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IMPACT OF TALENT STRUCTURE ON ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN EXCELLENCE

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International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET)
Volume 10, Issue 03, March 2019, pp. 639-663. Article ID: IJCIET_10_03_064
Available online at http://www.iaeme.com/ijciet/issues.asp?JType=IJCIET&VType=10&IType=3
ISSN Print: 0976-6308 and ISSN Online: 0976-6316
© IAEME Publication
Scopus Indexed
IMPACT OF TALENT STRUCTURE ON
ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN EXCELLENCE
Hawar Abdullah Yousif
Assistant Lecturer, Students of the Architectural Department at Kurdistan region as a case
study
Kadhim Fathel Khalil
Lecturer, Students of the Architectural Department at Kurdistan region as a case study
ABSTRACT
The study is an attempt to discover the most influential structures of excellence in
study of architecture and thus to identify the most original structures in process of
architectural creativity, which in turn will lead to a redirecting in the educational
process of architecture. Research started from question of which structures related to
architectural talent have a direct link to structures related to learning architecture.
Answer to this question was tried by Architecture Department students at University
of Duhok as a special case study. Thus, the possibility of redirecting teaching of
architecture in initial stages according to quality of- the structures of talent of
applicants- to study architecture through exploring these structures. A test design has
been adopted that demonstrates possibility of a quantitative index of excellence based
on the talent test.
Keywords: architectural design, talent structure, excellence, talent test.
Cite this Article: Hawar Abdullah Yousif and Kadhim Fathel Khalil, Impact of
Talent Structure on Architectural Design Excellence, International Journal of Civil
Engineering and Technology, 10(3), 2019, pp. 639-663.
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1. INTRODUCTION
Distinguished individuals are a great source of tender that all human societies need and value.
The society's definition of excellence takes into account not only the capabilities of the
individual, but also the attention to the needs of the community because of their distinctive
characteristics in certain areas of growth. The importance of the talent test for mental abilities
is reflected in the discovery of gifted students in order to enroll in the initial study of
architecture. Hence, we must recognize that the talent test for mental abilities measures the
strength of the student's cognitive experience and the extent to which the student obtains
enrichment information in his educational process in one side.
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The talent test also measures the student's mental development level, which is built on his
educational path in another side. The measurement process in the mental aptitude test is the
process of measuring the level of knowledge combined with the level of abilities Mentality of
the student. The architectural academic community today suffers from a structural defect
related to the secretion of the general level of students' abilities to study architecture. This
structural imbalance obliges the academic institutions specialized in architecture to develop
the research methods and the correct scientific methods to classify the gifted students through
specialized tests based on applied scientific research. Determines scientific basics and
knowledge structures of the talent that must be available to students of architecture to raise
the general level of scientific and academic, and then adopt these influential structures - the
structures of talent - as a criterion and basis for the selection of students Admission to study
architecture.
2. TALENT AND EXCELLENCE STRUCTURES IN ARCHITECTURAL
STUDIES
In order to build the theoretical framework of the research to clarify the cognitive ambiguity
associated with the research problem, it is necessary to review and discuss the previous
architectural studies. Most of the studies dealing with concepts related to talent and creativity
dealt with it in terms of programs, curricula, measurements and ability.
Where we find that the study of Amin linking excellence and creative thinking with
educational programs - and is to develop the skills of creative thinking among the students of
architecture at the University of Technology using the CORT Program and its impact in the
development of creative thinking skills and raise interest in thinking programs and the
importance of application by the teachers of the departments of architecture, (Amin 2012).
While Jassim's study links creativity and excellence with the student himself - a personal
ability - in the architecture department of the University of Mosul - the focus on the study of
creative fluency as a very important capacity in creativity and in creative architectural
practice without interest in its originality, (Jassim 2010).
In addition, Ali's study dealt with the discovery of creative abilities and excellence of
students through two aspects: the theoretical approach to research the concepts of creativity
and creative ability and its relation to the process of architectural design and the practical
aspect of measuring the creative abilities of the students of the architectural department at the
University of Sulaymaniyah through the use of an approved measurement mechanism is
Torrance Test, (Ali 2014).
We also found that the study of the Al-Eqaby linked the design to the creative aspect and
the methodological aspect. His study dealt with the concept of design by adopting two basic
aspects, namely, the creative side and the methodological aspect of design. The study also
aims to define the general foundations of the concept of design in the light of the
interdependence of creative nature with its methodological nature, (Al-Eqaby 2009).
It is clear from previous studies that they did not recognize the structures of talent and
excellence and did not link the structure of excellence to the students of architecture with the
structure of individual talent directly, that is, they did not connect the talent structures based
on the test of theoretical talent with the practical test, which is an important basis on which
the process of architectural education, they were focusing on indirect correlation.
The problem of the research was identified by the existence of cognitive ambiguity in the
relation that links the superiority of the students of architecture with the structure of
individual talent and addressing this problem in the students of the Department of
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Architecture at the University of Duhok as a special case study and the purpose of the
research is to try to reveal the nature of this effect during the academic year. Three
methodological steps were adopted to achieve the research objective:
1. Identify the structure of talent and excellence.
2. Determine quantitative measurement to identify gifted students.
3. Conducting the mathematical analysis using the appropriate statistical methods to reveal the
possibility of existence and nature of the relationship between the structures of talent
on the one hand and superiority on the other.
3. TALENT IN LANGUAGE
If we look at the definition of talent in the Al-Munjid dictionary refer to the name of the gift,
that is- give the thing to the individual free of charge - but the Al-Mourad dictionary recalls
talent in the sense of ability. In the Webster Dictionary we find that the term Talented refers
to someone who has a natural capacity or readiness (Al-Shakhs, 1990, P 52).
