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MODIFICATION OF TEMPERATURE CORRECTION FACTOR IN FWD BASED ON FIELD EXPERIENCE IN INDIAN CONTEXT

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International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET)
Volume 10, Issue 04, April 2019, pp. 1239-1251, Article ID: IJCIET_10_04_130
Available online at http://www.iaeme.com/ijciet/issues.asp?JType=IJCIET&VType=10&IType=04
ISSN Print: 0976-6308 and ISSN Online: 0976-6316
© IAEME Publication
Scopus Indexed
MODIFICATION OF TEMPERATURE
CORRECTION FACTOR IN FWD BASED ON
FIELD EXPERIENCE IN INDIAN CONTEXT
Kevin Garasia
PG Student,Department of Civil Engineering, Parul Institute of Engineering and Technology,
Parul University, Vadodara, India
Jayesh Juremalani
Asst. Professor, Department of Civil Engineering,
Parul Institute of Engineering and Technology, Parul University, Vadodara, India
ABSTRACT
Recently flexible pavements are evaluated by Falling Weight Deflectometer (FWD)
instead of Benkelbeam method because of several advantages. Now pavement
temperature is one of the most important parameters that influence the Falling Weight
Deflectometer (FWD) measurements. Since there is a huge temperature variation in
Vadodara City, Gujarat, India, it is necessary to study the temperature effect on the
FWD measurements. In this paper, temperature correction factor is modified based on
the field results. Five different sites are selected. The readings are taken at temperature
35° C and 45° C. Some other tests like road condition survey and test pit methods are
used to know the thickness of the pavement. The field results are compared with the
calculated values of the elastic moduli. Comparisons show that surface and base layer
are mostly affected by the temperature variation but the sub grade layer is not much
affected.
Keywords: Falling weight deflectometer, flexible pavement, temperature correction
factor
Cite this Article: Kevin Garasia and Jayesh Juremalani, Modification of Temperature
Correction Factor in Fwd Based on Field Experience in Indian Context. International
Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology, 10(04), 2019, pp. 1239-1251
http://www.iaeme.com/IJCIET/issues.asp?JType=IJCIET&VType=10&IType=04
1. INTRODUCTION
Country economic growth and development Transportation are playing a lead role. The road
transport is the oldest and most widely mode of transport. Country infrastructure pavements
are key elements, which is to promote transportation activities, economic activities and to
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improve the standard of living. By the maintenance and rehabilitation activities, life of the
structure is improved. So, the capacity of the vehicle pass at the pavement is improved, at the
low cost.
Benkelman Beam Deflection (BBD) is replaced with Falling Weight Deflectometer (FWD)
nowadays. In the FWD the weight is constant at all the point and blows are fix so it is
comparatively easy to operate and fewer persons are required. The falling weight deflectometer
(FWD) has been broadly used to evaluate the structural capacity of flexible pavement for
routine pavement design, rehabilitation strategy selection, and other pavement management
activities. By analyzing FWD data, resilient modulus of pavement subgrade, layer coefficients,
and some other parameters can be calculated. Generally, FWD measurement is carried out in a
wide range of temperature conditions. However, the measured FWD deflection is significantly
influenced by various factors such as temperature, pavement thickness, drop load, etc.
Therefore, it is necessary to correct the FWD deflection data on the basis of a reference
temperature. Then the corrected FWD deflection can be used to estimate pavement layer
properties.
A number of software such as ELMOD, EVERCALC, BISDEF, NUS-BACK, MICKBACK, MODULUS, PADAL, etc. are available for the backcalculation of pavement layer
moduli from deflections measured using FWD. KGPBACK, a specific version of BACKGA
program, which was developed for the research scheme R-81 (2003) of the Ministry of Road
Transport and Highways, is recommended in these guidelines for backcalculation. KGPBACK
is a Genetic Algorithm based model for backcalculation of layer moduli. Because of this
Genetic Algorithms (GA) have become popular to solve complex problems.
