International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET)
Volume 10, Issue 03, March 2019, pp. 768-778, Article ID: IJCIET_10_03_074
Available online at http://www.iaeme.com/ijciet/issues.asp?JType=IJCIET&VType=10&IType=03
ISSN Print: 0976-6308 and ISSN Online: 0976-6316
© IAEME Publication
Scopus Indexed
Anas Attellah Ali Shoshan
College of Engineering, Kirkuk University, Iraq
Qubad Sabah Haseeb
College of Engineering, Kirkuk University, Iraq
There is a growing interest in sustainable buildings that are environmentally
friendly and have lower energy consumption. The amount and cost of energy
consumption in buildings are important design considerations. Studies of the routing
and insulation impact on the heat of the internal environment of public buildings are
inadequate because most of the works were based on the study of thermal behavior
from the theory and measurements of the field perspective only. Furthermore, they
have not implemented simulation software in their analysis. Therefore, it is necessary
to adopt the current generation according to methods of climate design through
digital representation via computer. Consequently, supporting the designers in this
field to achieve the right design decisions. Additionally, the designer can find the
results of their design decisions in advance before implementation through the
calculations carried out by simulations.
To achieve our goal, the research is based on the analytical and applied
methodology using the RIVET and GBS software and from climatic analysis of the
selected sample area. We used the building of the College of Education for Pure
Sciences at the University of Kirkuk, Iraq, as a case study. This article also aims to
introduce the adopted simulation software that may achieve the required outcomes
and analyze them. Consequently, to provide recommendations that can be
implemented in such areas.
Key words: Energy Analysis, Sustainable Design, Simulation.
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Analysis and Reduction of Energy Consumption in Educational Buildings: A Case Study in the
College Of Education for Pure Sciences at the University Of Kirkuk
Cite this Article: Anas Attellah Ali Shoshan and Qubad Sabah Haseeb, Analysis and
Reduction of Energy Consumption in Educational Buildings: A Case Study in the
College Of Education for Pure Sciences at the University Of Kirkuk, International
Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology, 10(03), 2019, pp. 768-778
The design strategies that affect the internal thermal comfort vary significantly from one area
to another, and it can be found in traditional designs [1]. The climate is one of the most
critical factors that determine the effects of design through the distance between buildings,
process of guidance, the form of structural mass and its cover of walls, windows and surfaces,
Also, the different techniques and construction materials which the building can be
established have an impact on the thermal comfort inside the buildings [2][3]. This can be
performed mainly according to the characteristics of the local climate and taking into
consideration the method of dealing with them during the design[4]. We therefore many
complex problems can be avoided through optimal design to minimize the effects of
undesirable climatic factors that differ from one region to another. Each place has its design
strategy, where sun and heat protection play essential roles in the areas that the temperature
differences increase between daytime and night [5].
The directing and the nature of the structural materials are considered as factors affecting the
thermal performance in the interior spaces of the building. Furthermore, the simulation
programs are a modern strategy that can be used to assess the effect of directing and change
the structural materials on the thermal performance in the chosen spaces in the building of the
college of education for pure sciences at the University of Kirkuk. Finally, this research a
simulation software of thermal analysis of the structure.
The study aims to determine the impact of directing and change of structural materials on the
internal spaces' temperature at the College building of Pure Sciences at the University of
Kirkuk, Iraq, via simulation. Consequently, obtaining the suitability of the areas climatically
to provide appropriate thermal comfort.
To achieve the objectives, this study depends on the analytical and practical approach through
the following:
 The climatic analysis of the Kirkuk city.
 Studying the climatic treatments of the buildings in dry hot areas.
 Performing a detailed study of the selected model.
 Carrying out analysis study of the adopted simulation program.
 Analysing of the program results for temperatures in both hot and cold period of
the chosen residential building.
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Anas Attellah Ali Shoshan and Qubad Sabah Haseeb
4.1. Climatic Analysis of Kirkuk City and the Geographical Location of the
Sample in the City - Iraq
Kirkuk is located in the north of the Republic of Iraq between the longitude 44.24 east and
latitude 35.28 north. The province next to the provinces (92 km) Erbil, (109 km)
Sulaymaniyah, (150 km) Nineveh and (215) Diyala from the north, east, west and south,
respectively. Additionally, the distance from Kirkuk to the capital Baghdad is 215 km [Dar
al-Omran 2016]. The location of the study sample in the city of Kirkuk lies in the southern
part of the town and on the road leading to Baghdad.
