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ESTIMATION OF THE SHEAR WAVE VELOCITY FOR INDORE CITY USING VARIOUS CORRELATIONS

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International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET)
Volume 10, Issue 03, March 2019, pp. 852-858, Article ID: IJCIET_10_03_082
Available online at http://www.iaeme.com/ijciet/issues.asp?JType=IJCIET&VType=10&IType=03
ISSN Print: 0976-6308 and ISSN Online: 0976-6316
© IAEME Publication
Scopus Indexed
ESTIMATION OF THE SHEAR WAVE
VELOCITY FOR INDORE CITY USING
VARIOUS CORRELATIONS
Deepshikha Shukla
PhD Scholar, Applied Mechanics Department, SVNIT, Surat - 395007
Chandresh H. Solanki
Professor, Applied Mechanics Department, SVNIT, Surat - 395007
ABSTRACT
Shear modulus of the different types of soils can be estimated using the shear wave
velocity (Vs) measured by the correlations between the Shear Wave Velocity (Vs) and
the Standard Penetration Tests (SPT-N values). The correlations between the two
parameters have been proposed by various researchers in the past. The shear wave
velocity is a measure of shear modulus of soil and is used for the measurement of
parameters for geotechnical earthquake engineering. The method of applying an
appropriate method of correlation between SPT-N values and shear wave velocity is an
approximate method applied when the precise measurement of Vs seems to be difficult
and therefore the value can be estimated using the correlation of the SPT-N value of
the soil. Many correlations have been developed and suggested by the researchers in
the past based on the soil profile, characteristics of the soil and geology of the site. In
the current study, shear wave velocity at nine locations in and around Indore City have
been estimated using 21 correlations including the one recommended for the Indian
soil sites.
Keywords: Borelog Data, SPT-N Values, Shear Wave Velocity
Cite this Article: Deepshikha Shukla and Chandresh H. Solanki, Estimation of the
Shear Wave Velocity for Indore City Using Various Correlations, International Journal
of Civil Engineering and Technology, 10(03), 2019, pp. 852–858
http://www.iaeme.com/IJCIET/issues.asp?JType=IJCIET&VType=10&IType=03
1. INTRODUCTION
Past many years Peninsular India (PI) was assumed to be a silent and non-hazardous but over
a decade, this scenario has changed and due to the occurrence of many earthquake events and
other natural hazardous events, PI is now catching attention of all the researchers in and around
India specially after the Killari 1933 (Mw = 6.1) and Koyna 1967 (Mw = 6.3) earthquakes in
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Estimation of the Shear Wave Velocity for Indore City Using Various Correlations
India. Various mathematical and computational approaches have been suggested by researchers
globally and have been applied over various regions for the hazard assessment and its
computation. As soil profile and its characteristics play a major role in the hazards it is indeed
important to carry out detailed studies of the soil samples from various locations. Assessment
of dynamics properties of soil needs to be carried out for detailed soil investigation and for this
various methods are available. Estimation of Shear Wave velocity by conducting tests such as
Multichannel Shear Wave Velocity (MASW) is yet another widely used noninvasive method
for the computation of the dynamic properties of soil for that location. In case MASW test
cannot be performed approximate or empirical method for the computation of the shear wave
velocity by using the correlations between the Standard Penetration Tests (SPT) N Values and
Shear Wave Velocity (Vs) suggested by various authors can be used or a new correlation for
the area can be developed. Hence, in this study an attempt has been made to estimate the Shear
Wave Velocity by using the SPT-N values for two borehole locations and the average value of
the shear wave velocity thus obtained is matched with the existing correlations suggested by
the authors. The coordinates of the borehole locations were marked and represented over the
Geographical Information System (GIS) platform which is a computer based information
system that captures the data over the coordinate system and the captured data can be later used
for georeferencing, representation, and manipulation of the data. The GIS tool is rapidly
gaining pace in the digitization of the facts and figures and for the preparation of the digitized
maps.
2. STUDY AREA
Indore city is situated in the Central part of India in the state of Madhya Pradesh with
(22.71960N and 75.85770E) as the geographical coordinates. This region lies in Seismic Zone
III as per Zonation Map of India and also lies in the Malwa Region having a lot of Flora and
Fauna in and around the Indore City. This city is coming up as a Smart City with a lot of
infrastructural development is taking place. It is also the commercial head of the State with a
lot manufacturing units operating in the area. Considering the importance of this city in all
respects it becomes imperative to carry out the studies pertaining to the hazard analysis and
soil properties.
3. METHODOLOGY ADOPTED
Soil Borehole data were collected from about 172 different locations in and around the Indore
City. The data collected from these locations was then compiled along with the engineering
properties of soil such as SPT-N value, specific gravity, density, depth of water table, plasticity
index and moisture content. The borehole locations are plotted using the GIS technology and
GIS software is used for the creation of the digitized maps of the study area. The shear wave
velocities are estimated from the SPT-N values using the correlations suggested by various
authors. The average shear wave velocity as computed for various depths is then compared
with the existing relationships to check the suitability of the equation. The digitized map of
Indore city with nine major borehole locations is plotted with the average shear wave velocity
over the entire borehole depth as shown in fig 1.
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Deepshikha Shukla and Chandresh H. Solanki
Figure 1 Digitized map showing the Average Shear Wave velocity of nine major locations near
Indore
In the present study, the different correlations as suggested by the researchers are tabulated
below in table 1. These correlations are used for the estimation of the shear wave velocity for
the SPT N value for each borehole data.
