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CHARACTERISTIC STRENGTH OF CONCRETE BY PARTIAL REPLACEMENT WITH SAWDUST AND WASTE CERAMIC TILES

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International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET)
Volume 10, Issue 03, March 2019, pp. 890-898 Article ID: IJCIET_10_03_087
Available online at http://www.iaeme.com/ijciet/issues.asp?JType=IJCIET&VType=10&IType=03
ISSN Print: 0976-6308 and ISSN Online: 0976-6316
© IAEME Publication
Scopus Indexed
CHARACTERISTIC STRENGTH OF CONCRETE
BY PARTIAL REPLACEMENT WITH SAWDUST
AND WASTE CERAMIC TILES
*S. Vinothkumar, K. Sathishkumar, C. Anish and S. Rajesh
Assistant Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, BIST, BIHER,
Bharath University, India.
*Corresponding Author
ABSTRACT
A huge amount of fired materials changes into wastage amid preparing,
transporting and settling because of its fragile nature. Consequently, utilizing these
losses in solid creation could be a compelling measure in keeping up the earth and
enhancing the properties of cement. Utilizing waste material as a substitution of totals
will prompt less cost of material, give a simple approach to transfer of waste Hence,
the pulverized waste clay tiles were utilized as a part of concrete as a trade for coarse
totals and sawdust for fine totals with 10%, 20%, 30% and 40% of substitution and the
trademark quality of cement contemplated
Keywords: Utilizing waste material.
Cite this Article: S. Vinothkumar, K. Sathishkumar, C. Anish and S. Rajesh,
Characteristic Strength of Concrete by Partial Replacement with Sawdust and Waste
Ceramic Tiles, International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology, 10(3),
2019, pp. 890-898.
http://www.iaeme.com/IJCIET/issues.asp?JType=IJCIET&VType=10&IType=03
1. INTRODUCTION
Construction industry strives to evolve new technologies and processes to streamline the work
process. Concrete, the most widely adopted construction material all over the world has
undergone many changes in its manufacturing process depending upon the requirements of the
structure, development of new admixtures and the availability of material locally. {7}
Conventional concrete has some deficiencies too, though its remarkable, flexibility and ability
to redistribute stress etc. Its permeability to liquids, and subsequent corrosion of reinforcement,
its low freeze-thaw resistance, and quite poor resistance to sulphate attack are some other major
deficiencies. Building materials contribute to 60 to 70 percent of the cost of construction and
the use of conventional construction materials like cement, steel. Concrete and timber showed
an increase in the cost of construction over many years. In our country, the cost of construction
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Characteristic Strength of Concrete by Partial Replacement with Sawdust and Waste Ceramic
Tiles
is being increased by 15 to 18 percent every year due to increase in rate of materials. The
increasing environment concerns, economy, valuation in quality and the seasonal nature of the
manufacturing process have brought about the need for improvement in the manufacture of
concrete.
Concrete is a heterogeneous blend of bond, fine and coarse totals. Squashed stones of
appropriate sizes as coarse totals and the stream sand as fine totals are embraced in regular
cement. Despite the fact that waterway sand is typically accessible in numerous territories of
the nation, it is efficient to utilize locally accessible materials as substitutes to stream sand as
fine total in making mortars and cement. Sawdust is one along such materials which is
accessible in expansive amounts from smasher units. The utilization of sawdust is making
cement and mortar by halfway substitution of common waterway sand not just gives economy
in the expense of development and yet takes care of the issue of transfer squander on condition.
Thus, the utilization of broken fired tiles for substitution of coarse total utilized in making
concrete additionally decreases cost of development and takes care of the issue of transfer of
such broken tiles in development region.
2. SAWDUST
Sawdust is a side-effect of cutting, crushing, boring, sanding, or generally pounding wood with
a saw or other apparatus; it is made out of fine particles of wood. Certain creatures, winged
animals and bugs which live in wood, for example, the woodworker insect are likewise in
charge of delivering the saw residue. Sawdust has an assortment of other reasonable
utilizations, including filling in as mulch, as an option in contrast to mud feline litter, or as a
fuel. Until the approach of refrigeration, it was regularly utilized in icehouses to keep ice
solidified amid the late spring. It has been utilized in imaginative presentations, and as disperse.
It is additionally now and then used to drench up fluid spills, enabling the spill to be effectively
gathered or cleared aside. Thusly, it was once in the past basic on saloon floors.
