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A STUDY ON TREATMENT OF INDUSTRIAL EFFLUENT (DYEING) USING MORINGA OLEIFERA, TAMARINA INDICA AS COAGULANTS

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International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET)
Volume 10, Issue 3, March 2019, pp. 550-565. Article ID: IJCIET_10_03_057
Available online at http://www.iaeme.com/ijciet/issues.asp?JType=IJCIET&VType=10&IType=3
ISSN Print: 0976-6308 and ISSN Online: 0976-6316
© IAEME Publication
Scopus Indexed
A STUDY ON TREATMENT OF INDUSTRIAL
EFFLUENT (DYEING) USING MORINGA
OLEIFERA, TAMARINA INDICA AS
COAGULANTS
Dr. A. Mani
Head, Department of Civil Engineering, Bharath Institute of Higher Education and Research
T.P. Meikandaan
Associate Professor, Department of Civil Engineering,
Bharath Institute of Higher Education and Research
P.G. Gowrishankar
PG Student, Bharath Institute of Higher Education and Research
Dr. T. E. Kanchanabhan
Professor, Department of Civil Engineering,
Bharath Institute of Higher Education and Research.
ABSTRACT
The doable utilization of common coagulants for the treatment of coloring waste
water in SIPCOT industry is abridged in this paper. The distinctive common
coagulants like Moringaoleifera, Tamarinaindica, Strychonomouspotatorum of 10,
20, 40, 60 ml doses will be utilized to recognize the appropriate one as essential
coagulant. To decide the ideal measurement of regular coagulants flocculation
procedure will be considered in lab. The different parameters, for example, pH,
turbidity, TSS, TDS, BOD, and COD will be dissected with coloring profluent by
including of regular coagulants. Results will be dissected to discover the best
characteristic coagulant for evacuation efficiencies concerning turbidity, TSS, TDS,
COD and BOD.
Keywords:
characteristic
Strychonomouspotatorum
coagulants,
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Moringaoleifera,
Tamarinaindica,
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A Study on Treatment of Industrial Effluent (Dyeing) using Moringa Oleifera, Tamarina Indica as
Coagulants
Cite this Article: Dr. A. Mani, T.P. Meikandaan, P.G. Gowrishankar and Dr. T. E.
Kanchanabhan, A Study on Treatment of Industrial Effluent (Dyeing) using Moringa
Oleifera, Tamarina Indica as Coagulants, International Journal of Civil Engineering
and Technology, 10(3), 2019, pp. 550-565.
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1. INTRODUCTION
1.1. Textile Industry
India is the world's second real producer of materials and pieces of clothing after china. The
material and article of clothing industry in India is one of the most established assembling
areas in the nation and is as of now it's biggest. The material and piece of clothing industry
satisfies a critical job in the Indian economy. As of late, it was seen that sipcot enterprises
were encountering extreme ecological issues because of material coloring, cowhide tanning,
paper and mash handling, ventures, and so forth.
Material industry includes wide scope of crude materials, apparatuses and procedures to
trap the required shape and properties of the last item. The primary driver of age of this
gushing is the utilization of gigantic volume of water either in the real substance handling or
amid re-preparing in preliminary, coloring, printing and wrapping up. Material wastewater
poisons are commonly burning soft drink, cleansers, starch, wax, urea, smelling salts, shades
and colors that expansion its BOD, COD, strong substance and poisonous quality.
The treatment strategies for waste-water incorporate enacted carbon adsorption,
oxidation, substance coagulation/flocculation, electrochemical strategies, layer methods and
natural treatment forms are much of the time used to treat material effluents. These
procedures are commonly proficient for Biochemical oxygen request (BOD) and suspended
solids (SS) evacuation, however they are to a great extent incapable for expelling shading
from the wastewater. Contingent upon the waste-water qualities, COD of a material
emanating can be decreased somewhere in the range of 50 and 70 % in the wake of
advancing the working conditions, for example, pH, coagulant and flocculants fixation.
Coagulation is a basic procedure in the treatment of modern wastewater. Its application
incorporates expulsion of broke up compound species and turbidity from water by means of
expansion of ordinary synthetic based coagulants, in particular alum, ferric chloride and
polyaluminium chloride. The inconveniences related with utilization of these coagulants, for
example, inadequate ness in low-temperature water, moderately high acquirement costs,
negative impacts on human wellbeing, generation of expansive muck volumes and the way
that they fundamentally influence pH of treated water. To neutralize the previously
mentioned downsides, it is lucky to reestablish these concoction coagulants with common
coagulants.
