The Effect of Tourism Space on Regional Development in
Kawasan Panatapan Danau Toba Simalungun District, International Journal of Civil
Engineering and Technology, 10(03), 2019, pp. 1038–1045
http://www.iaeme.com/IJCIET/issues.asp?JType=IJCIET&VType=10&IType=03
1. INTRODUCTION
Of the several destinations in Indonesia, Lake Toba is one of the most interesting tourist
attractions in the world. This is because Lake Toba is the largest lake in Indonesia. Data from
SDA R & D in 2008, Lake Toba was at 905 meters above sea level with a length of 275 km,
width of 150 km and area of 1130 km². The depth in the northern part of the lake is 529 m,
while in the south is 429 m. Lake Toba is the ninth deepest lake and is the largest volcanic
caldera lake in the world (R & D SDA, 2008).
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The Effect of Tourism Space on Regional Development in Kawasan Panatapan Danau Toba
Simalungun District
Crilley (2005) states that the image of a tourist destination is supported by the quality of
hospitality. The quality of tourism services directly on community hospitality, location
attractiveness, local products and others. The dimensions of the quality of tourism services
include security, atmosphere, privacy, respect, friendliness, competence, empathy, reliability,
responsiveness, courtesy and honesty (Kotler and Keller, 2014). The perceived service quality
of tourism is said to influence tourist satisfaction, and they always provide the best for tourists
which ultimately affects the intention of tourists to return (intention loyalty). The linkages of
transportation, promotion, tourist attractions are important to increase competitiveness
including the image of tourist destinations (Budi, 2015). The success of a tourism activity is
largely determined by the level of hospitality that is given to visitors, because service quality
is believed to be directly proportional to visitor satisfaction (satisfaction). If visitor satisfaction
can be fulfilled, efforts to improve service procedures can be done better (Budiono, 2006).
The Panatapan building in Lake Toba is part of the tourist infrastructure that visitors are
interested in so that they can form the desired image or image. The Panatapan building should
be well managed by the government by improving community awareness of the environment.
Imaging can be done through the construction of social reality, even though the reality is false
(Bungin, 2001). Regional image or image can be defined as a marketing activity to promote a
positive image of a tourist destination in order to influence consumer decisions to visit it (Blain,
et al., 2005). The image of a good tourist area will influence visitors to come back (intention
loyalty). Therefore the local government needs to foster the community in improving the image
of tourism through revamping the Panatapan facility as a tourism space to be worth visiting as
well as being one of the tourist destinations that presents the scenic beauty of Lake Toba as a
whole.
2. LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1. Regional Development Concept
Regional development is an organized effort to set targets for regional economic development,
collect and analyze information, and generate and evaluate various activities within the
framework of strategic regional development. In this case the planning of truly careful use of
public resources and the private sector (farmers, small entrepreneurs, voluntary organizations,
cooperatives and large companies) must take part in the planning process (Sirojuzilam, 2008).
Regional development (regional development) is an activity to add, improve, improve and
expand (Sirojuzilam et al, 2017). The concept of regional development in Indonesia is born
from an iterative process that combines the basics of theoretical understanding with practical
experiences as a form of dynamic application.
2.2. Panatapan as a Tourist Open Space (Tourism Space)
Faizah (2016) says that public open space is an important element in society that can improve
the quality of relationships among residential users when placed and arranged properly
according to the needs of its users. Ching dalam (Faizah, 2016) says in general, public open
space or public space can be defined by way of distinguishing the meaning of the word literally
first. Public is a group of people who are not limited to anyone, and space or space is a threedimensional formation that occurs due to the elements that limit it.
Panatapan is a term in local culture (Batak tribe) which is used to refer to a place that
presents views of Lake Toba. Panatapan is a place made specifically to see the charm of the
largest volcanic lake in the world. Panatapan was originally just a simple place built to enjoy
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Muhammad Ade Kurnia Harahap, Sirojuzilam, R. Hamdani Harahap and Beny O. Y. Marpaung
the views of Lake Toba. Then, as time goes by, panatapan is increasingly preferred by visitors
who travel to Lake Toba, so that many visitors come and stop by just resting while relaxing.
This encourages local people to make Panatapan a place of business that has economic value.
2.3. Previous research
Research by Ellen Grace, et al. (2017) entitled "Visitor Satisfaction Levels on Service Quality
in the Tourism Areas of Tomohon Temboan Peak". The results of this study show that good
service affects visitor satisfaction. Shakhibul Amnar's research, et al (2017) entitled "The Effect
of Tourism on Economic Growth in Sabang City". The results of this study show that the
number of tourist sites has a significant positive effect on the regional economic growth of
Sabang City.
