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STUDY ON STRENGTH PROPERTIES OF SAND BY BIOCEMENTATION WITH EGGSHELL

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International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET)
Volume 10, Issue 03, March 2019, pp. 918-933. Article ID: IJCIET_10_03_091
Available online at http://www.iaeme.com/ijciet/issues.asp?JType=IJCIET&VType=10&IType=03
ISSN Print: 0976-6308 and ISSN Online: 0976-6316
© IAEME Publication
Scopus Indexed
STUDY ON STRENGTH PROPERTIES OF SAND
BY BIOCEMENTATION WITH EGGSHELL
*P. Dayakar
Associate Professor, Department of Civil Engineering,
Bharath Institute of Science & Technology,
Bharath Institute of Higher Education and Research (BIHER), Bharath University, Chennai
K. Venkat Raman, Arunya. A
Assistant Professor, Department of Civil Engineering,
Bharath Institute of Science & Technology,
Bharath Institute of Higher Education and Research (BIHER), Bharath University, Chennai
Dr. R. Venkatakrishnaiah
Professor, Dept of Civil Engineering,
Department of Civil Engineering, Bharath Institute of Science & Technology,
Bharath Institute of Higher Education and Research (BIHER), Bharath University, Chennai.
*Corresponding Author
ABSTRACT
A method to generate bio-cementation in sand using calcium source as eggshell is
presented in this paper. Instead of using calcium chloride or other calcium salts,
soluble calcium was produced by mixing eggshell with vinegar and used for the ESV
process. The compressive strength and permeability of sand treated using this method
were measured using unconfined compression and permeability tests. A comparative
study between sand samples treated using calcium produced from eggshell and those
using calcium chloride with the same concentration of calcium was carried out. The
study shows that the effect of the MICP process using calcium produced from eggshell
is just as good as that using calcium chloride. The optimum ratio of eggshell and
vinegar are established.
Keywords: Eggshell, vinegar, ESVS (Egg Shell Vinegar Solution).
Cite this Article: P. Dayakar, K. Venkat Raman, Arunya. A and Dr. R.
Venkatakrishnaiah, Study on Strength Properties of Sand by Biocementation with
Eggshell, International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology, 10(3), 2019, pp.
918-933.
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Study on Strength Properties of Sand by Biocementation with Eggshell
1. INTRODUCTION
In situ improvement of sand properties using additives is commonly referred to as sand
stabilization, which is often used with fine soils. In this project an attempt is made to stabilize
the fine grained sand by a natural process called bio cementation. Bio cementation is a process
of extraction of calcium using eggshell and organic acids here eggshell is broken into pieces
and put in the vinegar for calcium extraction, then that solution mixed with sand to improve
the strength after certain curing period the advantage bring the use of waste eggshell and
causing no harm to the soil stabilized. In this project sand stabilization is a process whereby
natural or synthetic materials (Vinegar) are added to improve sand properties. The aim of this
project is to study the improvement on sand properties with bio-cementation of sand and
Vinegar solution at varying percentage of 0%, 5%, 7.5%, 10% and to increase the strength
properties of sand. The process of soil stabilization helps to achieve the required properties in
sand needed for the construction work. From the literature, it is observed that the eggshell
powder is added with the combination of vinegar to improve sand properties.
2. MATERIALS & METHODOLOGY
The test for the materials is conducted as per the specification given in the Indian standards.
The stabilization of sand by biocementation process is attempted in this study by mixing
eggshell vinegar solution (ESV) in sand in varying percentage of 5%, 7.5% and 10%. The
solution mixed sand, is cured for 5, 10 and 15 days for improvement in the bonding of calcium
with sand grains. To determine the improvement in the strength of sand by biocementation
process, the plate load test is conducted on the cured sand kept in container. For conducting
the Plate load test the plate of size 9 cm x 9 cm is used. The improvement in the strength is
determined by testing the load v/s settlement of soil with 0% ESV solution, 5% ESV solution,
7.5% ESV solution and 10% ESV solution cured for 5 days, 10 days and 15 days respectively
2.1. Sand
Sand was collected from a construction site. It was basically a low soil strength area and also
one of the religious and neighborhood spot in Chennai. So there is a need for improvement of
such sand. The degree of expensiveness of the soil was moderate.
Table 1 Properties of Sand
Description
Sieve Analysis
Specific Gravity
Max. dry
density(g/cc)
OMC (%)
Classification
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Values
D10 – 0.36
D30 – 0.6
D 60 – 1.7
Cu – 4.72
Cc – 0.59
2.62
1.95
11
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Figure 1 Particle size distribution curve
Figure 1 describes the size of the sieve and percentage finer. From the above graph the D10,
D30 and D60 values as well as Coefficient of curvature and uniformity coefficient results are
displayed.
