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DESIGNING OF IOT-BASED LINEN MANAGEMENT SYSTEM USING TOGAF ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTURE

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International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET)
Volume 10, Issue 04, April 2019, pp. 546-555, Article ID: IJCIET_10_04_056
Available online at http://www.iaeme.com/ijciet/issues.asp?JType=IJCIET&VType=10&IType=04
ISSN Print: 0976-6308 and ISSN Online: 0976-6316
© IAEME Publication
Scopus Indexed
DESIGNING OF IOT-BASED LINEN
MANAGEMENT SYSTEM USING TOGAF
ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTURE
Yuli Biena Octavius Ong, Sfenrianto Sfenrianto, Fadli Alexander and Emil Robert
Kaburuan
Information Systems Management Department,
BINUS Graduate Program – Master of Information Systems Managements
Jakarta, Indonesia 11480.
ABSTRACT
PT. Laundry XYZ is a company engaged in laundry services. The services offered
consist of leasing and washing all types of linen. In carrying out the company's
operational activities, PT. Laundry XYZ has not utilized the application of information
system/information technology as a whole. Data management is still manual so that it
has many risks, including errors in recording or inputting data, the time needed is
relatively longer to access and process information, and the risk will affect the delay in
information provided to customers and management of PT. Laundry XYZ. Some other
problems are the absence of application that support the company's operational
activities so that linen loss often occurs, linen delivery is not on time, and difficulties in
monitoring stock of linen. Based on the above problems, PT. Laundry XYZ requires
enterprise architecture planning in accordance with the company's vision and mission.
Enterprise architecture planning in this study uses version 9 of the TOGAF (The Open
Group Architecture Framework) framework with the ADM (Architecture Development
Method) method. This architectural planning produces the target blueprint of business
architecture, data architecture, application architecture, and technology architecture
that can be used as a guide in the procurement of information system/information
technology at PT. Laundry XYZ.
Keywords: enterprise architecture, TOGAF, ADM, IoT, linen management
Cite this Article: Yuli Biena Octavius Ong, Sfenrianto Sfenrianto, Fadli Alexander
and Emil Robert Kaburuan, Designing of Iot-Based Linen Management System Using
Togaf Enterprise Architecture. International Journal of Civil Engineering and
Technology, 10(04), 2019, pp. 546-555
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546
[email protected]
Yuli Biena Octavius Ong, Sfenrianto Sfenrianto, Fadli Alexander and Emil Robert Kaburuan
1. INTRODUCTION
PT. Laundry XYZ is a company engaged in laundry services and established in Indonesia since
2008 which continues to grow rapidly and has more than 50 customers engaged in hotels and
various companies. The services offered consist of leasing and washing all types of linen. This
company has not utilized the application of information system /information technology as a
whole in the operations of linen leasing and washing, such as the process of sending clean linen
to customers, the process of receiving clean linen, the process of distributing clean linen, the
process of shipping dirty linen, the process of receiving dirty linen, the process of washing dirty
linen, and so on. This causes no information flow between sections.
Data management is still manual so that it has many risks, including errors in recording or
inputting data, the time needed is relatively longer to access and process information, and the
risk will affect the delay in information provided to customers and management of PT. Laundry
XYZ.
Some other problems are the absence of applications that support the company's operational
activities so that linen loss often occurs, linen delivery is not on time, and difficulties in
monitoring stock of linen.
With the need to solve problems that occur at PT. Laundry XYZ and adding services value
for customers, a framework is needed to help design a new system.
Enterprise Architecture is defined as an analysis and documentation of the current state and
future conditions of a company from the perspective of integrated strategy, business and
technology. The idea of Enterprise Architecture is to integrate strategy, business and
technology [1]. The Open Group Architecture Framework (TOGAF) is an architectural
framework based on the Architectural Development Method (ADM) developed by The Open
Group (TOG) international consortium and first released in 1995, the current TOGAF version
(version 9.1, December 2011) is the work done for several years by dozens of companies [2].
TOGAF provides an effective and detailed method for developing information technology
architectures through TOGAF ADM. By using TOGAF ADM, companies can get a reliable
information technology architecture. TOGAF ADM states a clear vision and principle about
how to develop enterprise architecture. The principle is used as a measure in assessing the
success of the development of enterprise architecture by the organization.
This study aims to (1) solve current problems that occur at PT. Laundry XYZ, (2) make the
design of Linen Management application that can be applied at PT. Laundry XYZ.
2. LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1. Enterprise Architecture
Enterprise architecture describes the current situation (baseline architecture) and the expected
situation (target architecture) to define processes, capabilities, application systems, data, and
IT infrastructure that are useful to support and automate the core business processes of the
organization [3].
According to Kearny (2016) [4], enterprise architecture can be defined as a conceptual
blueprint that defines the structure and operations of a company to capture the important things
of business and information technology in translating business strategies into implementing
technology solutions.
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Designing of Iot-Based Linen Management System Using Togaf Enterprise Architecture
2.2. TOGAF ADM
The Open Group Architecture Framework (TOGAF) is an architectural framework based on
the Architectural Development Method (ADM) developed by The Open Group (TOG)
international consortium and first released in 1995, the current TOGAF version (version 9.1,
December 2011) is the work done for several years by dozens of companies [2]. TOGAF has
become the de facto standard for the development and application of enterprise architecture
[5].
TOGAF was chosen for the development of information system strategic design because it
focuses on the cycle of implementation of the Architecture Development Method (ADM) and
the scope is broad, complete, and easy to understand.
2.2.1. Enterprise Architecture Layer
In general there are four layers of enterprise architecture which include business architecture,
data architecture, application architecture, and technology architecture [2]. The business
architecture layer defines strategies, objectives, and business processes to fulfill the
organization's vision and mission. The second layer, data architecture describes how
organizational data/information is generated, organized, and accessed. In the third layer,
application architecture presents how applications, software components are designed and
interact with each other. At the last layer, technology architecture describes the techniques and
components used, as well as network and physical infrastructure where applications and data
sources are run.
2.2.2. TOGAF: ADM Diagram
Architecture Diagram Method (ADM) is a method of how to build, manage and implement
enterprise architecture and information systems [6]. ADM consists of 10 phases of enterprise
architecture development (see Table 1) [7,8].
Table 1 TOGAF ADM [7,8]
No
1
2
3
Phase
Description
The initial phase of preparation for designing the enterprise architecture. At this
Preliminary
phase, we determine the scope, compile architectural capabilities including
TOGAF customization and define architectural principles
The process of managing enterprise architecture needs that will be identified,
Requirements Management
stored, and entered into all TOGAF ADM phases
Determine
the scope and boundaries, identifying stakeholders, defining
Architecture Vision
concepts and solutions in enterprise architecture planning and submitting
approvals to start architectural
4
Business Architecture
Describes current business processes and future business processes to support
the agreed architectural vision
5
Information Systems
Architectures
Develope the data and applications
6
7
8
9
10
Defines the types of technology candidates needed by using the Technology
Portfolio Catalog which includes software and hardware
Contains activities carried out, identifying key projects to be implemented to
Opportunities and Solutions
implement the design and decide to reuse old systems or develop a new one
Migration Planning
Create an application roadmap and implementation plan and its migration
Compose recommendations in implementing a system of governance and
Implementation Governance
information technology
Architecture Change
Develop a management plan for the implemented architecture
Management
Technology Architecture
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2.3. Gap Analysis
Gap analysis is a tool used to know the actual conditions that are running in the company. This
is done in order to find out whether the company's business processes to maximize company
performance are optimal [9]. Furthermore, the gap analysis also aims to evaluate the maturity
of the current solution by assessing the current deficiencies or conditions of several dimensions
[10].
2.4. Internet of Things
Internet of Things (IoT) is a new paradigm with the concept that all objects such as RFID tags,
sensors, actuators, mobile, and others interact with each other [11]. IoT refers to interactive
complex networks and have three main elements, namely sensors, informational processors,
and actuators [12].
3. RESEARCH METHOD
3.1. Collection Data Method
Data collection is done to obtain information needed in this study. The following are the
methods of data collection carried out:
3.1.1. Primary Data
Data collection is obtained from the result of direct observations and measurements.
a) Observations were carried out in September 2018 located in West Java regarding
brief history, vision, mission, profile, business processes and systems that run at PT.
Laundry XYZ.
b) Interviews were conducted with employees of PT. Laundry XYZ who are relevant
and has the information needed.
3.1.2. Secondary Data
Data collection is obtained from indirect observations and measurements.
a) Document Study is used to look for data needed to support research.
b) Literature Review is used to find supporting data and review and compare previous
studies obtained from previous journals and theses regarding enterprise
architecture planning.
3.2. Enterprise Architecture Planning Method
The enterprise architecture planning method used is TOGAF ADM which consists of 10
phases. The first phase is the design preparation phase. At this phase, we identify business
processes related to the main laundry process and map them to architectural principles
(business principles, data, applications and technology). In the second phase, the management
requirements phase, we determine the main and supporting business processes at the XYZ
laundry that will be mapped into the Value Chain Activity diagram.