Figure 2 The site of the Faculty of Education in the city of Kirkuk [google earth].
4.1.1. Sun Brightness and Solar Radiation
It is well known that the sunlight reaches its lowest level in December, and becomes the
highest in the rest of the summer months. As shown in Figure 2, a large amount of thermal
energy produced by the brightness of solar radiation can be exploited in heating (in the cold
winter nights). Nevertheless, it should be avoided during the rest of the year [6][7].
Figure 2. The sunny days and their duration throughout a year.
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Analysis and Reduction of Energy Consumption in Educational Buildings: A Case Study in the
College Of Education for Pure Sciences at the University Of Kirkuk
4.1.2. Air Temperature
Temperature is one of the climatic variables that vary greatly from one region to another due
to different exposure to the sun. Figure (3) shows the external maximum and minimum
temperatures in the hot and cold periods during the months of a year. One can find the high
temperature in the months between the sixth and ninth where more than 45 C. Consequently,
thermal insulation treatments requirements become necessary to provide thermal comfort
inside the interior spaces of buildings [7].
Figure 3. Average high and low temperatures during the whole year in the city of Kirkuk.
4.1.3. Rain
Kirkuk suffers from some seasonal variation in precipitation per month. As shown in Figure
4, the rain period lasts for 7 months in a year from 16 October until 17 May with rainfall for
at least 31 days of at least 13 mm. Most rain falls during 31 days concentrated around March
19, With an average total accumulation of 29 mm. On the other hand, the non-rain period of
the year lasts for 5 months, from May 17 to October 16, and the lowest rainfall rate is around
August 10, with an average total accumulation of 1 mm. Format [7].
Figure 4. Rain rate and its Periods in Kirkuk.
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Anas Attellah Ali Shoshan and Qubad Sabah Haseeb
4.1.4. Wind
Usually, the average wind speed per hour in Kirkuk city is experiencing moderate seasonal
change throughout the year. As shown in Figure (5), the most flexible part of the year lasts 3
to 4 months (from 8 May to 18 September) with an average wind speed of over 8.0 mph. The
heaviest day of the year is June 29 with an average wind speed of 9.1 mph. The most tranquil
year lasts 7.7 months, from 18 September to 8 May. Whereas, the quietest day of the year is
January 12, with an average wind speed every hour of 11 mph. Shape (5) [7].
Figure 5. Wind speed rates in Kirkuk.
4.2. The Climatic Treatments of Public Buildings in the Adopted Sample:
The natural adaptations of the buildings vary according to the surrounding environment and
by considering different factors: mass, shape, orientation, treatments (walls, ceilings), the use
of the courtyard and the elements of air supply. By considering the compatibility and
compatibility of climatic factors with the components of the building in addition to different
methods used to adapt to the climate, the temperature inside the buildings can be reduced.
Consequently, reaching 25 Celsius which the comfortable warmth of the person (especially
when the outside temperature becomes higher than 34 ° C leading feeling of discomfort). To
achieve the thermal efficiency inside the building, it is necessary to take into account the
suitability of all elements of the structure to the surrounding environment. The essential
elements are building block shape, building direction according to the use of interior
courtyards, exterior walls and various treatment, roof insulation, vertical and composite, and
so on [8]. To reach the thermal comfort of the selected sample, this study also deals with two
important elements which are directing and external walls and their treatments via the
construction materials insulation.
4.2.1. The Directionation of the Building:
The directionation of the buildings depends on climatic factors such as solar radiation, wind
and temperature. The directionation of the building is affected by the amount of solar
radiation falling on its different sides at different times of the year. In areas with dry hot
regions, it is necessary to provide protection from solar radiation, especially at the warm
periods. Furthermore, the best directionation can reduce radiation to the lowest possible and
provide solar radiation in cold periods [9]. Radiation heat from the sun is transmitted by four
main forms that affect the buildings are: 1) direct radiation with short wavelengths of the sun;
2) short-wavelength radiation from the dome of the sky; 3) short-wave radiation reflected
from the surrounding terrain and long-wave radiation from the earth's surface and objects.
These four forms of radiation affect the buildings in two ways: The penetrate through
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Analysis and Reduction of Energy Consumption in Educational Buildings: A Case Study in the
College Of Education for Pure Sciences at the University Of Kirkuk
windows and doors and absorb by the external surfaces. Consequently, leading to heating
acquisition. Eventually, connecting a large part of the radiation through the origin
construction to be shined inside [9].