2.2. Compaction Test
2.2.1. Compaction test on sand (IS:2720 Part-7-1980)
Compaction is a method of densifying the soil by a short term static or dynamic load so as to
remove the voids of the soil and increase its other properties such as dry density or bulk density,
safe bearing capacity etc. At construction this is a significant part of the building process.
From compaction test the optimum moisture content and maximum dry density of sand is
found. The values are shown below in fig 2.
Figure 2 Compaction curve
2.3. Vinegar
Vinegar is a commercially available organic acid. Its main component is acetic acid, an organic
acid with the formula CH3COOH. Acetic acid is a colorless liquid with a molar mass of 60.05
grams per mole and a density of 1.049 grams per mole. It has a recognizable, pungent smell.
In this vinegar is used to dissolve broken eggshells.
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Study on Strength Properties of Sand by Biocementation with Eggshell
Table 2 Properties of Vinegar
Properties
Color
pH
Odour
Density
Values
Colorless
2.4
Pungent
0.149
2.4. Egg Shell
For this project the broken eggshell is collected from locally available hotel which produces
broken egg from 150 eggshells daily. An average-sized eggshell weighs approximately 57
grams (about 2 ounces). The shell constitutes 11 percent white, 58 percent, and the yolk 31
percent. Eggshells are spread and air dried for 2 days to facilitate easy milling. After air drying
the eggshells are manually broken and collected in bags.
The eggshell contains 99.83% of CaO and remaining consists of Al2O3, SiO2, Cl. Table 3
shows the properties of eggshells.
Figure 3 Egg shell
Table 3 Properties of eggshell
Description
Acid value
Water content %
CaO %
Al2O3, SiO2, Cl, Cr2O3, MnO
and CuO %
Values
0.48
0.2
95
5
2.5. Eggshell Vinegar Solution
The eggshell vinegar solution is prepared by adding a known weight apprx.500 g in 700 ml of
vinegar solution. The solution is kept for extraction of calcium for 24 hours. Then the mixture
is filtered and eggshell vinegar solution is obtained. The acidity of this solution is tested by
determining the pH by conventional method of Litmus paper. pH is found to be 5. This solution
is used for bio cementation in sandy soil. The process of calcination is shown in fig 4.
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Figure 4 Calcination process
3. RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS
3.1. Plate Load Test
Plate load test is to determine the probable settlement under a given loading. The test essentially
consists in loading a rigid plate at the foundation level and determining the settlement
corresponding to each load increment. In this study laboratory plate load test is conducted by
having a plate of size 9cm x 9cm on sand mixed with ESV solution in a container of size 20cm
x 20cm x 20cm. Care is taken to avoid the influence of side walls of the container in load
carrying capacity of the sand sample. The same procedure is adopted for the samples prepared
by adding in 0%, 5%, 7.5% and 10% ESV solution in sand and cured for 5 days, 10 days and
15 days respectively.
From the plate load test the ultimate load corresponding to maximum settlement is
determined and tabulated. Also, care is taken to apply the load axially on the plate so that
uniform settlement of the plate is ensured. Fig 5 shows the experimental setup of the plate load
test conducted. In this test the load is applied by load cell and the settlement is recorded by
using LVDT, which is connected to a data logger. The data logger values are video-graphed
and exact values of load intensity and settlement are tabulated.
Figure 5 Plate load Test setup
3.2. Plate load test on virgin soil
The plate load test carried out on virgin soil 0% (ESV) solution, compacted at optimum
moisture content is tabulated in table 4.1 The plate load test is also conducted on the sand
loosely compacted soil and tabulated in table 4.2
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Table 4 Test values of virgin soil (with OMC)
Load Intensity,
kN/m2
0
0.37
1.04
1.35
1.54
1.97
2.16
2.18
Settlement,
mm
0
0.03
0.06
0.08
0.1
0.22
0.62
1.05
From the tabulated values relationship between load intensity and settlement is drawn as
shown in fig 6. From the curve the ultimate load intensity is found to be 2.18kN/m2.
Figure 6 Plate load with OMC
3.3. Plate load test on Maximum void Ratio
The Figure 7 shows the settlement in maximum void ratio, this experiment is carried out
without OMC value.