India is rich in water resources, having a network of as many as 113 rivers and vast
alluvial basins to hold plenty of groundwater. India is also blessed with snow capped peaks in
the Himalayan ranges, which can meet a variety of water requirement of the country.
However, with the rapid increase in the population of the country and to meet the increasing
demands of irrigation, domestic and industrial consumption, the available water resources in
many parts of the country are getting depleted and the water quality has deteriorated. The
most significant environment problem and threat to public health in both rural and urban
India is inadequate access to clean drinking water and sanitation facilities. Almost all the
surface water sources are contaminated to some extent by organic pollution and bacterial
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contamination and make them unfit for human consumption unless disinfected. The diseases
commonly caused by contaminated water are typhoid, cholera, gastroenteritis, bacterial
dysentery, hepatitis, poliomycitis, amoebic dysentery etc. In India, water pollution comes
from three main sources: domestic sewage, industrial effluents and run off from agriculture.
Rapid industrialization is adversely impacting the environment globally. Pollution by in
appropriate management of industrial wastewater is one of the major environment problems
in India as well, especially with burgeoning small-scale industrial sector in the country.
It is estimated that 22,900 Million Liters per Day (MLD) of domestic wastewater is
generated from urban centers and about 13,500 MLD from industrial sector. The treatment
capacity available for domestic wastewater is only for 5,900 MLD where as 8,000 MLD in
case of industrial wastewater. To address the pollution coming out from industries, adoption
of cleaner production technologies and waste minimization initiatives are being encouraged.
Presently, 6.2 billion liters of untreated industrial wastewater is generated every day that
causes pollution and reduces available freshwater reserves. This necessitates that government
should take initiatives and encourage large industries to set up their own treatment plants to
reduce the wastewater by reusing the treated water for industrial purposes. Thermal power
and steel plants are the highest generators of industrial wastewater followed by textile and
food processing industry.
Common Effluent Treatment Plants (CETPs) are considered as one of the viable solution
for small to medium enterprises for effective wastewater treatment. Wastewater generated by
small and medium industries need to be transported to the Common Effluent Treatment Plant
(CETP) by pumping of effluent from these industries. The effluent through pumping stations
initially reaches a stilling/inlet chamber, after which it flows into the oil and grease (O&G)
chamber for removing these from the wastewater, using a skimming mechanism. During this
process, air and chlorine are injected into the chamber and the separated oil and grease is then
disposed. Wastewater moves from the O&G chamber to be collected in the screen chamber
for removal of floating materials in the effluent. Apart from floating materials and O&G, the
effluent also contains solid particles like grit and sand.
The treatment process is a multifaceted task that needs to be planned and controlled in a
sequential manner in order to meet the required discharge standards. Plant is designed to meet
the specific demands of wastewater to be treated. The treatment processes for various
effluents originating from different industrial sources are different. However, in India many
of the operating CETPs are not performing optimally due to various technical and managerial
reasons.
Physic-chemical treatment of wastewater was widely practiced until the late 19th century,
until the advent of the trickling filter for biological treatment. The early 1970s saw a partial
revival of interest that has continued to the present day, particularly for treatment plants that
are overloaded during peak flow events. The addition of coagulant chemicals to primary
clarifiers, or to other dedicated physical separation process, is a effective way of reducing the
load to downstream biological process, or in some cases for direct discharge. This practice is
generally referred to as chemically enhanced primary treatment, or CEPT. Principle
disadvantages that might preclude a wholly physic-chemical solution to wastewater treatment
are the problems associated with the sludge produced, and the high operating costs of
chemical addition. However, much of the current interests in physic-chemical treatment stem
from its suitability for treatment under emergency measures; for seasonal applications, to
avoid excess wastewater discharges during storm events; and for primary treatment before
biological treatment, where the above disadvantages become lesser impact.
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CEPT can also be an effective first step for pollution control in developing countries
particularly in large urban area that has evolved with sewerage system but without centralized
waste water treatment, that have limited financial resources for complete, but capitalintensive biological treatments options such as activated sludge systems.