4. TALENT AS A TERM
Lange Wicom defines talents as special abilities of a formative origin not related to one's
intelligence, and some may even exist among the mentally retarded. Carter Joule defines
talent as the ability in a given field, or the natural ability with largest efficiency as a result of
training such as painting and music and does not necessarily involve a high level of general
intelligence. Feldman defines talent as a willingness and constructive interaction with various
aspects of the world of experience. While Leacock defines the talented as an individual who
is performing high remarkably and permanently in the fields of music, art, social leadership
or other forms of expression. Withy, defined the gifted as those individuals whose
performance is high, (http://mawhopon.net/ver_en/news-1868.html).
5. TALENT STRUCTURES
Maryland, the United States Education and Labor Committee, summarizes the highperformance areas of the talent structure - areas of talent - in general mental abilities: general
information - language ability - abstraction and meaning of concepts - ability to infer etc.
Specialized academic ability: high abilities in math or language achievement tests.
Leadership ability: ability to solve problems, high self-esteem, responsibility and
cooperation, the tendency to control, ability to negotiate, ability to guide others and their
policies. Creative and innovative ability: the ability to produce many good ideas or to
assemble elements that appear to be contradictory. Technical or performance skills: these
include special talents in various arts such as painting, literature, speech, poetry, etc. The
psychological capacities include the skilled use of psychosocial abilities or spatial or physical
skills, (http://mawhopon.net/ver_en/news-1868.html).
6. EXCELLENCE IN LANGUAGE
Superiority over his people, that is, surpass them and raise them, the Webster dictionary
states that the term "Gifted" refers to who has a natural ability or readiness, (Al-Shakhs, 1990,
p. 52).
7. EXCELLENCE AS A TERM
Possessing special abilities at some students qualify them to excel in certain scientific,
literary or artistic fields. According to Sternberg, the term "excellence" is used to refer to a
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Impact of Talent Structure on Architectural Design Excellence
distinct capability for solving problem. This requires the following three mental strategies:
Selective Combination means the distinction between important and non-important
information, Selective Combination, is the processing of information obtained through
coding, then merging that information or gathering in a new way, Selective Comparison,
which is the use of symmetry to link new information with old information (Sternberg1986).
8. EXCELLENCE STRUCTURES
Renzulli points out that excellence consists of the interaction of three sets of basic human
attributes: general above average capacities, high levels of commitment to task - motivation and high levels of creative capacity. The excellences are those who possess or have the ability
to develop and use this combination of attributes in any valuable field of human performance,
(http://www.arwan-center.com).
Diagram 1 Renzulli’s three- ringed conception of giftedness (Renzulli, 1987)
9. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN TALENT AND EXCELLENCE
Although talent in some field of human performance may not be accompanied by excellence
in overall capacity, but there is a very strong positive relationship between talent and
excellence among a large proportion of individuals. (Al-Khatib and Al-Hadidi, 1997, pp. 348,
349). The academic performance of excellence students is not always distinct. On this basis, it
becomes clear that a gifted student is not often classified as such only if his performance is
academically distinct, talented and excellence does not perform well on subjects. Different
studies have shown that their performance in social and public sciences is distinct, whereas in
mathematics it is not necessarily the case (Al-Khatib and Al-Hadidi, 1997, pp. 363-365).
10. THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN TALENT AND EXCELLENCE
We must distinguish here between the concept of excellence and the concept of talent. The
academic excellence is linked to the academic achievement through the courses. The superior
student can study the book of the course syllabus in a short time and then get high grades in
the course test and academic achievement. However, talent is an inherited mental capacity
that is not related to academic achievement, but these mental abilities require multiple factors
to grow at the highest levels of intelligence. One of influential factors is the motivating
family environment where parents are concerned with developing the student's mental
abilities through enrichment activities to reach the stage of excellence and the gift.
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Other factors include the stimulating environment of the school, where there are enriching
educational programs and attractive educational activities that develop the student's mental
abilities, thus reaching the stage of talent and achievement, and other factors that stimulate
and develop the abilities of the talented student, (Https: //www.hasanews).
The Canadian researcher Gagné presented a thoughtful theoretical model to distinguish
between talent and excellence for the first time in 1985. After reviewing the books, the
researcher concluded that there is evidence to justify the model he proposed to differentiate
between the concept of talent and the concept of excellence. The model includes three main
elements, each of which has several components: talent, public and private capabilities under
it; environmental and personal aids; excellence and its public and private fields. As Gagné is
classify talent into four areas of readiness or capacity: mental, creative, emotional, social and
psychological. While he confined the fields of excellence or superiority to five fields:
academic, technical, relationships with others, artistic, and sports. Environmental aids include
school, family and used detection methods, while personal aids include tendencies,
motivation, attitudes, etc. (http://www.almohobeen.org/165615.html).
Talent
Help Factors
Giftedness
Areas of Ability
General
Areas of Dexterity
Specific
General
Specific
Academic
Environmental aids
Mentality
Technical
Creativity
Personal aids
Emotionality
Sociality
Relations
Motivation
School
Trends
Family
Artistic
Psychological
Detection Methods
Sporty
Diagram 2 Gagné model to differentiate talent from excellence (Source: http:/Jarwan -center.com)
Gagné observed spontaneous or natural behaviors and other behaviors resulting from
structured training in which the environment played an important role, and gave many
examples of these behaviors, some of which are related to talent and others to excellence.
