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BEHAVIOUR OF CONCRETE INCORPORATING TIREDERIVED CRUMB RUBBER AGGREGATE

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International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET)
Volume 10, Issue 04, April 2019, pp. 1983–1991, Article ID: IJCIET_10_04_207
Available online at http://www.iaeme.com/ijmet/issues.asp?JType=IJCIET&VType=10&IType=4
ISSN Print: 0976-6308 and ISSN Online: 0976-6316
© IAEME Publication
Scopus Indexed
BEHAVIOUR OF CONCRETE
INCORPORATING TIREDERIVED CRUMB
RUBBER AGGREGATE
Firas F. Jirjees
Road Construction Department, Erbil Technology Institute,
Erbil Polytechnic University, Erbil, Iraq
Shelan M. Maruf
Road Construction Department, Erbil Technology Institute,
Erbil Polytechnic University, Erbil, Iraq
Ahmed R. Abdul Rahman
Surveying Department, Erbil Technology Institute,
Erbil Polytechnic University, Erbil, Iraq
Khaleel H. Younis
Road Construction Department, Erbil Technology Institute,
Erbil Polytechnic University, Erbil, Iraq
Environmental Engineering Department, Knowledge University, Erbil, Iraq
ABSTRACT
An experimental study on the performance of concrete containing waste-tires
based fine aggregate is presented in this paper. This study examines the effect of
replacing the natural fine aggregate (NFA) with recycled fine aggregate (RFA) on the
workability and mechanical properties of concrete. The mechanical properties
include: compressive strengthand tensile strength. Various RFA replacement ratios
were used including (10%, 20%and 30%). Four mixes were examined: three with
different RFA replacement ratios and one mix with NFA for comparison purpose. The
results show that RFA reduces both the workability and the mechanical properties of
concrete.
Key words: Sustainable concrete, mechanical properties, waste tires, crumb rubber,
recycled fine aggregate, tensile strength
Cite this Article: Firas F. Jirjees, Shelan M. Maruf, Ahmed R. Abdul Rahman,
Khaleel H. Younis, Behaviour of Concrete Incorporating Tirederived Crumb Rubber
Aggregate, International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology 10(4), 2019,
pp. 1983–1991.
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1983
[email protected]
Firas F. Jirjees, Shelan M. Maruf, Ahmed R. Abdul Rahman, Khaleel H. Younis
1. INTRODUCTION
Nowadays, the issues related to the accumulation of vast amounts of waste are globally
documented; in particular the waste originated from used tires[1, 2].Recent studies have
reported that thousands of millions of tires are produced every year worldwide[1-3].All parts
of the world including developed and developing countries are facing the problem of such
enormous number of tires accumulated every year (See Figure 1). The disposal of such vast
number of waste tires has a large impact on the environment. Also, waste tires can cause
serious issues to the human health and increase fire hazards in the case of burning or illegal
dumping [1, 3]. A suitable sustainable solution to such serious environmental issues is the
utilization of such waste of tires in the production of concrete [2].
Figure 1 Accumulation of waste tires in Erbil city-Iraq (photo taken in 2018)
The utilization of the rubber extracted from waste tires as fine aggregate in the production
of concrete could be a decent solution for the issues associated with the disposal of waste tires
[2].This will also enhance the sustainability of concrete and lead to develop an eco-friendly
concrete through eliminating the consumptions of limited areas of landfilling, reduce the
hazards and health problems associated with tires disposal; and save the natural recourses of
sand[1, 2].
The performance of concrete incorporating crumb rubber as fine aggregate has been
studied by severalresearchers globally [1, 4-10] but very limited work has been done in Iraq.
These studies have shown that the use of recycled aggregatesuch as crumb rubber extracted
from waste tires were resulted ina concrete with lower quality than concrete made with
natural fine aggregate[1, 7]. The use of waste-tires based fine aggregate diminishesthe
workability of concrete[1, 6]. Other studies [1, 6, 9- 11] have reported that the mechanical
properties of the concrete with tires rubber are lower than that of the normal concrete. These
studies have shown that compressive strength and splitting tensile strength of concrete with
RFA are lower than that of concrete made with sand. The reduction in strength may reach up
to 70% according to the replacement ratio of sand with waste tires rubber.