Table 5 Test values of plate load test on loose sand
Load
Intensity,
kN/m2
0
0.123
0.37
0.55
Settlement,
mm
0
0.03
0.28
1.35
From the tabulated values relationship between load intensity and settlement is drawn as
shown in fig 7. From the curve the ultimate load intensity is found to be 0.55kN/m2.
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Figure 7 plate load test on loose sand
3.4. Plate load test –sand with 5% ESV solution - 5days curing.
The test results 5% of solution is added to the sand and mixed well. It tightly compacted with
respected to emin value. Then 5 days curing has gone through.
Table 6 Test values of plate load of 5% (ESV) solution.
load Intensity,
kN/m2
0
0.45
0.854
1.15
1.3
1.35
1.4
Settlement,
mm
0
0.12
0.2
0.33
0.45
0.75
1.66
From the tabulated values relationship between load intensity and settlement is drawn as
shown in fig 8. From the curve the ultimate load intensity is found to be 1.66kN/m2.
Figure 8 Plate load test –sand with 5% ESV solution - 5days curing.
3.5. Plate load test –sand with 7.5% ESV solution - 5days curing
7.5% of solution is added to the sand and mixed well. It tightly compacted with respected to e
min value. Then 5 days curing has gone through.
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Table 7 Test values of plate load of 7.5% (ESV) solution.
load Intensity kN/m2
Settlement,
mm
0
0.45
0.854
1.32
1.68
1.85
1.95
2
0
0.1
0.18
0.25
0.32
0.37
0.51
1.14
From the tabulated values relationship between load intensity and settlement is drawn as
shown in fig 9. From the curve the ultimate load intensity is found to be 2.0 kN/m2.
Figure 9 Plate load test –sand with 7.5% ESV solution - 5days curing.
3.6. Plate load test – sand with 10% ESV solution - 5days curing
10% of solution is added to the sand and mixed well. It tightly compacted with respected to e
min value. Then 5 days curing has gone through.
Table 8 Test values of plate load of 10% (ESV) solution
load Intensity kN/m2
0
0.2
0.67
0.98
1.38
1.98
2.45
2.55
2.6
Settlement mm
0
0.05
0.12
0.18
0.22
0.35
0.55
0.88
1.11
From the tabulated values relationship between load intensity and settlement is drawn as
shown in fig 10. From the curve the ultimate load intensity is found to be 2.6 kN/m2.
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Figure 10 Plate load test –sand with 10% ESV solution - 5days curing.
3.7. Plate load test –sand with 5% ESV solution - 10days curing
5% of solution is added to the sand and mixed well. It tightly compacted with respected to e
min value. Then 10 days curing has gone through.
Table 9 Test values of plate load of 5% (ESV) solution
load intensity kN/m2
Settlement, mm
0
0.5
1
1.3
1.5
0
0.2
0.4
0.9
2.8
From the tabulated values relationship between load intensity and settlement is drawn as
shown in fig 11. From the curve the ultimate load intensity is found to be 1.5 kN/m2.
Figure 11 Plate load test –sand with 5% ESV solution – 10 days curing
3.8 Plate load test –sand with 7.5% ESV solution - 10days curing
7.5% of solution is added to the sand and mixed well. It tightly compacted with respected to e
min value. Then 10 days curing has gone through.
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Table 10 Test values of plate load of 7.5% (ESV) solution
load intensity kN/m2
Settlement, mm
0
0.555
1.049
1.543
2.2
2.4
2.5
0
0.08
0.15
0.2
0.5
1.1
2
From the tabulated values relationship between load intensity and settlement is drawn as
shown in fig 12. From the curve the ultimate load intensity is found to be 2.5 kN/m2.
Figure 12 Plate load test –sand with 7.5% ESV solution - 10days curing
3.9. Plate load test –sand with 10% ESV solution - 10 days curing
10% of solution is added to the sand and mixed well. It tightly compacted with respected to e
min value. Then 10 days curing has gone through.
Table 11 Test values of plate load of 10% (ESV) solution
load intensity kN/m2
Settlement, mm
0
0.06
1.05
2.5
3
3.22
3.33
0
0.01
0.13
0.3
0.5
1.2
1.9
From the tabulated values relationship between load intensity and settlement is drawn as
shown in fig 13. From the curve the ultimate load intensity is found to be 3.33 kN/m2.
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Figure 13 Plate load test –sand with 10% ESV solution - 10days curing
3.10. Plate load test – sand with 5% ESV solution - 15 days curing
5% of solution is added to the sand and mixed well. It tightly compacted with respected to e
min value. Then 15 days curing has gone through.