Gagné
differentiate
the
two
concepts
in
more
detail
by
saying
(http://www.almohobeen.org/165615.html):


Talent corresponds to the ability of above-average level, while excellence corresponds to
above-average performance.
The main component of talent is genetic while the main component of excellence is
environmental.
Talent is latent energy and activity or process and excellence is a product of this activity
or an achievement of that energy.
Talent is measured by standardized tests while excellence is seen on the ground.

Excellence involves a talent, not vice versa. The superior must be talented, not every talented


person is superior.
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11. MEASUREMENT OF TALENT
Researchers differ in how to measure and determine talent. While some tend to adopt
standardized IQ tests, special capacity tests, and academic proficiency, others emphasize
teachers' estimates, study past production, rely on parental opinions, or rely on more than one
source to identify talent. In addition, there is a difference between researchers in the level of
excellence that must be determined in the identification of talent or excellence, while some
tend to adopt the highest 5% in the overall practical capacity or special abilities of the person
in the group to which he belongs, and some say should be 1 %. That is, the difference
between the researchers is also about the reference group that responds to determine talent
and excellence (Johnson & Gorn, www.angelfire.com).
Traditionally, the measurement of giftedness for both psychological and educational
purposes has been based on IQ test performance. For example, Terman's (1925) extensive
studies of genius were all based on IQ test performance. Similarly, the identification of gifted
children in schools is often based solely on performance on the WISC-R or Stanford-Binet;
and if not based solely on these tests, they are at least the most heavily weighted components
in the battery.
This does not, of course, describe the complete situation since there is, in fact, a wide
range of instruments used in this identification process. Surveys of these measures are
available from Alvino, McDonnel, and Richert (1981) and Spina and Crealock (1985), and
the major categories of the instruments are listed in Table 1. Identification procedures are
sometimes based on the use of a single instrument and sometimes on sets of instruments,
(Hoge, & Renzulli,1991, p14).
Table 1 Major Types of Measures Used in the Identification of Gifted Students, (Hoge, &
Renzulli,1991, p15).
Individual IQ* Tests
Group IQ Tests
Standardized Achievement Tests
Standardized Personality Tests/Inventories
Tests of Creativity
Teacher Rating and Nomination Procedures
Parent Rating Procedures
*Intelligence quotient (IQ) or cognitive abilities test scores are also used to identify gifted
and talented students. While these tests provide information for the intellectual domain, these
tests are not as helpful in identifying someone with creative, leadership, or other abilities.
(Http:// www.nagc.org)
12. INTERNATIONALLY RECOGNIZED ARCHITECTURAL TALENT
STANDARDS
12.1. NATA test
National Aptitude Test in Architecture –NATA- is being conducted by the Council of
Architecture at national level for admissions to 5-year B.Arch. -Bachelor Degree in
Architecture- courses at all recognized institutions across India. NATA scores are used by
admissions authorities of different Government,Govt.Aided &Unaided schools/colleges of
Architecture. Exam comprises of Mathematics, General Aptitude and Drawing Test. The Test
measures the aptitude of the applicant for specific field of study, i.e. Architecture. The test
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measures drawing and observation skills, sense of proportion, aesthetic sensitivity and critical
thinking ability that have been acquired over a long period of time and that are related to
specific field of study, i.e. Architecture.
The Exam Pattern is as follows:
(https://www.tcyonline.com/exam-preparation-architecture-engineering-entrance-samplepapers/723164/architecture-nata)
12.2. AAT test
Architecture Aptitude test (AAT) is the test which is conducted jointly by 7 Zonal
Coordinating Indian Institutes of Technology (IITS) for the admission to the B.Arch.
Programme. This architecture program is only offered by IIT kharagpur and IIT Roorkee. For
the admission in the B.Arch. program, candidates must appear in the AAT which will be
conducted after the successful -JEE Advanced 2018. The entrants who will successfully
qualify the JEE Advanced will be eligible to appear in the Architecture Aptitude test 2018.
The qualified candidates need to register themselves on JEE Advanced portal for appearing in
the AAT 2018. The registration has begun after the announcement of JEE Advanced 2018.
The entrance examination for the Architecture has been held at the seven zonal
coordinating IITS. The aspirants had provided three (3) hours to complete the test. Also, no
separate Admit card was available for AAT 2018.The candidates had to produce their JEE
Advanced Admit card at the examination center. Therefore, it is important to retain the admit
card of JEE Advanced till the admissions in the B.Arch. program,
(https://admission.aglasem.com/jee-advanced-architecture-aptitude-test).
12.3. QAAT Test
OAAT (online architect aptitude test) consists of understanding the perspective views,
color schemes, 2-dimensional and 3-dimensional drawings and their transformations,
analytical reasoning, the ability to design & draw geometrical as well as abstract shapes &
patterns. Visualization through structuring objects in mind is an important skill too.
Architects must possess spatial intelligence for recognizing the image, knowing its
relationship to other surrounding objects and displaying the organizational structure of a
thought process. This aptitude helps architects in solving puzzles, figuring out maps, and
design for any type of construction or engineering project. Architect aptitude test helps you in
testing the aptitude of candidates before an interview. This architecture aptitude test is
designed & developed by global architecture experts as per industry standards. Test details :
The architect skills assessment helps you in identifying the candidates who have the passion
to design & draw with the creative & imaginative mind. The architecture aptitude test may
contain MCQ's (Multiple Choice Questions), MAQ's (Multiple Answer Questions), Fill in the
Blank, Descriptive, Whiteboard Questions, Audio / Video Questions, True or False .Test
Duration:
20
minutes
01Application
Questions(
,(https://www.interviewmocha.com/tests/architect-aptitude-test-assessment).