1.1. General Description of FWD
During FWD testing a load pulse is achieved by dropping a constant mass with rubber buffers
through a particular height into a loading platen. The load is usually transmitted to the pavement
via a 150mm diameter loading plate. The loading plate has a rubber mat attached to the contact
face and should preferably be segmented to ensure good contact with the road surface. An
example of a segmented loading plate is shown in figure 1. A load cell placed between the
platen and the loading plate measures the peak load. The resulting vertical deflection of the
pavement is recorded by a number of geophones, which are located on a radial axis from the
loading plate. One of the deflection sensors is located directly under the load as shown in
Figure. A typical FWD test set-up is shown diagrammatically in the Figure 1.
Figure: 1 Typical FWD test set-up
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1.2. Segmented FWD load plate
Figure 2 shows diagrammatic view of FWD
Figure: 2 Diagrammatic Representation of FWD
1.3. Load Pulse
As stated earlier the load pulse is achieved by dropping a constant mass into a loading platen
via rubber buffers. Differences in manufactures design have resulted in veering pulse shapes
for the same peak load. However, most FWD's have a load rise time from start of the pulse to
peak of between 5 and 30 milliseconds and have a load pulse width of between 20 and 60
milliseconds. The shape of the load pulse is intended to be similar to that produced by a
moving wheel load. Figure 3 shows a typical longitudinal strain profile for a wheel moving at
100 km/h on a rolled asphalt road base. Figure 4 shows a typical deflection profile for an FWD
load plate.
Figure 3 Typical longitudinal strain profile for a wheel moving (100 km/h)
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Figure 4 Typical deflection profile for an FWD load plate
1.4. Choice of Test Lane, Test Load
The location of the FWD test will usually be governed by the information, which is required
from the FWD survey. In many cases, the tests will be carried out in the inner wheel track of
the slow lane (if applicable). The reason for this choice is that this is often the first location to
show distress signs on a road pavement. Tests can also be carried out between the wheel track
for Comparison purposes and to ascertain the residual life of the relatively untracked pavement.
FWD survey on two-way single carriageway roads can be carried out in one direction or
alternatively in both directions using "staggered" locations as shown in the Figure 5.
It is generally recommended that at least three loading cycles, excluding a small drop for
settling the load plate, should be made at each location as shown in Figure 5.
It is generally recommended that at least three loading cycles, excluding a small drop for
settling the load plate, should be made at each location. The first drop is usually omitted from
calculations. A drop sequence of four drops ranging from 27kN to 50kN approximately allows
data analysis to be carried out at either the 40 or 50kN load level as required. Each drop
sequence takes approximately one minute or less.
Figure 5: two-way single carriageway roads
1.5. PAVEMENT TEMPERATURE
In general, FWD measurements can be carried out over a wide range of surface temperatures.
The range for testing flexible pavements should be 10 to 30°C and 45°C. Bituminous bound
material behaves in a visco-elastic manner under load and therefore stiffness is temperature
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dependent. The temperature of the bituminous material must, therefore, be measured at the time
of the test and corrected if necessary, to a reference temperature. Ideally, FWD testing should
be carried out at a temperature, which is as close as possible to the reference temperature. It is
not necessary to carry out temperature measurements on thin bituminous pavements such as
surfaced dressed granular roads as the thickness of bituminous material is such that it would
not have any significant effect on the overall pavement structure.
The temperature of the bituminous material is measured by first drilling a hole in the
bituminous layer and inserting a temperature probe into this hole. Holes for temperature
measured should be pre-drilled at least ten minutes before recording the temperature in order
that the heat generated by drilling has time to dissipate. A drop of glycerol or similar fluid can
be used to ensure good thermal contact between the temperature probe and the bituminous
material.
This procedure takes approximately 15 minutes and should be carried out at least every 4
hours during testing. The stiffness of the bituminous bound layers depends on both the test
temperature and the loading time. The loading time will be constant for a given FWD device.
However, in order to compare deflection/ layer module, they should be normalized to a standard
temperature. This will usually be the design temperature for the country or region. The stiffness
moduli of the various layers can be calculated from the measured deflection and the bituminous
bound layer stiffness then normalized. There are a number of normalization methods available,
some of which are contained within the backcalculation package. An example of three such
temperature stiffness relationships is shown as per IRC:115.