4.2.2. Building Materials:
To build in hot climates, it is essential to consider two factors: the availability and
performance. Definitely, there are several advantages in the use of local materials because
they suit the warm and dry climates that don’t suit a warm humid atmosphere [10]. The
combination of humidity, temperature, ultraviolet radiation and sandy wind have adverse
effects on building materials. To specific climatic conditions, the used materials should not
be suitable only, it also should be compatible with the building design and details and the
nature of both climatic conditions [9].
In general, the surrounding building materials are essential to provide protection against
heat and cold. Great care should be taken in the selection of wall and ceiling materials, and
their thickness is proportional to be suitable with their physical properties according to the
thermal conductivity, thermal resistance and light reflectivity. The heat flows from outside
through the wall if the temperature outside is higher than inside. Additionally, proportions
with the rate of heat flow in the external and internal air and the faced area of the wall surface
and the total thermal outlets that can be calculated by analyzing the resistance components of
the wall to stop the heat. Then, the total resistance is considered from the material resistance
to the flow of heat and the surface resistance of the external and the internal surfaces. Finally,
the thermal transfer is controlled by choice of wall material that may achieve thermal
insulation [11].
4.3. The detailed study on the study sample:
A study sample was chosen from the building of the college of education for pure sciences,
which is located near the center of Kirkuk University. The building is designed by Al-Esraa
engineering consulting company. It consists of seven floors and not adjacent to any buildings.
The sample has chosen to conduct tests process through a simulation software called REVIT.
We used the software to obtain the thermal performance in the building through the two
elements: directionation and changing construction materials. Our objectives are calculating
the levels of thermal performance of the current reality of the building to reaching results
demonstrate the possibility of adopting these programs to reach the best thermal performance
within the interior spaces before the implementation of any building. Consequently, the
results will avoid negative consequences after application. Finally, Figure 6 shows the plans
for our adopted sample [12].
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Anas Attellah Ali Shoshan and Qubad Sabah Haseeb
Figure (6). Study sample plans represented by the Faculty of Education at the University of Kirkuk [12].
4.4. A brief Introduction about the Adopted Simulation Programs to Study
Thermal Performance inside the Building
In recent years, many simulation programs have been developed to study the thermal
behavior inside the building [13]. These programs depend on the main input of the
surrounding climate for each study area to obtain the thermal performance evaluation inside
the building through the design models. Consequently, reach the necessary thermal comfort
in the works Building. The most credited programs the REVIT program, GBSA program and
TAS program. The first and second programs are chosen for testing and simulating our
sample [14].
4.4.1. REVIT Program:
Is one of the programs developed by Autodesk company uses to model design software and
programming of Building Information Modeling (BIM). The program can design a model
that contains building information about geographical location, cost, characteristics of the
elements used, manufacturing characteristics, and so on. This model can be used in structural
analysis, energy and lighting analysis, and estimating quantities of construction material, total
cost, and so on [15].
The program allows the user to create a 3D model including building elements
(foundations, floors, walls, windows and ceilings with the possibility of converting it to a 2D
model. Additionally, the program can perform the formation of projections, sections and do
the rendering. The Revit program is superior to other programs is that the design model can
be updated. More specifically, it is able to model any change to the basic drawing where the
rest of the affiliate models (such as projections, sections, quantities of materials, and so on.)
will change accordingly [16].
4.4.2. GBS Program
Similarly to REVIT, GBS is developed by the Autodesk able to simulate the performance of
the building in terms of energy consumption. It provides the possibility of analyzing the
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Analysis and Reduction of Energy Consumption in Educational Buildings: A Case Study in the
College Of Education for Pure Sciences at the University Of Kirkuk
consumed energy of the building in the early design stage [17]. Furthermore, it has the
possibility of testing design options from the corners around the building and the materials
used in construction. Moreover, it is able to determine the options that can affect the amount
of energy consumed. Besides, it supports integration with different design programs such as
AutoCAD Architecture, Revit and AutoCAD MEP, where the design model will be loaded
into an XML file format. Then it performs energy analysis based on the service database such
as building properties, geographic location, weather information and so on [18].
4.4.3. The Steps of Drawing the Sample:
The REVIT program allows drawing the building with the required 3D and simulating it.