In the third phase, architecture vision phase, interviews and observations were conducted
at PT Laundry XYZ to be able to identify stakeholders involved and define concepts and
solutions in enterprise architecture planning. The fourth phase is the business architecture
phase. This phase aims to describe the current laundry business process and desired business
processes from the company. At the fifth phase, the Information System Architecture phase,
we determine the data architecture and application architecture that focuses on how data is used
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for business, process, and service function needs. The application architecture emphasizes how
the planned application can support the company's business. At the sixth phase, technology
architecture phase, we define the software and hardware technology needed and in accordance
with the company's business functions.
The seventh phase, opportunities and solutions phase, contains activities to evaluate
business architecture, data, applications, and technology so that they can define implementation
strategies. At the eighth phase, migration planning phase, we compile an application roadmap
and planned implementation and migration of the laundry system so that the system transition
process was understood by all stakeholders. At the ninth phase, implementation governance
phase, we compose recommendations for the implementation of the governance of system
implementation and information technology that has been carried out. And finally, at the last
phase, change management phase, we compile a management plan for the implemented
architecture.
4. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
For the preliminary phase, we identify the scope and architectural principles. The scope we got
for this research is all operational activities related to linen transactions at PT. XYZ Laundry
from washing, shipping linen to customers, receiving linen by customers, to distributing linen
to each customer's room. Architectural principles at PT. Laundry XYZ are as in Table 2.
Table 2 Architectural Principles
Type of principle
Name of principle
The Enterprise Architecture created must be in accordance with the
objectives, activities, duties and business needs of PT. Laundry XYZ
Business principle
Management of Enterprise Architecture made must be easy and
efficient so it can increase the value of the company
Harmony between IT and business
Data security
Defining data consistently and can be understood by all users
Data Principle
Data is well managed and can be accessed anytime and anywhere by
authorized users
Ease of use of the application so that user can focus on the task
Application principle
Support user mobility
Application can operate on various technology platform
Interoperability
Standardized software, hardware, and platform to be compatible with
Technology principle
technology used
Architecture must be designed to facilitate addition and development
in the future
In the second phase, management requirement phase, the business process of PT. Laundry
XYZ can be seen in the Value Chain Activity diagram which is translated into the main
activities and supporting activities. The main activity is all the main action that are carried out
to achieve organizational goals, namely taking of dirty linen, washing of dirty linen, delivery
of clean linen, marketing services, and customer services. Whereas supporting activities are all
action needed to support the main activities, namely human resource management, technology
development, procurement of linen, and financial management.
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Figure 1 Value Chain Activity of Business Process PT. Laundry XYZ
In architecture vision phase, we identify of involved stakeholder, namely president director,
operational manager, finance manager, marketing manager, customer service manager, and
staff. Based on the results of interviews and observations on related parties at PT. Laundry
XYZ, the concept of a solution for enterprise architecture planning is obtained as shown in
Figure 4.
Figure 2 Solution Concept Diagram
In the fourth phase, we conclude that the business process model that is suitable for this
laundry company is a business process model that only focused on the main business functions
which include the procurement of clean linen, taking of dirty linen from customer, washing of
dirty linen, delivery of clean linen to customer, distribution of clean linen to each customer
main room, customer service, and finance report. Based on the description of current and future
business processes by using BPMN tools, it is concluded that the gap analysis is as in Table 3.
Table 3 Gap analysis of Business Architecture
Category
Business Gap Analysis - Findings
People
Staff have not been able to monitor stock/availability of clean linen either
in laundry main warehouse or in customer main room
Staff sometimes still do work that is not actually their duty, such as
operational staff must check the manual stock in the customer main room
Process
Business process is not effective and efficient
Tools
Process has not been automated
Information
There is no information integration between sections/units
At the fifth phase, the information system architecture phase, an information architecture
development is carried out which includes data architecture and application architecture. In
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data architecture, we define important data entities to support business processes at PT.
Laundry XYZ and gap analysis found is shown in Table 4. In application architecture, we
define the main applications that are important for processing and supporting business and gap
analysis found is shown in Table 5.
Table 4 Data Architecture
Category
Finding
Data not
available
The unavailability of data entities that support the business process of PT.
Laundry XYZ such as financial management activities, linen shipping, linen
receipts, and linen distribution, marketing, and customer service.