Table 12 Test values of plate load of 5% (ESV) solution
load intensity kN/m2
Settlement, mm
0
0.493
0.802
1.29
1.52
0
0.1
0.2
0.48
1.12
From the tabulated values relationship between load intensity and settlement is drawn as
shown in fig 14. From the curve the ultimate load intensity is found to be 1.52 kN/m2.
Figure 14 Plate load test –sand with 5% ESV solution - 15days curing
3.11. Plate load test – sand with 7.5% ESV solution - 15days curing
7.5% of solution is added to the sand and mixed well. It tightly compacted with respected to e
min value. Then 15 days curing has gone through.
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Table 13 Test values of plate load of 7.5% (ESV) solution
load intensity kN/m2
Settlement, mm
0
0.246
0.925
1.29
1.6
2
2.35
2.5
0
0.02
0.05
0.09
0.16
0.26
0.45
0.9
From the tabulated values relationship between load intensity and settlement is drawn as
shown in fig 15. From the curve the ultimate load intensity is found to be 2.5kN/m2.
Figure 15 Plate load test –sand with 7.5% ESV solution - 15days curing
3.12. Plate load test – sand with 10% ESV solution - 15days curing
10% of solution is added to the sand and mixed well. It tightly compacted with respected to e
min value. Then 15 days curing has gone through.
Table 14 Test values of plate load of 10% (ESV) solution
load intensity kN/m2
0
0.432
1.48
2.46
3.11
3.45
3.55
Settlement, mm
0
0.01
0.04
0.06
0.15
0.5
0.75
From the tabulated values relationship between load intensity and settlement is drawn as
shown in fig 16. From the curve the ultimate load intensity is found to be 3.55kN/m2.
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Figure 16 Plate load test –sand with 10% ESV solution - 15days curing
4. DISCUSSIONS
A method to produce soluble calcium using eggshell and vinegar and to use it for soil
improvement is presented in this paper. The use of soluble calcium from eggshell for soil
improvement is feasible. It is seen that increasing load carrying capacity of solution for 5, 10,
15 days of curing.
Figure 17 shows the relationship between the Load and settlement, for 5 days curing
Figure 17 Load v/s Settlement 5 days curing
In fig 18, the relationship between load and settlement for 10 days curing period is shown.
Figure 18 Load v/s Settlement 10 days curing
Figure 19 shows the Load v/s Settlement 15 days curing
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Figure 19 Load v/s Settlement 15 days curing
Table 15 Ultimate load with percentage
Percentage
of solution
Ultimate load
kN/m,2 5 days
Ultimate load kN/m2
10 days
0%
5%
7.5%
10%
0.55
1.44
2
2.60
0.55
1.50
2.50
3.30
Ultimate
load kN/m,2
15 days
0.55
1.52
2.57
3.55
Figure 20 shows the relationship between the load and period of curing.
Figure 20 Load v/s cured days
Table 16 Percentage increased in load bearing capacity
Percentage of
Solution
0%
5%
7.5%
10%
Percentage Increase
in Strength 5 Days
Curing
0
61
72
78.8
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Percentage Increased
in Strength 10 Days
Curing
0
63
78
83.3
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Percentage Increased
in Strength 15 Days
Curing
0
63.8
80.8
84.5
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Figure 21 Variation of load with various % of solution
5. CONCLUSION
The following conclusions are drawn from the results obtained in the plate load tests conducted
on sand stabilization by bio-cementation with eggshell vinegar solution.
1. The ultimate load intensity is found to be 3.55 kN/m² corresponding to 10% of ESV
solution mixed with soil cured for 15days curing. where as the load intensity is only
2.57 kN/m² in case of 7.5% of eggshell solution and 1.52 kN/m² of 5% of eggshell
solution for the same 15 days curing.
2. When compared with the virgin soil in loose state, the increase in load bearing capacity
is found to be as follows:
3. For 5 % -15 Days curing - 68.8 % increase in strength.
4. For 7.5 % -15 Days curing - 80.8 % increase in strength.
5. For 10 % -15 Days curing - 84.5 % increase in strength.
6. From the above discussion it can be seen 10% ESV solution gives maximum increase
for a period of 15 days curing.
7. From the above discussion it can be seen that increase in strength increases with the
increase of ESV solution added to the soil.
8. Curing period also Increases the strength improvement.
9. Further increase in percentage ESV solution and in curing period increase the strength.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
The Authors acknowledges the under Graduates Students namely Abishake.S, Sabdhagiri
vasan.S, Siddarth.C, and Sudharsan.R for their support in conducting the experimental tests for
the above research project.
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