Uploaded by IAEME PUBLICATION

A STUDY OF BITUMINOUS MIXES WITH NATURAL FIBRE (SISAL FIBRE) BY EXPERIMENT

advertisement
International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET)
Volume 10, Issue 04, April 2019, pp. 410-418, Article ID: IJCIET_10_04_044
Available online at http://www.iaeme.com/ijciet/issues.asp?JType=IJCIET&VType=10&IType=04
ISSN Print: 0976-6308 and ISSN Online: 0976-6316
© IAEME Publication
Scopus Indexed
A STUDY OF BITUMINOUS MIXES WITH NATURAL FIBRE (SISAL FIBRE) BY
EXPERIMENT.
Amit Kundal
M.Tech. Transportation Engineering, Chandigarh University, Mohali-140413, Punjab, India.
Dr. Amit Goel
Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, Chandigarh University, Mohali 140413, Punjab,
India
ABSTRACT
The main aim of this study was to determine the benefits of use of naturally available
fibre called SISAL fibre used as additive in Bituminous concrete. Bituminous Mixture
in which all component were mixed, placed and compacted at High temperature is
called as hot mix asphalt. HMA grade is referred as Dense Grade mixture (DGM).
Asphaltic concrete is also called Bituminous Concrete (BC). Pavements are vulnerable
to cracks, potholes, distresses and permanent deformation. In this study, SISAL fibre
had been used in bituminous mixes to study the benefits of use of natural fibre and
environmentally sustainable design. Standard Marshall Mix design test and Drain
Down test were performed. The process of mixing and preparation of aggregate,
gradation had been taken as per specification of (IS-MORTH). The various percentages
of binder varied to (4%-6%) and additive fibre varied to (0%-0.8%) of total aggregates
and Stone dust as a filler. Using Marshall Procedure, the optimum value of bitumen
content was found to be (5%). Similarly, Fibre content for Bituminous Concrete (BC)
was found to be (0.4%). Bituminous Concrete (BC) mix samples were made to find
out their OBC and OFC, then performed with tests like Marshall Stability and Drain
down test to assess the result of addition of fibre in bituminous mix. The test results
show that the modification of bitumen with sisal fibre used as additive in the bituminous
mixture help in increasing its stability, durability and decreasing air void and flow
value. In the end it is found that using fibre as an additive enhance the properties like
Stability, Strength, and endurance and reduce the Drain down of Bituminous Concrete
(BC).
Keywords: Bituminous concrete, SISAL fibre, Marshall Properties, Dense Graded
Mixes, Drain Down.
Cite this Article: Amit Kundal and Dr. Amit Goel, a Study of Bituminous Mixes with
Natural Fibre (Sisal Fibre) by Experiment. International Journal of Civil Engineering
and Technology, 10(04), 2019, pp. 410-418
http://www.iaeme.com/IJCIET/issues.asp?JType=IJCIET&VType=10&IType=04
http://www.iaeme.com/IJCIET/index.asp
410
[email protected]
Amit Kundal and Dr. Amit Goel
1. INTRODUCTION
For the Development of country, development of transportation plays important role. As,
flexible pavement is commonly used in India and due to more benefits over rigid pavement.
Flexible pavement requires a detailed engineering design which minimize its cost and give
good dependable performances of in-service highway. Fiber has become a focus of research
for scientists and researchers. SISAL fibre is naturally and locally available fibre in India which
has been economically beneficial as well as shows its good characteristic. SISAL fibre is
obtained from leaf skin after removing the pulp. SISAL fibre neither attract dust particles nor
absorb water and moisture0[1].The use of SISAL fibre gives better strength, durability and
prevent from drain down of the mix [2][2].The size of SISAL fibre used in the sample
preparation was taken to be length 6mm to 18mm with diameter 0.2mm to 0. 6mm. The
aggregate gradation was taken according to the of IS: 107-2386 Grade1 and as per specification
of Ministry of road transportation and highway (MORTH, 2013) [3]. The calculation of the
optimum value of bitumen and optimum fibre content are found with the help of Marshall Test.
To determine the values of Marshall test parameters were stability, flow value and voids in
mineral aggregates VMA, voids filled with bitumen (VFB) and air content (VA) [4] . The drain
down determines the part of mixture which separates itself from the sample and flow down [5].
A researcher attempts to attain these essential and fulfill by preparing number of samples on
the bituminous mix with varied proportions and test them to find out the optimum from it.