Few correlations as proposed by Indian authors for all Indian soil types are:
(i) Vs = 72*N0.4 - Mhaske and Deepankar (2011) for Mumbai Region
(ii) Vs = 82.6*N0.43 – Hanumanthrao and Ramana (2008) for Delhi Region
(iii)Vs = 78(N60cs)0.4 – Sitharam and Anbazhagan (2008) for Bengaluru Region
Where Vs – Shear wave Velocity (m/s) and N – measure SPT N value from borehole data
and N60cs is the corrections applied for the type of hammer, sampler, rod length, borehole
diameter etc. The corrected value of N is obtained after applying these corrections and finally
can be computed for the estimation of Vs value using the correlation suggested by Sitharam
and Anbazhagan (2008) for Bengaluru Region. The SPT N value obtained from borehole data
for Indore region is then finally compared to match with the existing correlations. However, in
this process the correlation suggested by Sitharam and Anbazhagan (2008) for Bengaluru
Region is not used for the estimation of the Shear Wave Velocity.
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Estimation of the Shear Wave Velocity for Indore City Using Various Correlations
Table 1 Proposed Correlations between SPT-‘N’ Values and Shear Wave Velocity ‘Vs’
S.No.
Correlations between SPT-N Values and Shear Wave
Velocity (m/s)
1.
Vs = 72*N0.4
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
Vs = 82.6*N0.43
Vs = 68.3*N0.292
Vs = 51.5*N0.516
Vs = 57.4*N0.49
Vs = 114.43*N0.31 for clay
Vs = 116.1*(N + 0.3185)0.202
Vs = ((5.3*N)+134) for clay and silty clay
Vs = ((5.1*N)+152) for sand and gravelly sand
Vs = 100.5*N0.29
Vs = 97*N0.314
Vs = 61*N0.5
Vs = 80*N1/3 for sand
Vs = 100*N1/3 for clay
Vs = 85.35*N0.348
Vs = 91*N0.337
Vs = 80.2*N0.292 for clay
Vs = 82*N0.39
Vs = 92.1*N0.337
Vs = 84*N0.31
Vs = 76*N0.33
Proposed By
Mhaske & Deepankar Choudhary
(2011)
Hanumanthrao and Ramana (2008)
Kiku et. Al. (2001)
Iyisan (1996)
Lee (1990)
Lee (1990)
Jinan (1987)
Fumal & Tinsley (1985)
Fumal & Tinsley (1985)
Sykora & Stoke (1983)
Imai & Tonouchi (1982)
Seed and Idriss (1981)
JRA (1980)
JRA (1980)
Ohta & Goto (1978)
Imai (1977)
Imai (1977)
Ohsaki & Iwasaki (1973)
Fujiwara (1972)
Ohba & Toriumi(1970)
Imai & Yoshimura (1970)
4. RESULTS
The estimated shear wave velocities for all soil types in Indore Region is calculated using all
21 correlations based on the SPT-N values. These values thus obtained are then plotted. In the
subsequent graphs, shear wave velocity is plotted for two different site locations namely the
residential building located at Chhatrapati Nagar near Indore and Pharmaceutical Industry at
Village Asrawad near Indore with 2 and 4 boreholes data. The range of borehole depth, SPT N
values and Shear Wave Velocity is compiled below in the tabulated form. The graphs thus
plotted are shown in fig 2 – 5.
S.No.
Name of the Site
BH No
1.
Residential Building located at
Chhatrapati Nagar near Indore
2.
Pharmaceutical Industry at Village
Asrawad near Indore
1
2
1
2
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855
Depth
(m)
5 – 10
6 - 10
6–8
5 - 10
SPT N
8 – 55
5 - 53
32 – 50
35 - 60
Shear Wave
Velocity (m/s)
120 – 218
120 220
185 – 212
190 - 220
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Deepshikha Shukla and Chandresh H. Solanki
Shear Wave Velocity (Vs)
Figure 2 Comparison of Shear Wave Velocities with other correlations for BH 1 for the location
Residential Building site located at Chhatrapati Nagar near Indore
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
Avg Vs
460
440
420
400
380
360
340
320
300
280
260
240
220
200
180
160
140
120
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
SPT-N Value
Figure 3 Comparison of Shear Wave Velocities with other correlations for BH 2 for the location
Residential Building at their site located at Chhatrapati Nagar near Indore
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Estimation of the Shear Wave Velocity for Indore City Using Various Correlations
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
Avg Vs
420
400
Shear Wave Velocity (Vs)
380
360
340
320
300
280
260
240
220
200
180
30
32
34
36
38
40
42
44
46
48
50
SPT-N Value
Figure 4 Comparison of Shear Wave Velocities with other correlations for BH 1 for the location
Construction of Pharmaceutical Industry at Village Asrawad near Indore
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
Avg vs
Shear Wave Velocity (Vs)
450
400
350
300
250
200
35
40
45
50
55
60
SPT-N value
Figure 5 Comparison of Shear Wave Velocities with other correlations for BH 1 for the location
Construction of Pharmaceutical Industry at Village Asrawad near Indore
5. CONCLUSION
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Deepshikha Shukla and Chandresh H. Solanki
Determining the shear wave velocity of soil is an important parameter for the study of dynamic
properties of soil in geotechnical engineering. Various methods are available for determining
the shear wave velocity but in the case of non-availability of the test or if the data is not large
an empirical method can be used. As seen from the graphs, the plot between the average shear
wave velocity and SPT N value for the boreholes the curves matches with that of the equation
suggested by Fumal & Tinsley (1985) (9) for sand and gravely sand. Hence this empirical
method or approximate method can be used for the estimation of the Vs using the SPT N values
and the correlation. Hope these results thus obtained may be useful to the practitioners.
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92-100 (1987)
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