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12.4. Admission Exam test
The bachelor's degree examination is held by the Faculty of Architecture at the Arab
University of Beirut for a period of three hours and a grade of 80. It consists of three
questions:
- Question I. multiple choices 90 Minutes, 40 marks.
- Question I-A. General Knowledge.
- Question I-B. Spatial Reasoning.
- Question I-C. Inductive Reasoning.
- Question II. Free hand Drawing & Imagination skills (45 Minutes, 20 marks)
- Question III. Creativity skills 45 Minutes, 20 marks, (https://www.bau.edu.ib).
13. CRITERIA ADOPTED IN THE RESEARCH AND REASONS FOR
ACCREDITATION
The research was based on the National Aptitude Test in Architecture (NATA) on the talent
test for being comprehensive, objective and specialized based on general knowledge - spatial
thinking - inductive thinking - analytical thinking - free hand drawing and imagination skills creativity skills. Most of previous architectural tests-referred to above-adopts a similar pattern
of test questions.
A- Achievement Tests –theoreticalSections of this test:
1. Mental flexibility.
2. Linguistic inference.
3. Physical material.
4. Drawing.
5. Architecture.
6. Architectural inference.
B- Ability Tests –practicalSections of this test:
7. Various practical exercises on all six test areas of the talent, evaluative and diagnostic
tests applied to the classroom will be explained in the next paragraph.
14. PRACTICAL STUDY
14.1. Limitation
The practical study is based on a probability sample represented by students of the first stage
of the Department of Architecture - Duhok University.
14.2. Method
a) Students were tested for the first stage before the beginning of the academic year by
testing the architectural talent of the six structures approved by the research.
b) The results obtained for the students were confirmed in the Architectural Talent Test
with its six structures.
c) The test of the six structures was projected to the talent on the first stage curriculum
and not to interfere with the general approach of the department, where the
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1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
architectural design projects for the first stage were put in addition to the fixing results
for projects as follows:
Project of architectural forming associated with the structure of architectural inferred
represented by the variable X3 in the statistical study.
Project of 3D models associated with the structure of architecture represented by the
variable X5 in the statistical study.
Project of the draft of the graphic lines associated with the structure of drawing,
represented by the variable X2 in the statistical study.
Project of architectural texture associated with the structure of visual Physics
represented by the variable X1 in the statistical study.
Project of architectural elements associated with the structure of architectural
language represented by the variable X6 in the statistical study.
Project of the descriptive modeling associated with the structure of mental flexibility
represented by the variable X4 in the statistical study.
14.3. Statistics
The following statistical methods were used:
1. Frequency distribution and percentages / to describe the answers of the sample being
investigated.
2. The arithmetic mean / to determine the strength of the response in relation to the
search variables.
3. Standard deviation / to determine the degree of dispersion of the responses from the
arithmetic mean.
4. Simple linear correlation coefficient / to calculate the correlation between the degree
of each paragraph and the total degree of dimension.
5. Simple linear regression coefficient / to measure the effect of an explanatory variable
in the other respondent.
6. T-test/ to investigate the significance of differences between the computational
variables of the research variables when compared.
14.4. Application
Before starting the application, the hypothesis of research must be put forward, which is
based on a significant correlation between the talent of its constructs (architectural inferred,
architecture, drawing, physics, language, mental flexibility) and excellence.
Form -1- Demonstrate the test questions form. The test form consists of 40 questions,
with a total score of 100, in a maximum of one hour, and depends on the choice of multiple
options.
The research on the talent test was based on the system of distribution rates according to
the NATA test. The test score is 200 and consists of two parts: the theoretical test is 100
degrees and the minimum required is 40, the practical test is 100 degrees and the minimum
requirement is 66.7 or two thirds of the grade.
The research was based on the test of excellence in the requirements of the academic year
to complete the practical test.
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Form No -1
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Data analysis: talent test form is divided in terms of content into two main parts:
1st: The special structures: The drawing is symbolized by variable X2 - architecture is
symbolized by variable X5- Architectural inferred is symbolized by variable X3.
2nd: General structures: The mental flexibility is symbolized by variable X4 - Language
is symbolized by variable X6 - Physics is symbolized by variable X1.
Table 2, Diagram 3 show the percentages and values adopted for each of the six
structures. Table 3 shows the analysis of the results of the talent test for the six structures,
Table 4 shows the analysis of the results of the excellence test for the six structures.
Table 2 Analysis of the contents of theoretical talent test form and ratios (researchers)
Talent (X)
Field of
Science &
Knowledge
No. of
Question.