Such urban development’s also may not have the areas available for appropriate
technology options such as stabilization pond processes. The efficiency of CEPT, in terms of
BOD or COD removal, depends on waste water characteristics. With CEPT, one can expect
to remove particulate components, together with some portion of the colloidal components.
Therefore, with such a waste water, it is feasible to achieve removals of more than: 95% TSS:
65% COD: 50% BOD: 20% Nitrogen and 90% phosphorus.
In practice, removals may be lower or higher, for example: in warmer climates, with
larger collection systems, and relatively flat sewers, one would expect a higher soluble
fraction, and lower overall removals with CEPT. On the other hand, if the collection system
is relatively small, the climate is cold, and waste water is relatively fresh, there may be a
higher proportion of particulate material and CEPT removals could be higher. Staged
coagulation- flocculation can enhance CEPT performance.
1.2. Textile and Dye Industry
Dyes and textile industry are one of the most important and continuously developing
industrial sector especially in India. The textile is classified into three main categories:
cellulose fibres (cotton, rayon, linen, ramie, hemp and lyocell), protein fibres (wool, angora,
mohair, cashmere and silk) and synthetic fibres (polyester, nylon, spandex, acetate, acrylic,
ingeo and polypropylene). The type of dyes and chemicals used in the textile industry are
found to differ depending on the fabrics manufactured. Reactive dyes (remazol, procion MX
and cibacron F), direct dyes (congo red, direct yellow 50 and direct brown 116), naphthol
dyes (fast yellow GC, fast scarlet R and fast blue B) and indigo dyes (indigo white, tyrian
purple and indigo carmine) are some of the dyes used to dye cellulose fibres. Protein fibres
are dyed using acid dyes (azo dyes, triarylmethane dyes and anthraquinone dyes) and lanaset
dyes (Blue 5G and Bordeaux B).
Other dyes, like dispersed dyes (Dispersed yellow 218 and disperse navy 35), basic dyes
(basic orange 37 and basic red 1) and direct dyes are used to dye synthetic fibres.During the
dying process, the dye is dissolved into the process water and it is still there when the process
water later is released as effluent. The effluent contains high content of dyestuffs, surfactants
and other additives that are generally made up of organic compounds with a complex
structure. The dissolved dye compounds of the effluent or resistant to light, acids, bases and
oxygen, as these are the desired properties of the dyed clothes.
It’s therefore difficult to treat textile wastewater with conventional methods as these
organic compounds have poor bio-degradability. The colour wastewaters of these industries
are harmful to the aquatic life in the rivers and lakes due to reduced light penetration and the
presence of highly toxic metal complex dyes. The main environmental concern of textile
wastewater lies in the dissolved organic dye compounds as some of them are aromatics and
considered carcinogenic, also it consumes huge volumes of processed water and produces
highly polluted colour wastewater. Removal of these pollutants require strategies for
selecting most appropriate method/methods from physic-chemical treatment, bio oxidation,
biological treatment, activate sludge treatment, micro filtration, coagulation, flocculation
process, Fenton oxidation, adsorption, electrochemical oxidation and electro coagulation,
cavitations etc. Among these, coagulation flocculation has historically attracted considerable
attention for its high removal efficiency. For the treatment of dyes/textile industry
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wastewater, biological treatment, chemical treatment and combinations of these are used. In
wastewater treatment plants utilising biological treatment rather than chemical processes is
largely ineffective. It is therefore imperative that process intensification be explored by
enhancing existing treatment processes using new materials methods/ processes.
1.3. Coagulates and Coagulation Mechanisms
Conventional chemical coagulants, namely alum, ferric chloride and Poly Aluminium
Chloride (PAC) etc are used for the treatment of wastewater from various industries like
tannery, textile, meat processing and so on. But the disadvantages associated with chemical
coagulants include high operation costs, ineffectiveness in low temperature water, large
sludge volume, significant effect on pH of the waste water and studies have reported that.
Inorganic coagulants have several ecotoxicological impacts and when released into the
aquatic systems may continue to cycle between the sediments. However, some studies have
reported that aluminium that remains in the water after coagulation may induce Alzheimer’s
disease.
In view of the limitations of chemical coagulants and the possibility of serious threat to
public health arising due to biological amplification, it is instructive to design and develop
alternative coagulants that are environment friendly, inexpensive and practically
implementable.