2. LITERATURE REVIEW
Dar-Hao Chen they conducted falling weight deflectometer (FWD) tests at three sites. The tests
were conducted at regular intervals for 2 to 3 consecutivedays per location and also done during
different seasons inorder that the widest possible range of temperatures could be obtained.The
influence of cracks on temperature correction was also investigated. It was founded that only
the W1 and W2 deflections are significantlyaffected by temperature. W3 through W7
deflections remainedalmost constant at various temperatures. The same trend was observedfor
all pavements used in this study.
Bin Zhang studied about the effect of temperature on the pavement. He conducted a Falling
Weight Deflectometer (FWD) measurement. They covered the different state of New Mexico
and for that, they are collecting the data of the different state of the New Mexico Department
of Transportation (NMDOT). Based on the data, two specific temperature correction models
for FWD deflection were developed. So, they have considered some data as an independent
variable like pavement temperature, FWD drop load, AC layer thickness and the depth of layer
temperature measurement. The developed model has done some of the errors.
3. STUDY AREA DETAILS.
Survey is conducted on 5 roads near to Vadodara city. Road length is 3 to 6 km. so more data
is collected. The weather is hot during March to July, when the average maximum is 40° C,
and the average minimum is 23° C.
Five Sites are as below
(1) Sevasi – canal Road (2) Sevasi – Sindhrot Road (3) Ambada Road (4) Canal Road,
Channi (5) Vishwamitri road
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4. DATA COLLECTION
4.1. Preliminary Studies:
To starting the deflection studies, it is essential to carry out preliminary studies consisting of
the following operations. Historical data of study area location like a map, annual rainfall,
temperature and traffic condition data, etc. Visual inspection of road stretches and demarcation
of the road into sub-stretches based on pavement surface condition. Marking of deflection
observation points along the selected wheel paths. Existing highway pavements structural
details by test pit.
4.2. Marking of the Deflection Observation Points
The deflection observations points are marked at a transverse distance of 500 m from the
starting point because road condition is good. Points are marked at both the outer wheel path
of the lane.
4.3. Road Condition Survey
Figure: 6 Road condition view
The visual inspection is taken at all the sites. Sevasi canal road data is shown in Table 1. It
is concluded from the inspection that road condition is good. To know the thickness of road
layer, test pit method is used. Table 2 shows the thickness of the road.
Table 1: Road condition survey data of Sevasi – canal road
Location
Condition of Road
Spacing(m) for test
points
0.250
RHS
Good
500
0.750
LHS
Good
500
1.250
RHS
Good
500
1.750
LHS
Good
500
2.250
RHS
Good
500
2.750
LHS
Good
500
3.250
RHS
Good
500
3.750
LHS
Good
500
4.250
RHS
Good
500
4.750
LHS
Good
500
5.250
RHS
Good
500
5.750
LHS
Good
500
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By the using test pit method, GSB (Granular sub base) and BT (Bituminous Thickness)
layers thickness were found.
Bituminous Layer
Granular Layer (Sub Base/ Base Layer)
Subgrade Layer
4.3. Crush Thickness
Table 2: Road crush thickness of Sevasi – canal road
Sr No
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
Existing Crust
Observed Chainage
km.
At Road Edge
0.250
0.750
1.250
1.750
2.250
2.750
3.250
3.750
4.250
4.750
5.250
5.750
At Road Edge – RHS
At Road Edge – LHS
At Road Edge – RHS
At Road Edge – LHS
At Road Edge – RHS
At Road Edge – LHS
At Road Edge – RHS
At Road Edge – LHS
At Road Edge – RHS
At Road Edge – LHS
At Road Edge – RHS
At Road Edge – LHS
Bituminous Layer Granular Layer
Mm
Mm
130
120
120
120
120
120
120
150
140
120
130
120
290
380
360
300
390
340
380
270
350
310
310
360
4.4. Falling Weight Deflect meters of data analysis
The FWD test data is collected from different load drops at each test point primarily consist of
peak load, peak deflections at different radial locations. Average value of load anddeflections
are calculated from the three drop test data collected at a given location.
The data is conducted at two different temperature one is at 35° C and second is at 45° C.