Blended with water and solidified, it frames pyrite, a moderate softening, a lot more
grounded type of ice. Sawdust is utilized in the production of charcoal briquettes. At sawmills,
except if reprocessed into particleboard, consumed in a sawdust burner or used to make heat
for other processing tasks, sawdust may gather in heaps and include unsafe leachates into
nearby water frameworks, making an ecological peril. This has set little sawyers and natural
organizations in a gridlock. Inquiries regarding the science behind the assurance of sawdust
being an ecological danger stay for sawmill administrators (however this is principally with
better particles), who contrast wood residuals with dead trees in backwoods. Specialized
consultants have looked into a portion of the natural examinations; however, state most need
institutionalized technique or proof of an immediate effect on untamed life. A noteworthy
utilization of sawdust is for particleboard; coarse sawdust might be utilized for wood mash.
3. CERAMICS
The term pottery is a general term used to allude to earthenware items. Normal fabricated
earthenware production incorporates divider tiles floor tiles, clean product, family pottery and
specialized earthenware production. Basically, clay is a term used to describe Inorganic
materials (with perhaps some natural substance), made up of Non - metallic mixes and made
changeless by a terminating procedure. Earth, which is the most bounteous material really
taking shape of most pottery, is normally not a pozzolanic material. This is on the grounds that
it doesn't have silicate properties, which can respond with water to shape calcium hydroxide in
the creation of cement. Research directed by on the likelihood of waste dirt materials being
utilized as pozzolanic augmentations demonstrated that the enactment of earth to wind up
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S. Vinothkumar, K. Sathishkumar, C. Anish and S. Rajesh
pozzolanic starts amid lack of hydration process, which starts when warming mud from around
500ºC, and the partition of formless and dynamic aluminum oxide.
The temperature required to achieve most extreme centralizations of the aluminum oxide
relies upon the kind of minerals in the earth. Amid the creation of earthenware production, dirt
is warmed at generally high temperatures, precise temperature relying upon the sort of artistic
being delivered. For example, the current investigation centers around fired divider tile
squanders, which are dismiss tiles, which experienced the full terminating procedure. The fired
divider tiles are terminated at around1150ºC. Deducting from that, it is coherent to state
squanders from the earthenware business (fired waste) have attributes appropriate for use as
pozzolanic materials and consequently are reasonable for use really taking shape of cement.
4. CERAMIC WASTE
It has been assessed that 30% of the day by day generation in the earthenware business goes to
squander. This waste isn't reused in any structure at present. In any case, the earthenware
squander is strong, hard and profoundly impervious to organic, synthetic and physical
corruption powers. As the earthenware squander is heaping up each day, there is weight on the
artistic businesses to discover an answer for its transfer. In the interim, ordinary pounded stone
total stores are exhausting quick, especially in some desert districts of the world. A substantial
main part of clay tiles changes into wastage, these waste materials are not reusable and
recyclable due to their physical and synthetic structure. Given the high measure of solid
generation and the likelihood of wastage materials in them, utilizing earthenware wastage could
be a powerful measure in keeping up nature and improving the properties of cement.
To begin with, the qualities of clay total are estimated and after that being grind they are
utilized in concrete as the substitute for coarse totals. Every single other parameter are
consistent. At last the droop esteem, compressive quality, water ingestion, and the unit weight
of cement for the examples were determined. The discoveries uncovered that by and large
utilizing waste fired tile lead to upgrading the properties of cement. Earthenware totals were
sieved so that their reviewing are actually good with the common utilized total in solid, this
similarity causes that the mistake made by the evaluating contrasts in the properties of cement
end up limited. The outline of evaluating of earthenware totals and regular ones ought to be
actually perfect. Development and Demolition squanders contribute the most elevated level of
squanders around the world. Moreover, earthenware materials contribute the most noteworthy
level of squanders inside the C&D squanders. The present choice for transfer of fired squanders
is landfill. This is because of inaccessibility of guidelines, evasion of hazard, absence of
information and involvement in utilizing fired squanders in development.
Table 1 Chemical compositions of ceramic wastes
S.NO
1
2
3
4
5
CONSTITUENT
SiO2
Al2O3
Fe2O3
CaO
MgO
PERCENTAGE
87
2.5
2
0.24
3.50
5. SCOPE
Our project is gone for researching appropriateness of sawdust as a choice to sand for fine totals
and broken waste fired tiles for substitution at coarse total in the creation of solid blend.