1.4. Natural Coagulants
Polymer coagulants can be cationic, anionic or non-ionic, in which the former two are
collectively termed as polyelectrolytes. Many studies concerning natural coagulants referred
to them as polyelectrolyte’ even through many of these studies did not actually conduct indepth chemical characterization to determine their ionic activity. As such, this term should be
used carefully and be applies only after ionic activity is determined to be present in the
coagulant. Natural coagulants are mostly either polysaccharides or proteins.
In many cases, even though polymer labeled as non- ionic are not necessarily absent of
charged interactions, as there may be interactions between the polymer and a solvent within a
solution environment as the polymer may contain partially charged groups including OHalong its chain.
It is imperative to fully grasp the underlying coagulation mechanism associated with these
natural coagulants so that complete underlying of their usage can be realized.
Aggregation of particles in a solution can occur via four classic coagulation mechanisms:
a) double layer compression b) sweep flocculation c) adsorption and charge neutralization
and d) adsorption and inter particle bridging. The presence of salts (or suitable coagulants)
can cause compression of the double layer which destabilizes the particulates. Sweep
flocculation occurs when a coagulant encapsulates suspended particulates with oppositely
charged ions while inter particle bridging occurs when a coagulant provides polymeric chain
which sorbs particles.
In this present study, three types of natural material were selected from which the
coagulant is to be prepared. They are Moringaoleifera, Tamarinaindica and
Strychonomouspotatorum.
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1.5. Merits of Natural Coagulants
The main advantage of using natural coagulants as waste treatment material are mentioned in
the Table 1.1 the advantages are especially augmented if the plant from which the
coagulation is extracted in indigenous to rural community.
Usage of natural coagulant for treatment of textile waste water being new and prominent
way in removal of dye from the effluent wastewater.
Table 1.5 ADVANTAGES OF USING NATURAL COAGULANT
Parameters
Cost
Toxicity
Corrosiveness
Sludge characteristics
pH
Fragrance
Conventional Chemical
Coagulants
Sustainable and economical
Complex and expensive
Nontoxic to environment
Highly toxic
Noncorrosive to the materials Highly corrosive due to alkalinity
Small amount of
Large amount of hazardous &nonnonhazardous& biodegradable
biodegradable sludge
sludge
Do not alter the pH of water
More changes in pH due to
under treatment
metallic
salts
Acts as a deodorant agent
Offensive odour due to
forming insoluble complexes
decomposed chemicals in the
with organic species
sludge
Natural Coagulants
1.6. Dye Processing
Modern dyeing technology consists of several step selected according to the nature of the
fibre and properties of the dyes and pigments for use in fabrics, such as chemical structure,
classification, commercial availability, fixing properties compatible with the target material
to be dyed, economic considerations and many others.
Dyeing methods have not changed much with time. Basically water is used to clean, dye
and apply auxiliary chemicals to the fabrics, and also to rinse the treated fibres or fabrics.
The dyeing process involves three steps: preparation, dyeing and finishing, as follows.
1.6.1. Dye Wastewater
Textile dyeing industry is one of the most water consuming industries after thermal,
engineering pulp and paper industries. In India water consumed by textile industries in the
year of 2010 was around 1900 mm3(Million cubic meters) and effluent water generated was
around 75 per cent of its intake.
As the textile industry is one of the most water consuming industries in the country. The
dye stuff lost in the textile industry poses a major problem to wastewater sources and indeed,
textile industry produces high levels of dye and floating solid materials.
It is estimated that 5000 tons of dyeing materials are discharged into the environment
every year. These poisonous materials absorb the oxygen of the water and his risen much as
it threatens human life and the environment. Industrial wastewaters contain various kinds of
toxic substances such as cyanides, alkaline cleaning agents, degreasing solvents, oil, fat, and
metals.
A chain of operations involving receiving and storing of raw materials, processing of raw
materials into finished products, packed and storing of finished products, and a group of other
operations will produce wastewater. In the textile industry, some amount of wastewater gets
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produced during starting, equilibrating, dyeing and rinsing of the processing units. Dyeing
processing effluents are generated in an intermittent way and the flow rates of these effluents
change significantly. The quantity of the product content in the dyeing wastewater at a given
time changes with the application of another technological cycle in the processing line.