Sevasi – canal road data at
35° C shown in Table 3 and it is modified at 45° C with the formula
πœ†=
1−0.238𝐼𝑛 𝑇1
1−0.238𝐼𝑛 𝑇2
λ = temperature correction factor
T1 = temperature at survey conducted
T2 = temperature at required condition
data shown in Table 4. For same site test is conducted again at 45° C. The data are shown
in Table 5. For the other four sites the Elastic Moduli of three-layer surface, base and subbase
are presented in Table 6.
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Table:3 - Sevasi – canal road data at 35°C
Elastic Moduli
[Mpa]
Measured deflections (µm)
Locatio
n
0.2
50
0.7
50
1.2
50
1.7
50
2.2
50
2.7
50
3.2
50
3.7
50
4.2
50
4.7
50
5.2
50
5.7
50
R
H
S
L
H
S
R
H
S
L
H
S
R
H
S
L
H
S
R
H
S
L
H
S
R
H
S
L
H
S
R
H
S
L
H
S
Poi
nts
Te
mp
Fo
rce
1
34.
4
41.
41
5
34.
4
10
D3
(450
)
D4
(600
)
D5
(900
)
D6
(1200
)
D7
(1500
)
Surf
ace
Ba Subg
se rade
463 239
152
87
32
18
13
293
39
3
86.7
40.
50
354 175
106
63
29
21
21
159
8
39
6
86.6
34.
4
39.
61
388 209
130
77
43
30
24
110
6
39
6
86.6
15
35.
2
40.
64
361 197
89
82
45
30
24
160
8
39
6
86.6
20
35.
2
40.
72
528 266
169
116
66
49
34
215
32
0
86.7
25
35.
2
40.
11
378 230
152
103
58
48
33
111
7
39
6
86.7
30
35.
2
41.
90
383 220
147
103
61
45
32
105
2
39
6
86.7
35
36.
9
39.
40
720 474
325
218
111
69
52
745
73
71.4
40
36.
9
41.
22
268 185
130
89
48
31
26
160
7
39
6
86.7
45
36.
9
39.
55
459 261
170
115
62
45
34
439
33
8
86.7
50
36.
9
40.
58
309 188
130
97
62
45
32
160
8
39
6
86.7
55
36.
4
41.
15
278 179
127
91
51
35
26
160
8
39
6
86.7
D1
(0)
D2
(300
)
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Table:4 - Elastic Moduli Converted at 45° C (Calculated)
Elastic Moduli [Mpa] at 45
Surface Base Subgrade
479
643 142
2615
648 142
1810
648 142
2631
648 142
352
524 142
1828
648 142
1721
648 142
1219
119 117
2629
648 142
718
553 142
2631
648 142
2631
648 142
Table:5 - Sevasi – canal road data at 45°C (Actual)
Point Tem Forc
Location
s
p
e D1
D2
(0) (300)
0.25 RH
41.4
1 43.6
467 240
0 S
1
0.75 LH
40.5
5 43.6
360 177
0 S
0
1.25 RH
39.6
10 43.6
390 213
0 S
1
1.75 LH
40.6
15 44.2
360 204
0 S
4
2.25 RH
40.7
20 44.2
530 270
0 S
2
2.75 LH
40.1
25 44.2
382 229
0 S
1
3.25 RH
41.9
30 44.9
386 216
0 S
0
3.75 LH
39.4
35 44.9
723 478
0 S
0
4.25 RH
41.2
40 44.9
265 188
0 S
2
4.75 LH
39.5
45 44.9
468 262
0 S
5
5.25 RH
40.5
50 45.2
312 190
0 S
8
5.75 LH
41.1
55 45.2
281 181
0 S
5
Measured deflections (µm)
Elastic Moduli
[Mpa]
D7 Surfac Bas Subgrad
(1500)
e
e
e
D3
(450)
D4
(600)
D5
(900)
D6
(1200)
155
88
35
19
14
484 649
143
108
65
30
22
22
2641 654
143
134
79
42
31
24
1828 654
143
91
85
48
31
24
2657 654
143
172
119
67
52
35
355 529
143
155
108
60
50
34
1846 654
143
151
108
65
48
35
1738 654
143
327
221
119
71
54
1231 121
118
132
92
50
34
30
2656 654
143
172
119
65
48
36
725 559
143
135
102
63
48
34
2657 654
143
130
101
54
39
27
2657 654
143
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Table:6 - OTHER FOUR SITE ELASTIC MODULI [MPA]DATA
SURFACE ACTUAL
BASE ACTUAL
SUBGRADE ACTUAL
SITE
2
SITE
3
SITE
4
SITE
5
SITE
2
SITE
3
SITE
4
SITE
5
SITE
2
SITE
3
SITE
4
SITE
5
371
1608
631
219
205
396
323
396
86.7
86.7
86.7
86.7
215
264
403
729
300
396
227
396
86.7
86.7
86.7
86.7
232
1608