3. METHODS
This type of research is an Explanatory Survey, namely research that explains the relationship
between the variables studied. The population in this study were visitors in the Lake Toba area
who enjoyed rest and tourism from Panatapan, Simalungun District. The total tourist visits in
the special Simalungun Regency to the tourist area which is on the edge of the Lake Toba
Region are 146,125 inhabitants. The minimum number of samples needed is:
1,962 (0,75)(1 − 0,75)
= 288,12 ≈ 289 𝑆𝑎𝑚𝑝𝑙𝑒
0,052
The minimum number of samples needed in an unknown population evaluation is 289
visitors. The research variables are in Table 1 below:
𝑁=
Table 1. Operational Definition of Variables
Variable
Panatapan as a tourist open space (X1)
Tourist Destination Image (Y1)
Visitor satisfaction (Y2)
Interest and Loyalty (Y3)
Subvariable
Economic
Social
Environtment
Attraction
Hospitality
Environtment
Accessibility
Amenity
Hospitality
Interest
Loyalty
Area Development (Y4)
Infrastructure
Resources
Income
Indicator
Willingness To Pay
Acceptability
Optimalization
Design Attraction
Memorability
Sustainability
Accessibility
Amenity
Satisfying Hospitality
Willingness to visit again
Willingness to give
recommendation
Adequateness
Appropriateness
Revenue
The structural equation model of this study refers to two forms, namely fisrt order and
second order. Table 2 summarizes structural equations:
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The Effect of Tourism Space on Regional Development in Kawasan Panatapan Danau Toba
Simalungun District
Table 2. Structural Equations of the Research Model
Latent variable
Structural Equations
First Order
Z1 = γ1 X + γ2 Z2+ ζ15
Z2 = γ3 X + ζ16
Z3 = γ4 X + γ5 Z1 + γ6 Z2+ ζ17
Y = γ7 X + γ8 Z1 + γ9 Z2+ γ10 Z3+ ζ18
Second Order
= β 1 X + ζ1
= β 2 X + ζ2
= β 3 X + ζ3
= β4 Z1 + ζ4
= β5 Z1 + ζ5
= β6 Z1 + ζ6
= β7 Z2 + ζ7
= β8 Z2 + ζ8
= β9 Z2 + ζ9
= β10 Z3 + ζ10
= β11 Z3 + ζ11
= β12 Y + ζ12
= β13 Y + ζ13
= β14 Y + ζ14
Citra Wisata (Z1)
Visitor Satisfaction (Z2)
Visitor Loyalty (Z3)
Area Development (Y)
Economics
Social
Environment
Facility
Memorability
Sustainability
Accesibility
Amenity
Hospitality
Intention
Loyalty
Adequateness
Appropriateness
Revenue Enhancer
4. RESULT AND DISCUSSION
4.1. Result
The results of the SmartPLS algorithm in directly assessing the path coefficient are given in
Figure 1 below:
Figure 1. Path Coefficient
The results of the algorithm in Figure 1 are summarized in the form of tables in Table 2.
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Table 3. Direct Variable Effects of Research
Direct Effect
Tourism space  Destination Image
Tourism space  Satisfaction
Tourism space  Intention and Loyalty
Tourism space  Development
Satisfaction  Destination Image
Satisfaction  Intention and Loyalty
Satisfaction  Development
Destination Image  Intention and Loyalty
Destination Image  Development
Intention and Loyalty  Development
Direct Effect
0,471
0,323
0,123
0,151
0,002
0,532
0,164
0,060
-0,034
0,412
Source: SmartPLS Algorithm (2019).
Table 1 shows that there are influences of each positive and significant variable. These are
found in the following Table 4:
Table 4. Testing of Research Hypotheses
N
o
H
1
H
2
H
3
H
4
H
5
H
6
H
7
H
8
H
9
H
10
Hypotheses
Panatapan as tourism space has a positive and
significant effect on visitor satisfaction
Panatapan as a tourism space has a positive and
significant effect on the tourism image of
Panatapan
Panatapan as tourism space has a positive and
significant effect on visitor interest and loyalty
Panatapan as a tourism space has a positive and
significant effect on the development of the Lake
Toba region, Simalungun Regency
Visitor satisfaction has a positive and significant
effect on the tourism image of Panatapan
Visitor satisfaction has a positive and significant
effect on visitor interest and loyalty
Visitor satisfaction has a positive and significant
effect on the development of the Lake Toba region,
Simalungun Regency
Panatapan's tourism image has a positive and
significant effect on visitor interest and loyalty
Panatapan tourism image has a positive and
significant effect on the development of the Lake
Toba region, Simalungun Regency
The interest and loyalty of visitors has a positive
and significant influence on the development of the
Lake Toba region, Simalungun Regency
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Origina
l
Sample
T Statistics
(|O/STDEV|
)
P
Values
Decision
0,323
2,827
0,002
Accepted
0,471
6,296
0,000
Accepted
0,123
1,836
0,033
Accepted
0,151
2,211
0,014
Accepted
0,002
0,012
0,495
Rejected
0,532
9,600
0,000
Accepted
0,164
2,177
0,015
Accepted
0,060
0,833
0,203
Rejected
-0,034
0,489
0,313
Rejected
0,412
6,576
0,000
Accepted
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The Effect of Tourism Space on Regional Development in Kawasan Panatapan Danau Toba
Simalungun District
H
11
H
12
H
13
H
14
Panatapan as tourism space has a positive and
significant effect on Panatapan's interest and
loyalty through image, and visitor satisfaction
Panatapan as a tourism space has a positive and
significant effect on regional development through
image, satisfaction, and interest and loyalty
Visitor satisfaction has a positive and significant
effect on regional development through image and
interest and loyalty
Panatapan's tourism image has a positive and
significant effect on regional development through
interest and loyalty
0,279
4,559
0,000
Accepted
0,170
2,979
0,001
Accepted
0,219
4,742
0,000
Accepted
0,025
1,734
0,042
Accepted
Source: SmartPLS Algorithm (2019).