Number
Ratio
Total Q
X Value
General Structure (x22)
Specialized Structure (x11)
Mental
Cognitive
Physics Drawings Architecture
Architectural
flexibility
Language
(X1)
(X2)
(X5)
Inferred(x3)
(X4)
(X6)
Q2
Q4
Q3
Q 10
Q1
Q 14
Q 13
Q8
Q5
Q 11
Q6
Q 15
Q 35
Q 27
Q 19
Q 16
Q7
Q 17
Q 37
Q 38
Q 32
Q 18
Q9
Q 20
Q 33
Q 21
Q 12
Q 24
Q 34
Q 22
Q 25
Q 39
Q 23
Q 26
Q 29
Q 28
Q 30
Q 31
Q 36
Q 40
4
4
5
7
8
12
0.1
0.1
0.125
0.175
0.2
0.3
0.325
0.675
40
100
Diagram 3 Analysis of the contents of theoretical talent test form (researchers)
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Table 3 Analysis of the results of the theoretical talent test (researchers)
Names
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
X1
5
2.5
2.5
5
2.5
5
5
7.5
5
7.5
2.5
5
2.5
7.5
7.5
7.5
5
2.5
7.5
5
5
7.5
7.5
10
5
2.5
2.5
2.5
5
5
X2
10
12.5
15
10
5
7.5
10
12.5
12.5
2.5
7.5
10
5
7.5
5
7.5
5
7.5
10
12.5
7.5
12.5
5
5
7.5
10
2.5
7.5
7.5
2.5
X3
10
10
12.5
7.5
10
10
10
17.5
5
7.5
7.5
10
12.5
10
7.5
10
7.5
10
7.5
15
10
12.5
7.5
10
15
5
10
17.5
2.5
7.5
X4
5
2.5
2.5
7.5
2.5
5
0
2.5
0
5
5
2.5
2.5
2.5
0
2.5
2.5
2.5
5
0
2.5
5
2.5
2.5
2.5
0
2.5
0
5
2.5
X5
0
15
12.5
7.5
5
7.5
5
5
7.5
5
10
7.5
5
7.5
7.5
5
5
7.5
12.5
10
5
2.5
5
10
7.5
10
10
7.5
5
5
X6
0
5
5
0
5
2.5
2.5
5
5
2.5
2.5
5
7.5
2.5
7.5
5
0
2.5
0
2.5
7.5
2.5
0
0
2.5
2.5
2.5
0
5
2.5
X(total)100%
30
47.5
50
37.5
30
37.5
32.5
50
35
30
35
40
35
37.5
35
37.5
25
32.5
42.5
45
37.5
42.5
27.5
37.5
40
30
30
35
30
25
Table 4 Analysis of the results of the practical excellence test (researchers)
Names
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
Y1
1.1
8.1
0..1
8.1
1.8
1..
01.1
01.1
...
1.8
8.1
8.1
1..
00.5
5.1
1.5
1.1
Y2
8.1
5.1
00.1
01.8
5.1
0..1
00.1
01.1
1.0
8.1
8.1
1.0
01.8
01.1
01.1
1.1
1.1
Y3
8.8
0..1
0..1
8.1
00.1
0..1
01.0
01.1
1.0
1.1
0..1
0..1
0..1
0...
1.1
01.1
1.1
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Y4
1.0
01.1
0..1
01.1
00.1
0..1
01.1
01.8
0..0
00.1
0..0
01.8
00.1
0..1
0..1
01.1
01.1
653
Y5
1.0
01.1
0..0
0..1
0..1
01.8
0..0
01.8
1.1
00.1
00.1
01.1
01.1
0..0
0..1
00.1
00.1
Y6
00.1
0..1
0..1
00.1
5.1
0..1
00.1
0..1
01.1
8.1
0..1
01.1
00.1
0..1
00.1
01.1
8.1
Y(total)100%
50.1
68
79.6
64.3
56.8
70.3
70.3
84.3
53.3
55.6
66.5
67
69.1
77.6
60.1
59.3
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Names
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
Y1
8.1
01.1
8.1
01.8
8.1
8.1
1.5
01.1
5.1
1.1
5.1
1.5
8.1
Y2
1.0
1.1
8.1
1.0
8.1
1.1
8.1
01.1
01.1
8.1
8.1
1.1
1.0
Y3
01.8
01.1
0..8
01.8
1.1
0..1
00.1
01.1
01.1
1.0
01.8
1.1
1.1
Y4
0..1
01.1
0..1
00.1
00.1
0..1
01.1
01.1
01.8
01.8
0..0
5.1
5.1
Y5
01.1
0..1
0..1
01.1
0..1
01.8
01.1
01.1
01.8
1.0
00.1
8.1
1.1
Y6
00.1
01.1
01.1
00.1
1.1
5.1
01.1
01.1
8.1
8.1
0..1
01.1
8.1
Y(total)100%
65.1
62.5
67.3
68.9
56.8
62.8
60.5
70.6
57.8
51.1
64.8
46.3
46.6
14.5. Results
14.5.1. First: Talent test
The cases that obtained 40% degree or more are the following cases (2-3-8-12-19-20-22-25)
and the ratio 26.6% of the total number of cases. Table 5 and diagram 4 explains the result of
variable X represented by the talent, frequency distribution and percentages.