526
332
324
396
169
370
86.7
86.7
86.7
86.7
247
379
482
372
396
73
120
246
86.4
86.7
86.7
86.7
244
499
920
433
361
394
75
338
86.7
86.7
86.7
86.7
217
517
624
1276
346
395
165
396
86.7
86.7
86.7
86.7
214
1161
214
454
251
396
396
396
86.7
86.7
86.7
86.7
406
216
481
140
218
381
86.7
86.7
86.7
463
214
324
302
86.7
86.7
489
214
73
331
86.6
86.7
335
247
232
396
86.6
86.7
1608
261
396
189
86.7
86.6
1584
557
396
396
86.7
86.7
1522
253
396
166
86.7
86.7
319
388
86.7
5. ANALYSIS OF CALCULATED AND ACTUAL DATA TAKEN AT 45°
C
Sevasi – Sindhrot Road
No. of reading
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
100
200
300
400
500
600
700
Elastic Moduli [ Mpa]
Actual Elastic Moduli at 45°C
Calculated Elastic Moduli at 45°C
Chart 1: Comparison between Calculated and actual Elastic Moduli at Sevasi – Sindhrot Road
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Ambada Road
No. of reading
13
11
9
7
5
3
1
0
500
1000
1500
2000
2500
3000
Elastic Moduli [ Mpa]
Actual Elastic Moduli at 45°C
Calculated Elastic Moduli at 45°C
Chart 2: Comparison between Calculated and actual Elastic Moduli at Amboda Road
Canal Road, Channi
15
No. of reading
13
11
9
7
5
3
1
0
200
400
600
800
1000
1200
1400
1600
1800
Elastic Moduli [ Mpa]
Actual Elastic Moduli at 45°C
Calculated Elastic Moduli at 45°C
Chart 3: Comparison between Calculated and actual Elastic Moduli at Canal Road, Channi
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Vishwamitri Road
8
No. of reading
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
500
1000
1500
2000
2500
Elastic Moduli [ Mpa]
Actual Elastic Moduli at 45°C
Calculated Elastic Moduli at 45°C
Chart 4: Comparison between Calculated and actual Elastic Moduli at Vishwamitri Road
Chart 1, 2, 3 & 4 show the comparison between Calculated Elastic Moduli at 45°C and
Actual Elastic Moduli at 45°C. X axis shows elastic moduli of actual and calculated data and
y axis shows number of readings taken. As per charts we shown that actual elastic moduli are
high compare to the calculated elastic moduli.
6. CONCLUSION
From the present study, it can be seen that elastic moduli vary with the temperature. The data
is collected are at two different temperature that is 35° C and 45° C respectively for which
elastic moduli is calculated and compared in the study. From the study it is found that elastic
moduli are more for surface and base layer; no significant change is seen on the subgrade layer.
Five different sites were evaluated at both the temperature and depending on its temperature
correction factor is modified. FWD can be used very easily and more reliable values are
obtained rather than using other methods. Based on the field study different sites of Vadodara
city was visited and formula is modified as below
1 − 0.246𝐼𝑛 𝑇1
πœ†=
1 − 0.246𝐼𝑛 𝑇2
The applicability of above formula is subject to verification.
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Modification of Temperature Correction Factor in Fwd Based on Field Experience in Indian
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IS: 1206 (part III)-1978 Determination of viscosity: part III kinematic viscosity
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