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Characteristic Strength of Concrete by Partial Replacement with Sawdust and Waste Ceramic
Tiles
5.1. Objective



To think about the trademark quality of cement with 10%, 20%, 30% and 40% of coarse
and fine totals with sawdust and broken clay tiles.
To diminish the expense per m3 of cement.
To lessen the all-out weight of cement per m3
6. METHODOLOGY
Properties of
materials
Mix design ratio
Tests on aggregate
Casting
Curing
7th 14th and 28th
day testing
6.1. Materials Used





Cement – OPC grade 43
Sand – Fine aggregate
Crushed stone – coarse aggregate
Sawdust – replacement for fine aggregate
Broken ceramic tiles – replacement for coarse aggregate
7. REPLACEMENT PROPORTIONS
Different sample types were cast in cube moulds with 0%, 10%, 20%, 30%, 40% replacement
of fine and coarse aggregates with sawdust and broken ceramic tiles. Three samples with each
replacement were cast for 7th 14th and 28th day curing periods.
MATERIALS
CEMENT (KG)
FINE AGGREGATE (KG)
COARSE AGGREGATE
(KG)
SAWDUST (KG)
BROKEN CERAMIC
TILES (KG)
WATER (LITRES)
10%
3.45
6.17
20%
3.45
5.4
30%
3.45
4.8
40%
3.45
4.12
9.95
8.84
7.74
6.64
0.686
1.37
2.05
2.74
1.106
2.2
3.32
4.43
1.8
1.8
1.8
1.8
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Test results for 7-day compressive strength of samples
S.NO.
1.
2.
4.
5.
6.
MEAN
PERCENTAGE
COMPRESSIVE
SAMPLE
COMPRESSIVE
REPLACED
STRENGTH
STRENGTH
1
17.2
0%
2
17.6
17.36
3
17.3
1
17.1
10%
2
16.9
17.13
3
17.4
1
16.2
20%
2
16.5
16.46
3
16.7
1
13.5
30%
2
14.1
13.8
3
13.8
1
11.5
40%
2
12.2
11.6
3
11.3
Test results for 14-day compressive strength of samples
S.NO.
PERCENTAGE
REPLACED
1.
0%
2.
10%
4.
20%
5.
30%
6.
40%
SAMPLE
COMPRESSIVE
STRENGTH
1
2
3
1
2
3
1
2
3
1
2
3
1
2
3
20.5
21.2
20.8
20.7
20.9
21.5
19.5
19.7
20
17.1
17.8
16.9
15.4
14.8
15.8
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894
MEAN
COMPRESSIVE
STRENGTH
20.83
21.03
19.73
17.26
15.33
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Characteristic Strength of Concrete by Partial Replacement with Sawdust and Waste Ceramic
Tiles
Test results for 28day compressive strength of samples
S.NO.
PERCENTAGE
REPLACED
1.
0%
2.
10%
4.
20%
5.
30%
6.
40%
SAMPLE
COMPRESSIVE
STRENGTH
1
2
3
1
2
3
1
2
3
1
2
3
1
26.1
25.9
26.3
25.8
25.9
26.5
25.1
25.7
25.4
22.7
21.9
22.4
19.8
2
3
MEAN COMPRESSIVE
STRENGTH
26.45
26.06
25.4
22.3
19.1
19.4
19.4
Compressive
strentgh N/mm2
Graph showing variation of compressive strength of test sample over a 28 day curing period with
readings taken at 7,14 and 28 days
10% replacement
40
20
0
7
14
28
10%
replacement
Curing time(Days)
Figure Compressive strength of 10% replacement
It has been found that the compressive strength of the sample with 10% replacement of
aggregates increases linearly over a 28-day period. Compared to the conventional sample it is
slightly lower, however this slight difference is negligible
Compressive
strentgh N/mm2
Graph showing variation of compressive strength of test sample over a 28-day curing period with
readings taken at 7,14 and 28 days
20% replacement
40
20
0
7
14
28
20% replacement
Curing time(Days)
Figure Compressive strength of 20% replacement
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It has been found that the compressive strength of the sample with 20% replacement of
aggregates increases linearly over a 28-day period. Compared to the conventional sample it is
slightly lower, however this slight difference is negligible.