The studies that deals with the performance of concrete made with crumb rubber in Iraq
are very limited.Hence, this paper tackles the effect of using crumb rubber as fine aggregate
on the workability and mechanical properties of normal concrete. The investigated
mechanical properties in this study include compressive strength and splitting tensile
strength.In the following sections, the experimental work, results, discussion and conclusions
are described.
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Behaviour of Concrete Incorporating Tirederived Crumb Rubber Aggregate
2. EXPERIMENTAL PROGRAMME
2.1. Materials
2.1.1. Cement
Portland cement type CEM Ithat meets the requirements of BS EN 197was used in current
study. The chemical analysis (given by the supplier)of the cement is shown in Table 1.
Table 1 Chemical analysis of the Portland cement (CEM I).
SiO2
20.94
Al2O3
4.96
Fe2O3
2.92
CaO
65.9
MgO
0.78
SO3
2.8
Na2O
0.25
K2O
0.42
Na2Oeq
0.52
2.1.2. Aggregates
Two types of fine aggregate were used in this study. The first one is NFA which is local river
sandbrought from Khabat district in Erbil city-Iraq.It had a maximum size of4.75 mm. The
second one was RFA extracted from used tires (see Figure 2). It had maximum size similar to
that of the NFA.The coarse aggregate used in this study was natural roundedriver aggregate
(gravel). It had amaximum size of19.5 mm.The properties of coarse aggregates used in this
study are presented in Table 2.
Table 2Physical properties of fine aggregates (FA)
Property
Shape
Surface texture
Specific gravity (SSD)
Water absorption %
Type of FA
NFA
RFA
Angular
Angular
Smooth
Rough
2.65
1.15
1.3
Negligible
Figure 2 Recycled fine aggregate (crumb rubber)
2.2. Mix proportions and experimental work
(b
The total number of mixes prepared and examined in the study is four.Variables of the study,
code of mixes and the mix proportions for all mixes are shown in Table 3. All mixes had the
same water/cement (w/c) ratio (0.5).
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1985
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Firas F. Jirjees, Shelan M. Maruf, Ahmed R. Abdul Rahman, Khaleel H. Younis
Table 3 Code of mixes, variables of study and mix proportions (kg/ m3)
Mix
Rubber content % Cement
code
Water
FineAgg.
(natural)
FineAgg.
CoarseA
(crumb
gg.
Rubber)
0
1066
M0
0
360
180
755
M10
10
360
180
679.5
75.5
1066
M20
20
360
180
604
151
1066
M30
30
360
180
528.5
226.5
1066
The ingredients of the concrete mixtures were blended using a pan mixer with capacity of
0.08 m3. The concrete mixtures were compacted using internal vibrator. For each mix:
three100 mmcubes and three cylinders 100×200 mm were prepared. Thereafter, plastic sheets
were used to cover the specimens and allowed to cure for 24 hours before being demoulded.
Then, they were kept in water tanks for 27 days.
2.3. Tests
2.3.1. Workability “Slump Test”
The workability of all mixes was assessed using standard slump test. The test carried out
following the BS EN 12350-2 [12].
2.3.2. Compressive strength test
After 28 days of curing and by following the BS EN 12390-3 [13] standard test, the cube
specimens were tested for compression. Figure 3 shows the machine used for the compressive
strength test.
Figure 3 Compressive strength test machine
2.3.3. Splitting tensile strength test
After 28 days of curing and by following the BS EN 12390-6 [14] standard test, the 100×200
mm cylinders specimens were tested for splitting tensile. Figure 4 shows the machine used for
the splitting tensile strength test.
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Behaviour of Concrete Incorporating Tirederived Crumb Rubber Aggregate
Figure 4 Splitting tensile strength test machine
3. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
3.1. Workability of concrete “Slump Test”
The workability of all mixes was assessed using the slump test method. The results ofall
mixtures are displayed in Table 4 and Figure 5.
Table 4 Results of concrete slump test with the reduction in slump values compared to the reference
mix (M0)
Mix
M0
M10
M20
M30
Slump
mm
180
140
80
30
Slump Reduction (%)
0.0
22.0
56.0
83.0
Figure 5 Effect of crumb rubber content on theslump values of concrete
The results shown in Figure5 reveal that the partial replacement of sand with crumb
rubber leads to the reduction in workability of concrete. The reduction in workability depends
on the replacement ratio as can be seen in Table 4. Replacing sand with crumb rubber at ratios
of 10, 20 and 30 % results in a reduction in the workability of concrete of 22, 56 and 83%
respectively, compared to the mix without rubber (M0). Similar results were reported by [1,8].