Table 5 Application Architecture
Category
Application name
Present condition
New application
Laundry Application, Client
Application, Management Application
There is no application
In technology architecture phase, we have to identify technology that can be applied and
adapted for supporting company operational activities due to the unavailability of hardware
and software as shown in Table 6.
Table 6 Technology Architecture
Category
Finding
Technology making
The unavailability of hardware and software in each unit of the
company
In the opportunities and solution phase, the process of identifying limitations and solutions
is carried out. This identification starts from business architecture (Table 7), data architecture
(Table 8), application architecture (Table 9), and technology architecture (Table 10).
Table 7 Business Architecture
Category
Solution
People
Conduct employee recruitment to monitor the stock of the application to be
made
Establish assignments, principal, and function of each section/unit
Process
Improving business processes that are tailored to the architectural planning
made
Tools
Making tools to make it easy to automate business processes
Information
Making information integration process
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Table 8 Data Architecture
Category
Solution
Data not available
Defining and making data in every business function of the
company.
Table 9 Application Architecture
Category
Present condition
Solution
New
application
Application not
available
Laundry Application (web, desktop, and mobile)
Client Application (web and mobile)
Management Application (web and mobile)
Table 10 Technology Architecture
Category
Finding
Solution
Technology
making
The unavailability of
hardware and software
in each section of the
company
Procurement of hardware and software
according to business process requirements.
Hardware that includes RFID Reader, UHF
RFID tags, servers, access points, mobile
devices
At the eighth phase, migration planning phase, the steps to move from baseline architecture
to the target architecture by completing the implementation and migration plan are done. This
phase aims to create an application roadmap and plan for implementing its migration by
ensuring that the transitions carried out are understood by all stakeholders. The migration plan
can be seen in Table 11 and the application roadmap in Figure 5.
Table 11 Migration Planning
Present condition
Expected condition
Migration plan
There is no application
for linen management
There is application for linen
management
Create laundry application
There is no application
for monitoring stock of
linen
There is application for
monitoring stock of linen
and can be accessed by
management
Create mobile application
(android) for monitoring stock
and can be accessed by
management
There is no hardware to
support linen
management
There is hardware to support
linen management
Provide hardware such as:
Server, Network, mobile
device, RFID reader, RFID tag
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Figure 3 Application Roadmap
At the implementation governance phase, we develop recommendations in implementing a
system of governance and information technology. Proposed governance can be seen in Table
12.
Table 12 Proposed Governance
No.
Governance
Proposal
1.
Management of changes in
linen shipping and
receiving procedures
Changes in the procedure for sending and receiving are
made after the Change Request Form is approved by the
laundry and related customers
2.
Management of network
security and information
Use of passwords and access rights to access the laundry
application
Users change passwords regularly
Every computer has an updated antivirus
Use of firewall
Regular socialization of user awareness of network security
3.
Management of information
technology development
Regular training for users and IT team
Make proposals for infrastructure development annually
Make an IT development budget plan
4.
Management of information
technology performance
Manage every request that goes into the IT department to
measure the services provided
And finally, at the last phase, change management phase, plans are drawn up for changes
to the architecture and business processes that have just been implemented. The business
process changes can be seen in Table 13.
Table 13 Business Process Changes
No.
Changes in IS/IT business processes
Types of changes
1.
Changes in the linen management process from the delivery process
to reception both in the laundry and client
New initiation
2.
Linen Management Application
New initiation
3.
The making of the repository contains a report summary of linen
usage statistics
New initiation
4.
Making invoice report
Improvement
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5. CONCLUSION
In this research we succeed to develop enterprise architecture planning in the form of a
blueprint of the 4 main architectures of TOGAF, namely business architecture, data
architecture, application architecture, and technology architecture. In business architecture, a
business process design is produced on 7 business functions that have been adjusted to future
business needs. In data architecture, data entities are generated and their relationships are
tailored to future business needs. In the application architecture, 6 new application modules are
produced, namely Laundry Application, Client Application, Management Application, Quality
Application, Helpdesk Application, and Marketing Application. In the technology architecture,
hardware (UHF RFID Reader, UHF RFID Tag, Mobile Device, Server, Access Point) and
software designs are tailored to future business needs and support the Linen Management
application at PT. Laundry XYZ.
The resulting blueprint can be used as a guide in developing information
systems/information technology at PT. Laundry XYZ. Enterprise architecture planning that is
made is in accordance with the vision, mission, goals that are able to support business processes
and operational activities of PT. Laundry XYZ.
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