Graph showing variation of compressive strength of test sample over a 28 day curing period with
readings taken at 7,14 and 28 days
Compressive strentgh
N/mm2
30% replacement
25
20
15
10
30% replacement
5
0
7
14
28
Curing time(Days)
Figure Compressive strength of 30% replacement
It has been found that the compressive strength of the sample with 30% replacement of
aggregates increases linearly over a 28-day period. Compared to the conventional sample it is
lower, hence this cannot be used for replacing the conventional sample, however it can be used
to replace non load bearing partition walls
Compressive strentgh
N/mm2
Graph showing variation of compressive strength of test sample over a 28 day curing period with
readings taken at 7,14 and 28 days
40% replacement
25
20
15
10
40%
replacement
5
0
7
14
28
Curing time(days)
Figure Compressive strength of 40% replacement
It has been found that the compressive strength of the sample with 40% replacement of
aggregates increases linearly over a 28-day period. Compared to the conventional sample it is
lower, hence this cannot be used for replacing the conventional sample, however it can be used
to replace non load bearing partition walls.
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Characteristic Strength of Concrete by Partial Replacement with Sawdust and Waste Ceramic
Tiles
Graph showing variation of compressive strength of test sample over a 28 day curing period with
readings taken at 7,14 and 28 days
Compressive strentgh
N/mm2
35.0
30.0
25.0
conventional
20.0
10%
15.0
20%
10.0
30%
5.0
40%
0.0
7 Days
14 Days
28 Days
Curing time(days)
Figure Compressive strength comparison
8. RESULT AND DISCUSSION
Table Comparison of compressive strength
S.NO
1
2
3
CURING
TIME
7 DAYS
14 DAYS
28 DAYS
CONVENTIONAL
10%
20%
30%
40%
17.4
21.5
26.5
17.2
21
25.3
16.5
19.5
25
13.8
17
22.3
11.2
15.8
19.5
In this chapter, the results of the characteristic strength of concrete with partial replacement
of sawdust and broken ceramic tiles. The values obtained from testing of prepared mould with
the partial replacement of sawdust and broken ceramic tiles such as 10%, 20%, 30% and 40%
in place of fine and coarse aggregate which are compared with those obtained for conventional
concrete mould. The variation of parameters with respect to static and repeated loading are also
discussed.
9. CONCLUSION
The report reveals the using of partial replacement of sawdust and broken ceramic tiles in
concrete has proved to be very good in compressive with no negative effects up to 20%
replacement, hence it will be the good alternative of conventional concrete. furthermore it has
been found that there is a significant amount of weight reduction in the replaced samples of
15% for 40% replacement, however since the compressive strength is low 40% can only be
used in partition walls and 10% and 20% can be used which provide a total weight reduction
of 5-10%.Since the availability of soil has become scarce and it also proves available solutions
for effective waste utilization. Hence this project gave a solution for waste utilization and study
can be further extended with other waste materials also. The waste materials such as sawdust
and broken ceramic tiles can be effective used as replacement in concrete and the results are
optimum to the conventional concrete Along these lines reusing squanders is just levelheaded
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and coherent advance towards preservation of normal assets. The financial part of reusing is
inspiration to continue toward this path.
REFERENCES
[1]
[2]
[3]
[4]
[5]
[6]
[7]
M.d.Daniyal, Shekel Ahmad (2015) “Application of Waste Tile Aggregates in
Concrete”International Journal of Innovative Research in Science, Engineering and
TechnologyVol. 4, Issue 12, pp.1
Hemanth Kumar Ch, Ananda Ramakrishna, SateeshBabu K, Guravaiah T, Naveen N, Janik
(2015) “Effect of Waste Ceramic Tiles in Replacement of Coarse and Fine Aggregate of
Concrete “International Advanced Research Journal in Science, Engineering and
Technology, Vol. 2, Issue 6, pp.4
Hitesh Kumar Mandavi, VikasStrivatsava, V.C.Agarwal(2015) “Durability of Concrete
with Ceramic Wasteas Fine Aggregate Replacement” International Journal of Engineering
and Technical Research (IJETR) ISSN: 2321-0869 ,Volume-3, Issue-8, pp.6
IS 456:2000, “Plain and reinforced concrete - Code of practice”
IS 10262:1986 “recommended guidelines for concrete mix design”
R. Kamala, B. Krishna Rao (2012) “Reuse of Solid Waste from Building Demolition for
the Replacement of Natural Aggregates” International Journal of Engineering and
Advanced Technology (IJEAT)ISSN: 2249 – 8958, Volume-2, Issue-1,pp.2
T.P. Meikandaan, “Study on properties of concrete with partial replacement of cement by
rice husk ash” ISSN: 0974-2115 Journal of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Sciences.
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