1.6.2. Treatment of Dyeing Effluent
The highly variable nature of dyeing wastewaters in terms of volumes and flow rates and in
terms of pH and total dissolved solids content makes the choice of an effective wastewater
treatment regime difficult. Because dyeing wastewaters are highly biodegradable, they can be
effectively treated with biological wastewater treatment systems, but can pose a potential
environmental hazard if not treated properly.
1.7. Objective of the Study
The main aim of this present study is,
1. To characterize the dyeing wastewater.
2. To characterize the natural coagulant using analytical techniques.
3. To determine the optimum coagulant dosage using analytical techniques.
4. To determine dye removal efficiency in terms of BOD &COD removal.
5. To perform optimization by varying parameters such as pH, settling time.
1.8. Scope of the Study
Dyeing wastewater has been associated with the increased incidence and severity of aquatic
life. Textile dyes contamination in surface and ground water is becoming a growing issue due
to excessive usage. The dyes contaminated wastewater leads to various range of
environmental and health effects. So, this study scopes to find out an efficient solution for the
treatment of textile dyes contaminated water using coagulants which is locally available and
found to be economical.
2. LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1. Introduction
The importances of treatment of the textile wastewater along with their effects were
discussed in the previous chapter. The current chapter revels the various research work
carried out so far nationally and internationally on application of natural coagulants to
remove the dye. The conclusions about using natural coagulant and its efficiencies are also
discussed in this chapter.
2.2. MoringaOleifera Seed Extract-Among Other Natural Coagulants
Jesu’sbeltra’n-Heredia et al (2008) and ArunkantiGubaandAshraful Islam (2013) and
TasneembanuKazi, ArjunVirupakshi, (2013) researched the ability of Moringaoleifera seed
extract-among other natural coagulants-to remove several different types of dyes has been
researched. Moringaoleifera has been demonstrated to have high removal ability for anionic
dyes. This study was particularly focused on testing the removal of an azo dye such as
Chicago Sky Blue 6B (CSB).
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2.3. Coagulants/Flocculation in Order to Remove TheColour and Turbidity of
Raw Water
GrasieleScaramalMadrona (2010) andAboulhassan M.A, Souabi S, Yaacoubi A and Bauda
(2006) SyedaAzeemUnnisa, PunamDeepthi and Khaggamukkanti, (2012) investigated by
using several coagulants/flocculation in order to remove the colour and turbidity of raw
water, employing natural ones demonstrated advantages in relation to chemicals.
Moringaoleifera Lam was a natural polymer that has been gaining prominence in water
treatment. It acts as a clarifying agent, providing a cationic protein that destabilizes the
particles contained in a liquid medium.
2.4. Textile Wet Processing
OnetCrisian (2010) and Hemapriya G et al (2015) andGeethaPriya P, and Sharpudhin J
(2016) Choy S.Y (2015) AsrafuzzamanMd, Fakhruddin A.N.M, and AlamgirHossainMd,
(2011) investigated that the textile industry occupies a unique place in our country. During
textile wet processing, a large volume of wastewater is released. Though various physicochemical and biological treatment methods are employed for the removal of organic
contaminants present in the textile wastewater.
3. METHODOLOGY
3.1. Description of Study Area
The study area selected is SIPCOT industries located in Perungudi. The effect of contact
time, pH is tob e studied. (T E Kanchanabhan et al, 2011)
3.2. Methodology of Experiments
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4. MATERIALS
4.1. Collection of Natural Coagulants
Moringaoleifera seeds were gathered from Erode showcase. The seeds are permitted to dry in
the research facility broiler at a temperature of 50 °C for 24 h. A rice husk evacuating
machine was utilized to expel the structures and wings from the pieces. The pieces were
ground in to medium fine powder with residential sustenance blender.
Tamarinaindica seeds utilized in this examination was collectedfrom the kitchen as a
waste material. It was absorbed water for 1 h to expel the following mash, washed well with
faucet water and after that with twofold refined water, dried in an air broiler at 110 °C for 1 h,
micronized in a four mill15.
Strychonospotatorum seeds were gathered from thelocal showcase in Erode city.
Strychonos seeds, because of their hard structure, couldn't be powdered in a processor. The
seeds were kept inundated in 50 mL water containing 2mL conc. HCl. Following seven days,
the blend was squashed to a soup-like arrangement, which was washed through a nylon fabric
and the material held on the material was broiler dried for 24 h at 103 to 105 °C and gauged.