Table 5 shows the results of the test of the independent variable X which represents Talent
Value
Valid
100
25
27.5
30
32.5
35
37.5
40
42.5
45
47.5
50
Total
X - (independent variable)
Frequency
Percent
2
6.7
1
3.3
6
20.0
2
6.7
5
16.7
6
20.0
2
6.7
2
6.7
1
3.3
1
3.3
2
6.7
30
100.0
Valid Percent
6.7
3.3
20.0
6.7
16.7
20.0
6.7
6.7
3.3
3.3
6.7
100.0
Cumulative Percent
6.7
10.0
30.0
36.7
53.3
73.3
80.0
86.7
90.0
93.3
100.0
Diagram 4 results of the students' theoretical test of variable X, which represents talent
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Table 6 the results of the practical
Value
Valid
100
46.3
46.6
48.3
50.1
51.1
53.3
55.6
56.8
57.8
59.3
60.1
60.5
62.5
62.8
64.3
64.8
65.1
66.5
67
67.3
68
69.1
69.8
70.3
70.6
77.6
79.6
84.3
Total
Y- (dependent variable)
Frequency Percent
Valid Percent
1
3.3
3.3
1
3.3
3.3
1
3.3
3.3
1
3.3
3.3
1
3.3
3.3
1
3.3
3.3
1
3.3
3.3
2
6.7
6.7
1
3.3
3.3
1
3.3
3.3
1
3.3
3.3
1
3.3
3.3
1
3.3
3.3
1
3.3
3.3
1
3.3
3.3
1
3.3
3.3
1
3.3
3.3
1
3.3
3.3
1
3.3
3.3
1
3.3
3.3
1
3.3
3.3
1
3.3
3.3
1
3.3
3.3
2
6.7
6.7
1
3.3
3.3
1
3.3
3.3
1
3.3
3.3
1
3.3
3.3
30
100.0
100.0
Cumulative Percent
3.3
6.7
10.0
13.3
16.7
20.0
23.3
30.0
33.3
36.7
40.0
43.3
46.7
50.0
53.3
56.7
60.0
63.3
66.7
70.0
73.3
76.7
80.0
86.7
90.0
93.3
96.7
100.0
Second: test of excellence Cases that received 66.7% or two thirds of the degree and
above are all of the Cases: (2-3-6-7-8-12-13-14-20-21-25) Accounting for 36.6% of the total
number Cases, and table 6 in addition to diagram 5 shows the result of the Y variable of
redundancy and frequency distribution and percentages.
For the Y variable that represents the Superiority
Figure 5 the results of the students' practical test of the Y variable which represents Superiority
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Third: Talent and Excellence test
When overthrow results of the talent to excellence, it was found that the cases that
obtained 40% or above in the talent test, and the cases that scored 66.7% or above in the
excellence test are each of the following cases (2-3-8-12-20- 25) and their ratio 20.0% of the
total number of cases, and Table 7 in addition to the diagram 6 explains this.
Table 7 Comparison between the theoretical and practical test results
Students
Names
X (100)
Y (100)
Students
Names
X (100)
Y (100)
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
30
47.5
50
37.5
30
37.5
32.5
50
35
30
35
40
35
37.5
35
50.1
68
79.6
64.3
56.8
70.3
70.3
84.3
53.3
55.6
66.5
67
69.1
77.6
60.1
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
37.5
25
32.5
42.5
45
37.5
42.5
27.5
37.5
40
30
30
35
30
25
59.3
48.3
65.1
62.5
67.3
68.9
56.8
62.8
60.5
70.6
57.8
51.1
64.8
46.3
46.6
Diagram 6 Comparison between the theoretical and practical test results
Fourth: test the correlation strength between talent and excellence
•Values of the correlation between the indicators of talent and superiority variables
[X1Y1] [X2Y2] [X3Y3] - [X4Y4] [X5Y5] [X6Y6] for Pearson Correlation value and Sig
value are respectively [0.75, 0.347] [0.271, 0.074] [0.390, 0.017] [0.232-, 0.109]
[0.156,0.205] [0.233,0.119]. Table 8 in addition to diagram 7 explains this.
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Table 8 strength of the relationship between the indicators of the independent variable-talent
(X1, X2, X3, X4, X5, X6) and dependent variable indicators (Y1, Y2, Y3, Y4, Y5, Y6)
x1
x2
x3
x4
x5
x6
y1
y2
y3
y4
y5
y6
Pearson
Correlation
Sig. (1-tailed)
N
Pearson
Correlation
Sig. (1-tailed)
N
Pearson
Correlation
Sig. (1-tailed)
N
Pearson
Correlation
Sig. (1-tailed)
N
Pearson
Correlation
Sig. (1-tailed)
N
Pearson
Correlation
Sig. (1-tailed)
N
Pearson
Correlation
Sig. (1-tailed)
N
Pearson
Correlation
Sig. (1-tailed)
N
Pearson
Correlation
Sig. (1-tailed)
N
Pearson
Correlation
Sig. (1-tailed)
N
Pearson
Correlation
Sig. (1-tailed)
N
Pearson
Correlation
Sig. (1-tailed)
N
.076
30
30
.227
.114
30
.005
.489
30
.093
.013
.312
30
.474
30
.075
.370
.440
.347
30
.082
.333
30
.111
.279
30
.022
30
.007
30
.271
.425
.074
30
.010
30
.231
.390
.109
30
.017
30
.161
.423
.480
.198
30
.003
.495
30
.092
.314
30
.010
30
.004
30
.339
.561
.034
30
.001
30
Correlations
x4
x5
x6
.155
.255 .184
.207 .087 .166
30
30
30
.268 .093
.058
.380 .076 .312
30
30
30
.013
.227 .005
.114 .489 .474
30
30
30
1
.167 .277
.189 .069
30
30
30
1
.167
.002
.189
.496
30
30
30
1
.277 .002
.069 .496
30
30
30
.263 .259
.016
.467 .080 .083
30
30
30
.031 .249
.090
.319 .436 .092
30
30
30
.312 .144
.164
.193 .047 .224
30
30
30
.402
.232
.040
.109 .014 .416
30
30
30
.156 .226
.044
.409 .205 .115
30
30
30
.459
.419
.045
.235
.223
.495
.475
.349
.405
.438
1
.005
30
.011
30
.407
30
.105
30
.119
30
.003
30
.004
30
.029
30
.013
30
.008
30
30
x1
x2
1
-.099
30
.099
.302
30
.058
.381
30
.302
30
x3
.058
.381
30
1
.256
30
.086
30
.256
1
.086
30
.155
-.058
.207
30
.255
.087
30
.184
.166
30
.380
30
.268
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y1
.347
30
y2
.082
.333
30
y3
.111
.279
30
y4
y5
y6
.161
-.003
-.092
.198
30
.495
30
.314
30
.370
.271
.231
.423
.339
.459
.022
30
.074
30
.109
30
.010
30
.034
30
.005
30
.440
.425
.390
.480
.561
.419
.007
30
.016
.467
30
.010
30
.090
.319
30
.017
30
.164
.193
30
.004
30
.232
.109
30
.001
30
.011
30
-.044
.045
.409
30
.407
30
.263
.031
.312
.402
.156
.235
.080
30
.436
30
.047
30
.205
30
.105
30
.259
.249
.144
.226
.223
.083
30
.092
30
.224
30
.014
30
.040
.416
30
.115
30
.119
30
1
.619
.499
.503
.676
.495
30
.000
30
.002
30
.002
30
.000
30
.003
30
.619
1
.195
.314
.385
.475
.000
30
30
.151
30
.046
30
.018
30
.004
30
.499
.195
1
.573
.536
.349
.002
30
.151
30
30
.000
30
.001
30
.029
30
.503
.314
.573
1
.544
.405
.002
30
.046
30
.000
30
30
.001
30
.013
30
.676
.385
.536
.544
1
.438
.000
30
.018
30
.001
30
.001
30
30
.008
30
.075
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Diagram 7 strength of the correlation between the indicators of the independent variable-talent (X1,
X2, X3, X4, X5, X6) and dependent variable indicators (Y1, Y2, Y3, Y4, Y5, Y6)
• Values of the correlation between the indicators of talent variables and specialized and
general variance [X11Y11] [X22Y22] for Pearson Correlation and Sig values are respectively
[0.599,0.000] [0.125,0.511]. Table 9 in addition to diagram 8 explains this.