Furthermore, it can also draw buildings still in the planning stage, with the possibility of
importing drawings from the AutoCAD program to make more detailed models. Through the
designed model, we can create a 3D image showing the full shadow, and calculate the
penetration of sunlight into the building between the spaces where the program works in a
dynamic simulation method that tracks the thermal behavior of the building. [James 2010].
The steps can be summarized briefly as follows. In the first step, all the sample data (climate
data for the area, structural elements of the building and the directionation of the building's
facades) are inserted. Secondly, through computer processing units, we can obtain the desired
results, which include the provision of thermal comfort and reduced energy exchange.
Consequently, reducing the economic costs of building works.
4.4.4. Implementation:
As shown in Figure 7, the building has redrawn through the REVIT program including all the
details of the construction of the walls, ceilings, windows and the number of floors according
to the reality of the building.
Figure (7). Study sample drawn by the REVIT program.
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Anas Attellah Ali Shoshan and Qubad Sabah Haseeb
The weather data were then entered into the sample area based on the GBS program,
which includes all the weather data and geographical area of Kirkuk, Iraq. We obtained the
required results for the reality of the building according to the current directing, our proposed
directing, and the adopted simulation programs. The direction of the building was 70
counterclockwise to the south-west. After that, the building was redirected to several other
degrees until the optimal directing for the building was obtained. Consequently, leading to a
reduction in energy expenditure and a reduction in the cost of building works. The optimum
obtained directionation was (30) degrees from the reality of the situation. Finally, Figure 8
shows the current and our proposed directionation
Figure (8). The directionation of the current building relative to the direction of the north and our
directionation proposed.
After the completion of inserting the proposed directionation data, changes were made in
the construction materials of the facades exposed to the sun for longer periods, as the
convection is at the height of the day periods and in the southwestern façades. After that, by
the GBS program, the structural materials of the construction of walls were changed from
concrete block to thermal building materials of the southwestern facade. As demonstrated in
Table 1, the findings show obvious changes in the convection inside the building and low
energy consumption inside the building. Consequently, reducing the economic cost and waste
of energy.
Table (1). Shows the values reached to reduce energy expenditure and economic costs.
Total Annual Cost (IQD)
Run Name
Kirkuk University= College of Pure Sciences
-3D Degree Rotation
3,993,980,3 13,893.0 4,007,873,3
All (Insulated Window and
5,925,555,9 13,893.0 5,939,44,8,9
7,208,306,9 13,893.0 7,222,200,0
Insulated Exterior Walls
5,833,900,1 13,893.0 5,847,793,1
Insulated Window
7,030,347,7 13,893.0 7,044,240,7
Total Annual Energy
Fuel (MJ)
Figure 9 reveals that the proposed routing process played a major role in reducing the
economic costs of waste on the energy consumed by the building. Hence the importance of
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Analysis and Reduction of Energy Consumption in Educational Buildings: A Case Study in the
College Of Education for Pure Sciences at the University Of Kirkuk
changing the building materials of the exposed facades to the sunlight and high heat through
the use of a building buffer.
Figure (9). Shows the effect of the correct Directionation of the building in addition to the use of
heat-insulating building materials [researchers].
Based on obtained findings we conclude the following:
 The use of simulation software and any kind of software have a significant role in
monitoring concerns and searching for suitable solutions for climate treatments.
 The correct directionation of any building (based to the climatic environment of
the region) has a significant impact in reducing the thermal load inside the
functional spaces which may lead to reducing the energy consumption of the
 Achieving the reduction of energy exchange leads to the reduction of economic
costs where the high rates of minimizing of the operational cost of the building.
 The insulating materials (used in the most exposed sides to solar radiation) has a
significant impact in reducing the convection due to the warm atmosphere (in
selected area).
 Based on our adopted sample, it is preferable to place empty spaces such as
warehouses, bathrooms, toilets and stairs on western and southwest destinations.
This directionation may lead to more direct receiving destinations for direct solar
radiation, especially during warmer periods of the year.
 It is possible to take benefit from the directionation towards the right angle
(especially the opening to the north-west) in the acquisition of appropriate
temperatures in the winter so as to reduce the use of heating devices during
daylight hours. Consequently, decreasing the energy consumption.
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Anas Attellah Ali Shoshan and Qubad Sabah Haseeb
The importance of sustaining energy imposes the decision makers (building
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