4.2. Preparation of Coagulant Stock Solution
Develop seeds hinting at no staining, relaxing or extraordinary drying up were utilized. The
seed pieces of M.oleifera, T. indicaand S. Potaturumwere ground to fine powderof estimated
size 600 µm to accomplish solubilization of dynamic fixings in the seed. Faucet water was
added to the powder to make 2 % suspension (2 g of M. oleifera, T. indica and S.
Potaturumpowder in 100 mL water).The suspension wasvigorously shaken for 0.5 h utilizing
an attractive stirrer to advance water extraction of the coagulant proteins and this was then
gone through Whatman no. 1 channel paper. Crisp arrangements were arranged every day
and kept refrigerated to keep any age-ing impacts. Arrangements were shaken vigorously
before use.
4.3. Physico-Chemical Parameters
pH, COD, Total Solids, Total Suspended Solids, Dissolved Solids, were analyzed as per
norms.
4.4. Optimization of Natural Coagulants Dosage using Jar Test
The improvement for M.oleifera, T.indica, S. Potatorumand alum measurement were
performed utilizing the container test mechanical assembly. The mechanical assembly
allowed four measuring utencils to be upset all together. 0.5 L of material wastewater were
dosed with 10, 20, 40, 60 and 80 mL of common coagulants were blended quickly for 10 min
at 180 rpm, trailed by 10 min moderate mixing for flocculation. The coagulant dose can be
chosen relying upon the turbidity of wastewater. Floc forma-tion can be watched all through
this time.
Flocs were allowed to make due with one hour before acquired for tests investigation.
These techniques are performed for a few times so the ideal pH and dose of coagulant can be
determined. In the wake of settling, 30 mL of the example was taken from the center of every
measuring utencil utilizing a pipette and set in little container for further investigation.
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5. RESULT
5.1. Treatment of Dyeing Effluent by Natural Coagulants
An underlying test was done to decide the fundamental qualities of material profluent for the
viability of the Moringaoleifera, Tamarandusindica, Strychnouspotatorum as a coagulant.
The qualities of crude material profluent was organized beneath
Table 5.1 Characteristics of Raw Textile Effluent
Parameters
pH
TURBIDITY, NTU
TSS(mg/l)
TDS(mg/l)
BOD(mg/l)
COD (mg/l)
Value
9.73
5700
5450
3235
765
2100
5.2. Effect of Floc Formation on Dosage of Natural Coagulants
Coagulants actions onto colloidal particles take place through charge neutralization of
negatively charged particles. If the charge neutralization is the predominant mechanisms a
stochiometric relation can be established between the particle’s concentration and coagulant
optimal dose.
5.2.1. Determination of Optimal Dosage by Moringaoleifera
The Moringaoleifera powder is added as natural coagulant to find the optimal dosage level by
varying the coagulant dosage range from 10 mg/l to 80mg/l.
Table 5.2 Optimum Dosage of M.oleifera Coagulant
Dosage(mg/l)
10
20
40
60
80
Floc Formation in %
43.02
52.15
63.21
54.76
36.09
5.2.2. Determination OfOptimal Dosage by TamarindusIndica
The Tamarindusindica powder is added as natural coagulant to find the optimal dosage level
by varying the coagulant dosage range from 10 mg/l to 80mg/l.
Table 5.3 Optimum Dosage of T.indica Coagulant
Dosage(mg/l)
10
20
40
60
80
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Floc Formation in %
28.03
36.23
49.21
57.36
25.89
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5.2.3. Determination of Optimal Dosage by Strychnouspotatrum
The Strychnouspotatrum powder is added as natural coagulant to find the optimal dosage
level by varying the coagulant dosage range from 10 mg/l to 80mg/l.