Table 9 strength of the relationship between the independent variable of talent (11x for specialized
knowledge fields and 22X for general knowledge fields) and the dependent variable of superiority
(Y11 for specialized knowledge fields and 22Y for general knowledge fields)
Correlations
X11
1
X11
X22
Y11
Y22
Pearson Correlation
Sig. (2-tailed)
N
30
Pearson Correlation
-.224
Sig. (2-tailed)
.233
N
30
Pearson Correlation
.599**
Sig. (2-tailed)
.000
N
30
Pearson Correlation
.719**
Sig. (2-tailed)
.000
N
30
**. Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).
X22
-.224
.233
30
1
30
.055
.775
30
.125
.511
30
Y11
.599**
.000
30
.055
.775
30
1
30
.825**
.000
30
Y22
.719**
.000
30
.125
.511
30
.825**
.000
30
1
30
Diagram 8 strength of the relationship between the independent variable of talent (11x for specialized
knowledge fields and 22x for general knowledge fields) and the dependent variable of superiority
(Y11 for specialized knowledge fields and 22Y for general knowledge fields)
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Table 10 the strength of the relationship between the independent variable X represented by the talent
and the Y variable of superiority
Correlations
x
1
Y
.726**
Pearson Correlation
Sig. (2-tailed)
N
30
Pearson Correlation
.726**
Sig. (2-tailed)
.000
N
30
**. Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).
x
Y
0.000
30
1
30
• The correlation values between the talent variable and superiority [XY] for Pearson
Correlation value and Sig value are [0.726.0.000]. Table 10 and Diagram 9 illustrate this.
Diagram 9 the strength of the relationship between the independent variable X represented by the
talent and the dependent variable Y of superiority
• Through the special comparison of variance analysis and the F-test, we find that the
value of Sig = 0.001 and the value F = 5.716 as shown in Table 11.
Table 11 the analysis of variance (special- comparison)
Model
Regression
Residual
Total
1
ANOVAb
Sum of Squares
df
Mean Square
564.989
6
94.165
378.910
23
16.474
943.899
29
a. Predictors: (Constant), x6, x5, x3, x1, x2, x4
b. Dependent Variable: Y
F
5.716
Sig.
.001a
• Through the general comparison of variance analysis and F-test we find that the value of
Sig = 0.000 and the value of F = 31.228 as shown in Table 12.
Table 12 the analysis of variance (general- comparison)
1
Model
Regression
Residual
Total
ANOVAb
Sum of Squares
df
Mean Square
497.674
1
497.674
446.225
28
15.937
943.899
29
a. Predictors: (Constant), x
b. Dependent Variable: Y
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F
31.228
Sig.
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• Through the special analysis of regression coefficient and T-test, we find that the value
of Sig respectively = 0.263, 0.147, 0.000, 0.381, 0.035, 0.066 and the value of T respectively
= 1.148, 1.501, 4.121, 0.893, 2.244, 1.929, as shown in Table 13.
Table 13 the regression coefficient X, Y in particular
Coefficientsa
Unstandardized Coefficients
Model
1
(Constant)
x1
x2
x3
x4
x5
x6
B0
B1
B2
B3
B4
B5
B6
B
15.542
1.076
.923
2.445
.969
1.477
1.656
Standardized
Coefficients
Beta
Std. Error
4.648
.937
.160
.615
.215
.593
.584
1.086
.129
.658
.324
.859
.272
a. Dependent Variable: Y
t
Sig.
3.344
1.148
1.501
4.121
.893
2.244
1.929
.003
.263
.147
.000
.381
.035
.066
• Through the general regression coefficient analysis and the T-test we find that the value
of Sig = 0.000 and the value T = 5.588, as shown in Table 14.
Table 14 the regression coefficient of X, Y in general
Coefficients
a
Unstandardized Coefficients
1
(Constant)
X
B0
B1
B
15.356
1.550
Standardized
Coefficients
Beta
Std. Error
4.060
.277
a. Dependent Variable: Y
.726
t
Sig.