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1987
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Firas F. Jirjees, Shelan M. Maruf, Ahmed R. Abdul Rahman, Khaleel H. Younis
This reduction in the workability could be due the surface features of the crumb rubber
particles. The rough surface texture and elastic behaviour of the rubber particles are the
sources for a possible increase in the friction developed between crumb rubber particles and
the rest of the ingredients under the free flow [1,7]with a possible absorbing of the moving
energy [1].
3.2. Compressive strength
The results of the 28 days compressive strength of all mixesare presented in Table 5 and
Figure6. Each value in Table 5 is the average of 3 cubes. The table also shows the decrease
inthe compressive strength (compared to that of the reference mix M0) due to the addition of
the crumb rubber.
Table 5 Results of compressive strength and the splitting tensile strength with the percentage decrease
in the strength compared to the reference mix (M0).
Compressive strength
Splitting tensile strength
Mix
Strength
MPa
Strength
Decrease (%)
Strength MPa
M0
34.2
-
4.1
Strength
Decrease (%)
-
M10
26.1
24
3.0
27
M20
20.8
39
2.6
37
M30
12.3
64
1.2
71
Figure6 Effect of crumb rubber content on the compressive strength of concrete
The general trend of the compressive strength of the mixes made with crumb rubber
shows a reduction in its values as can be seen in Figure6. It can be seen that the reference mix
M0 had a compressive strength of 34.2 MPa. The partial replacement of the sand with crumb
rubber at ratios of 10%, 20% and 30% resulted in compressive strength of 26.1MPa, 20.8
MPa and 12.3 MPa for the mixes M10, M20 and M30 respectively. The strength degradation
due to the use of crumb rubber aggregate for mixes M10, M20 and M30 are 24%, 39% and
64%respectively, as can be seen in Table 5. Similar strength decrease was also observed by
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Behaviour of Concrete Incorporating Tirederived Crumb Rubber Aggregate
[7, 8, 15]. This behaviour can be attributed to the large difference between the stiffness of the
crumb rubber particles and the cement paste and the lower modulus of elasticity of the crumb
rubber particles compared to the particles of sand [8, 16]. This could also be due to the low
density of the concrete made with crumb rubber which leads to lower compressive strength.
3.3. Splitting tensile strength
Table 5 and Figure 7show the results of splitting tensile strength at the age of 28 days of all
mixes. The result of each mix is the average of three cylinders. The table also shows the
decrease in splitting tensile strength of mixes made with crumb rubber compared to the
reference mix M0.
Figure 7 Effect of crumb rubber content on the splitting tensile strength of concrete
The results of the splitting tensile strength had a general trend that is similar to that of the
compressive strength. It can be seen that the strength of the mixes with crumb rubber had
lower splitting tensile strength than that of without crumb rubber. The reduction in tensile
strength depends on the content of the crumb rubber. The reference mix M0 had a tensile
strength of 4.1 MPa, whereas the mixes M10, M20 and M30 had strengths of 3MPa, 2.6MPa
and 1.2MPa respectively. The decrease in splitting tensile strength due to the replacement of
sand with crumb rubber could be due to the lower modulus of elasticity of the crumb rubber
particles compared to the particles of sand [8,17]. Another reason could be the low density of
the concrete made with crumb rubber which leads to lower tensile strength of concrete.
4. CONCLUSIONS
The following conclusions can be drawn according to the experimental results:1. Crumb rubber leads to lower workability (slump) of concrete due the rough surface of
crumb rubber particles aggregate and the internal friction developed between the
ingredients of the concrete.
2. The general trend of the compressive strength and the tensile strength of the mixes
with crumb rubber showed lower strengths compared to the reference mix (without
crumb rubber). The level of the reduction in strength depends on the content of the
crumb rubber. The higher the content, the higher the reduction in strength.
3. The compressive strength values of the mixes with crumb rubber decreased by 24%,
39% and 46% respectively for the mixes M10, M20 and M30 compared to the
reference mix (M0 mix).
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Firas F. Jirjees, Shelan M. Maruf, Ahmed R. Abdul Rahman, Khaleel H. Younis
4. The split tensile strength valuesof the mixes with crumb rubber decreased by 27%,
37% and 71% respectivelyfor the mixes M10, M20 and M30 compared to the
reference mix (M0 mix).
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Behaviour of Concrete Incorporating Tirederived Crumb Rubber Aggregate
[15]
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