The results show that there is the influence of Panatapan tourism space in improving
regional development.
4.2. Discussion
The results of this study are in line with the research of Marin and Taberner (2008) identifying
attributes that affect satisfaction with tourist attractions in Malaysia and provide a conclusion
that one of the factors that influence satisfaction is sourced from the tourist attraction itself, or
the space that becomes a tourist attraction. In addition, Foster (2016) also explained that in the
tourism industry, visitor satisfaction is influenced by tourism space which is a tourist area.
Panatapan development as a good tourism space will encourage satisfaction of tourists visiting
Panatapan.
Damanik and Weber (2006) more deeply explain sustainable tourism will make the
economic capacity of tourism places become more efficient and lead to lower costs. Cost
efficiency makes visitors more satisfied. The model in this study developed the concept even
deeper. Panatapan as a tourism space not only speaks of economic efficiency, but also
optimizes Panatapan's role as a tourism space. The economic, social and environmental
functions of Panatapan are optimized to provide optimal tourism services. Providing better
tourism services will increase visitor satisfaction. In essence, satisfaction is the result of the
moment of truth when visitors consume, in this case feel the experience of traveling in
Panatapan. If the development of Panatapan as tourism space is increasing or getting better,
then visitors will become more satisfied with the experience gained.
Sirojuzilam (2015) states that regional development is based on three main elements,
namely adequate infrastructure, qualified human resources, and increased regional income. In
this study an increase in regional income was issued in the analysis model because it was
difficult to measure due to inconsistencies arising from the opinions of the Panatapan visitors.
This regional development is the goal of developing Panatapan in general. Panatapan
development is one of them done by forming Panatapan tourist destination area that uses a
combination of elements of scenery, ravines, selfies, rest, and culinary. The results of this study
confirm the existing concept of regional development where the better the development of
Panatapan as tourism space, the higher the achievement of regional development, especially in
infrastructure and human resources in the Panatapan region.
Amnar et al., (2017) conducted research in the Aceh region and identified that the more the
number of tourist objects in an area, the greater the development of the area achieved,
especially from the economic aspect. In order to run optimally, the tourism sector needs to
develop tourism areas that specifically develop tourism in the area (Huh, 2002). Panatapan as
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a tourism space is one of the special steps in developing the region in the Lake Toba Region.
This development aims to develop the community economy while building better human
resources and infrastructure. Previous research provides conclusions that are in line with the
findings of this study, where Panatapan as tourism space will encourage the achievement of the
development of the Panatapan region.
5. CONCLUSSION AND SUGGESTION
5.1. Conclussion
The results of the study showed that the development of tourist open space in the form of tourist
image, tourist satisfaction, interest and loyalty of influential visitors and supporting regional
development.
5.2. Suggestion
1. It is necessary to optimize the open space of tourism which is the key basis in the
development of tourism and regional development in the Panatapan Lake Toba
Region, Simalungun Regency. The evaluation results of the tourism element in
Panatapan gave a follow-up to the implementation of the Panatapan tourism design
steps.
2. Resting tourism is the most preferred, most memorable, most satisfying tourist
element, most adequate and most increases interest and loyalty at Panatapan.
Panatapan is an ideal place to rest and restore stamina before continuing the trip to
Lake Toba. The majority of visitors only stop for a short duration so that it does not
require further development to lodging facilities. Nevertheless, it is necessary to
develop infrastructure that increasingly supports the resting elements. The
development of building infrastructure, hospitality, and other supporting facilities
such as parking locations will make vacation tourism more attractive to visitors.
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