Table 5.4 Optimum Dosage of S.potatrum Coagulant
Dosage(mg/l) Floc Formation in %
10
21.34
20
36.37
40
42.89
60
53.54
80
37.25
Figure 5.1 Optimal Dosages by Natural Coagulants
The Fig 5.1 illustrates the optimum dosage 40ml solution of M.oleifera produces 63.21%
of flocs when it agitated with the textile effluent. Subsequently 10,20,60,80 ml dosages of
M.oleifera generates 43.02%, 52.15%, 54.76%, 36.09% offlocs with respect to their
corresponding dosages. It was evidently understood that T.indica solution produces 57.36%
of flocformation at 60 ml of solution and has been designated as the optimum coagulant
dosage. 28.03%, 36.23%, 49.21%, 25.89% of floc was achieved by 10,20,40 and 80 ml
dosages of T.indica solutions. The jar test apparatus data articulate that on all dosage of
S.potatorum produces 53.54% of the floc is optimum for 60 ml dosage. 21.34%, 36.37%,
42.89% and 37.25% of floc were produced with respect to 1,20,40 and 80 ml dosages.
5.3. Effect of Ph on the Removal of Turbidity using Natural Coagulants
To determine the pH of each coagulant added solution in order to take the optimal dosage
level of each coagulant added solution and varying the pH range to find the optimal level of
pH.
5.3.1. Determination of pH by Moringaoleifera
The Moringaoleifera powder is added as natural coagulant to find the optimal pH level by
varying the pH range from 3 to 10.
Table 5.5 Optimum pH of M.oleifera Coagulant
pH
3
6
7
8
10
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Turbidity Removal %
61.20
72.15
82.10
74.26
66.69
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5.3.2. Determination of pH by Tamarindusindica
The Tamarindusindica powder is added as natural coagulant to find the optimal pH level by
varying the pH range from 3 to 10.
Table 5.6 Optimum pH of T.indicaCoagulant
pH
3
6
7
8
10
Turbidity Removal %
52.70
65.58
80.80
68.73
62.61
5.3.3. Determination of pH by S.potatarum
The Strychnouspotatorum powder is added as natural coagulant to find the optimal pH level
by varying the pH range from 3 to 10.
Table 5.7 Optimum pH of S. potatorumCoagulant
pH Turbidity Removal %
3
54.31
6
69.73
7
81.45
8
66.15
10
56.39
Figure 5.2 Optimal pH by Natural Coagulants
The impact of pH esteem on the expulsion of turbidity utilizing M.oleifera, T.indica, and
S.Potatorum as a coagulant is appeared in figure 5.2.
The volume of material emanating that has been utilized was 500ml, while the ideal dose
of M.oleifera was taken as 40ml and 60ml for T.indica and S.Potatorum. It tends to be clearly
observed that the ideal scope of pH in term of rate evacuation of turbidity is 7. In the present
work it is prescribed that the pH estimation of 7 is the best regarding turbidity which are
observed to be around 82.10%, 80.80% and 81.40% individually when M.oleifera , T.indica
and S.Potatorum is utilized as a coagulant in coagulation process.
5.4. Effect of Natural Coagulants on the Removal of TDS
Analysis carried out on textile effluent before treatment showed that the values of total
dissolved solids (TDS) on the raw sample were 3235 mg/l.
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The Moringaoleifera powder is added as natural coagulant on the removal of TDS. In
order to find out the removal efficiency of TDS by adding M.oleifera as a coagulant to take
the optimal dosage level as 40 mg/l of waste water. The reduction on TDS in case of 40ml
dosage of M.oleifera is 70.51 %.
The Tamarindusindica powder is added as natural coagulant on the removal of TDS. In
order to find out the removal efficiency of TDS by adding T.indica as a coagulant to take the
optimal dosage level as 60 mg/l of waste water. The reduction on TDS in case of 60ml
dosage of T.indica is 41.85 %.
The Strychonospotatorum powder is added as natural coagulant on the removal of TDS.
In order to find out the removal efficiency of TDS by adding S.Potatorum as a coagulant to
take the optimal dosage level as 60 mg/l of waste water. The reduction on TDS in case of
60ml dosage of S.Potatorum is 52.30 %.
80
Removal
Efficiency
%
60
40
20
0
M.oleifera
T.indica S.potatorum
Figure 5.3 Effect of Natural coagulant on the removal of TDS
5.5. Effect of Natural Coagulant on the Removal of Tss
The Moringaoleifera powder is added as natural coagulant on the removal of TSS was
determined. In order to find out the removal efficiency of TSS by adding M.oleifera as a
coagulant to take the optimal dosage level as 40 mg/l of waste water. The reduction on TSS
in case of 40ml dosage of M.oleifera is 80.56%.