3.783
5.588
.001
.000
15. DISCUSSION OF RESULTS
15.1. First: Correlation analysis
a. By comparing the value of the correlation sig> 0.05, we find a strong relationship- a
strong correlation and a significant effect - between the independent variable indicator
- the talent (X3) and the dependent variable indicator (Y3), which represents the
structures of architectural inferred and relation ranging between medium and weak
between the indicators of the variables. Table 8 and Figure 7 illustrate this.
b. By comparing the value of the correlation sig> 0.05, we find a strong relationship- a
strong correlation and a significant effect - between the independent variable of talent
(11X) and the dependent variable of superiority (Y11), which represent specialized
knowledge structures (architectural inferred-drawing-architecture), and we find a
weak relationship between (X22) and (Y22) for general cognitive structures (physics mental flexibility - language). Table 9 and Diagram 8 illustrate this.
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c.
By comparing the value of the correlation sig> 0.05, we find a strong correlation
between the independent variable of the talent structure X and the dependent variable
of the structure of superiority (Y). Table 10 and Diagram 9 Explain this.
15.2. Second: Analysis of variance
a. Through the special comparison of the variance analysis that the value of sig> 0.05,
we find a strong relationship between the talent variables X represented by (X1
physics - X2 drawing - X3 architectural inference - X4 mental flexibility - X5
architecture - X6 language) and the variable superiority Y, that is a strong correlation
and significant effect of the independent variable on the dependent, as shown in Table
11.
b. Through the general comparison of the variance analysis shows that the value of sig>
0.05 has a strong relationship between the independent variable X represented by the
structure of the talent and the dependent variable Y represented by the structure of
superiority, that is a strong correlation and significant effect of the independent
variable on the dependent, as shown in Table 12.
15.3. Third: regression analysis
a- Through the special analysis of regression, the sig value > 0.05 for both the X3
architecture and X5 architectural inferred of the talent variable, we find a strong
positive relationship between X3, X5 and Y superior variable. That is a strong
correlation of independent variable on the dependent, as shown in Table 13.
b- Through the general regression analysis shows that the value of sig> 0.05, we find
positive relation. There is a strong correlation and a significant effect of the variable
X on the variable Y, as shown in Table 14.
15.4. Fourth: Analysis of the graph
The cases (2-3-8-12-20-25) that to achieve talent and superiority test together, show a
positive effect between the structure of talent and the structure of excellence, and Table 7 in
addition to the diagram 6 shows that.
16. CONCLUSIONS
16.1. Conclusions related to the theoretical framework





Architectural education today has become a science has many of the techniques that the
teachers of architecture must recognize.
Talent is the most important tool for learning architecture, but it is not necessary to be
equal in all students applied for studying architecture.
Excellence in architectural specialization depends primarily on the specialized structures.
The difference between talent and excellence is in the essence as their structures
complement each other in an objective framework.
Talent and superiority in the case of a relationship. However, the superiority here in
learning architecture is the following of talent.
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16.2. Conclusions related to discussion of results
16.2.1. First: the conclusions related to correlation analysis
 The existence of a strong relationship in terms of mathematical correlation and moral
correlation between the structure of the talent of architectural inference and encoded
(X3), with the corresponding structure of excellence, which is the architectural
inference and encoded by (Y3) indicates that the architectural inferred is the most
important structure in recognizing the talent of students and their learning of
architecture and then excel in it.
 This conclusion is in essence a reflection of most of the studies that revolve around
this subject, which link architectural excellence to the structure of architectural
drawing. The importance of this structure lies in its definition, as defined by AlJarjani as providing evidence to prove the meaning (Al-Jerjani, 1983). It is one of the
types that reflect the representation in terms of similar between two things or two
cases a semi-facet between them, it is the process of extracting an answer or result
based on previously known information, namely, the solution of the problem through
the available information to unknown information. That is, the gifted student in
architecture is the one who uses the inference consciously or unconsciously in a
mental way through which the transition from known to the unknown directly, one
introduction and then one result or indirectly, that is more than one introduction and
then one result, and that the type of architectural inference is the image inference
which is concerned with the image of idea rather than the subject of idea.
16.2.2. Second: Conclusions on the analysis of variance
A section of talent structures - has a special effect and the other section has a general effect on architectural excellence.
16.2.3. Third: conclusions regarding regression analysis
Both the X3 (architecture structure) and X5 (architectural inferred) of the talent variable have
a strong influence on the Y variable. They should be focused on the study. Other indicators
X1, X2, X4 and X6 have a lower effect on the Y.
16.2.4. Fourth: The conclusions related to the analysis of the graph
The existence of the positive effect between the structures of the talent: Architectural
inference X3 - Architecture X5 - Drawing X2 - Physics X1 - Language X6 - Mental
flexibility X4, and structures of excellence: Architectural inference Y3 - Architecture Y5 Graphic Y2 - Optical physics Y1 - Architectural language Y6 - Mental flexibility Y4 , In
general indicates the validity of the research hypothesis in its construction.
17. RECOMMENDATIONS
Based on the correct scientific tests, including the test presented in this study to select the
competent to study architecture. Focus in the initial stages on the integration of talent
structures with the structures of excellence. Increase awareness of the structures of talent and
excellence of students and teachers in an integrated manner. Selection of architectural design
exercises appropriate and integrated with the structures of excellence on the one hand and
talent on the other.
http://www.iaeme.com/IJCIET/index.asp
662
[email protected]
Hawar Abdullah Yousif and Kadhim Fathel Khalil
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