The Tamarindusindica powder is added as natural coagulant on the removal of TSS was
determined. In order to find out the removal efficiency of TSS by adding T.indica as a
coagulant to take the optimal dosage level as 60 mg/l of waste water. The reduction on TSS
in case of 60ml dosage of T.indica is 77.28%.
The Strychonospotatorum powder is added as natural coagulant on the removal of TSS
was determined. In order to find out the removal efficiency of TSS by adding S.Potatorum as
a coagulant to take the optimal dosage level as 60 mg/l of waste water. The reduction on TSS
in case of 60ml dosage of S.Potatorum is 75.72 %.
Removal
Efficien
cy %
82
80
78
76
74
72
M.oleifera
T.indica
S.potatorum
Figure 5.4 Effect of Natural coagulant on the removal of TDS
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5.6. Effect of Natural Coagulant on the Removal of Bod
The Moringaoleifera powder is added as natural coagulant on the removal of BOD was
determined. In order to find out the removal efficiency of BOD by adding M.oleifera as a
coagulant to take the optimal dosage level as 40 mg/l of waste water. The reduction on BOD
in case of 40ml dosage of M.oleifera is 72.29%.
The Tamarindusindica powder is added as natural coagulant on the removal of BOD was
determined. In order to find out the removal efficiency of BOD by adding T.indica as a
coagulant to take the optimal dosage level as 60 mg/l of waste water. The reduction on BOD
in case of 60ml dosage of T.indica is 57.52%.
The Strychonospotatorum powder is added as natural coagulant on the removal of BOD
was determined. In order to find out the removal efficiency of BOD by adding S.potatorum as
a coagulant to take the optimal dosage level as 60 mg/l of waste water. The reduction on
BOD in case of 60ml dosage of S.Potatorum is 65.36 %.
80
Remov
al
Efficien
cy %
60
40
20
0
M.oleifera
T.indica
S.potatorum
Figure 5.5 Effect of Natural coagulant on the removal of BOD
5.7. Effect of Natural Coagulant on the Removal of Cod
The Moringaoleifera powder is added as natural coagulant on the removal of COD was
determined. In order to find out the removal efficiency of COD by adding M.oleifera as a
coagulant to take the optimal dosage level as 40 mg/l of waste water. The reduction on COD
in case of 40ml dosage of M.oleifera is 79.34%.
The Tamarindusindica powder is added as natural coagulant on the removal of COD was
determined. In order to find out the removal efficiency of COD by adding T.indica as a
coagulant to take the optimal dosage level as 60 mg/l of waste water. The reduction on COD
in case of 60ml dosage of T.indica is 68.90%.
The Strychnouspotatorum powder is added as natural coagulant on the removal of COD
was determined. In order to find out the removal efficiency of COD by adding S.potatorum
as a coagulant to take the optimal dosage level as 60 mg/l of waste water. The reduction on
COD in case of 60ml dosage of S.potatorum is 72.71 %.
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85
80
Remov
al
Efficien
cy %
75
70
65
60
M.oleifera
T.indica S.potatorum
Figure 5.6 Effect of Natural coagulant on the removal of COD
6. CONCLUSION
6.1. General Conclusion
The coloring emanating gathered from passing on industry was broke down for the different
parameters, where in turbidity, TSS, BOD and COD were in predominant points of
confinement and sought after of end. The practicality in the treatment of coloring profluent
utilizing characteristic coagulants like Moringaoliefera, Tamarinaindica and
Strychonouspotatorum had been taken for examination.
6.2. Experimental Conclusion
Ideal measurement for most astounding rate decrease in TSS,TDS,BOD and COD utilizing
M.oliefera, T.indica, S.Potatorum was observed to be 40 and 60ml.When M.oliefera, T.indica
and S.potatorum was utilized as a coagulant regarding rate evacuation of turbidity, pH
estimation of 7 was the most suitable and were observed to be around 82.1% ,80.8% and
81.4% respectively.AS contrasted with T.indica and S.potatorum it was seen from acquired
information that M.oliefera has greater capacity for the expulsion of TDS and TSS.
M.oliefera has progressively potential pursued by S.Potatorum and T.indica to expel the BOD
and COD. Moringaoliefera gives the promising expulsion productivity among the two
characteristic coagulants chose for examination. Thus, it is prescribed to use the regular
coagulants Moringaolifera for the treatment of coloring emanating.
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Coagulants
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