2. MATERIALS AND METHODS
For the Study and preparing of bituminous mixes aggregates were used. Aggregates were
comprising of stone dust, coarse and fine aggregates. The aggregate gradation was taken
according to the IS: 107-2386 Grade1 and as per specification of Ministry of road
transportation and highway (MORTH, 2013) [3](Table 1). The physical properties of aggregates
as per Indian standards were tested Moisture Content, Impact Value, Flakiness Index,
Elongation Index (Table 2). The specific gravities of coarse aggregates and Fine aggregates
were found to be 2.6 and 2.55 respectively. The specific gravity of stone dust which was used
as filler was found out to be 2.42.
Table 1. Gradation of aggregate as per MORTH specifications
Sieve size
Passing %
% Quantity of aggregate
26.5 mm
100
19 mm
90-100
9
13.2 mm
59-79
12
9.5 mm
52-72
15
4.75 mm
35-55
10
2.36 mm
28-44
10
1.18 mm
20-34
11
600 µm
15-27
9
300 µm
10-20
10
150 µm
5-13
5
75 µm
2-8
4
Filler
5
5
http://www.iaeme.com/IJCIET/index.asp
411
[email protected]
A Study of Bituminous Mixes with Natural Fibre (Sisal Fibre) by Experiment.
A
B
C
D
Figure 1. Materials used in the study (A) aggregates as Per specific quantity, (B) SISAL fibre
(C)Coated with Emulsion (D) Small cut pieces SISAL fibre.
Table 2. Properties of aggregates (Physical)
PROPERTY
Moisture content (%)
Aggregate Impact value
(%)
Flakiness Index (%)
Elongation Index (%)
Combined Elongation
and Flakiness Test (%)
[6]
TEST RESULT
0.20
MORTH specifications
Max 2%
TEST METHOD
IS:2386 Part-III
19.22
Max 24%
IS:2386 Part-IV
12.64
15.81
Max 30%
Max 30%
IS:2386 Part-I
IS:2386 Part-I
28.45
Max 35%
IS:2386 Part-I
2.1. Bitumen and Sisal fibre
Viscosity grade VG-30 bitumen was used for preparation of mix and samples. The bitumen’s
physical properties are shown in Table 3. The length of SISAL fibre (Additive) was (750-900)
mm and Fibre diameter from (0.2mm to 0.6 mm). The emulsion SS-1 coated the SISAL fibre
and was stored in a hot air furnace at 110 °C for 24 hours. SISAL fiber has been produced in a
length of 6 - 18 mm to be cut into small fiber sections.
http://www.iaeme.com/IJCIET/index.asp
412
[email protected]
Amit Kundal and Dr. Amit Goel
Table 3. Physical Properties of bitumen (VG-30)3
Property
Requirement as per IR IS 73:
2013
Test result
Penetration at 25°C
0.1mm,100gm, 5sec
50-70
60 cm
40
38 cm
47
45°C
0.97-1.02
1.052
Ductility at 25°C, (cm)
Softening Point (R&B) (°C)
Specific gravity
2.2. Methodology
Bituminous Mix design sample were prepared after fixing the proportion of aggregates and
varying binder content (4%-6%). The optimum bitumen content was found. Marshal Mix
design was used to determine the stability, Flow value and Air Voids. Various percentages of
fibre content (0% - 0.8%) and fibre length(6mm-18mm) were taken. 1200 g of aggregate with
5% filler as a (stone dust) by weight of aggregate to determine the optimum fibre content 7.
Adequate binder quantity of bitumen to check a strong pavement and good working to allow
easy layer settlement without segregation or separating. The solidarity to oppose shear buckling
under traffic at higher temperature. Researcher experience had shown that SISAL fibre perform
better than other fibre and polymer in case of reduction of the drain down of mix 5.
2.3. Preparation of Mix
The Marshall test procedure describe in ASTM D1559 and MoRTH specification followed for
this experimentation. The Bituminous Concrete comprises of fine, coarse aggregates and Stone
dust were mixed as per adopted gradation. Bitumen is heated at temperature of 150°C. The mix
was heated up to 180°C in an Air oven for continuous 2 hours so that it can mix well with
heated binder8. The process was performed according to (IRC-MORTH). SS-1 emulsion
coated the fibre and kept for 24 hours in an air- hot furnace at 110°LC. After this, the emulsion
coated Sisal fibre was slit into small pieces by length and weight and added directly to the
mixture. The total aggregate was kept up at a temperature of 20° LC higher than the temperature
of the bitumen. Required amount of bitumen needed was add on aggregate and fibre heating
mixture. The mix preparation was performed manually with hands until the color and constancy
of the mixture to show constant and homogenous. The mixing time maintained 2 to 5 minutes.
The prepared mix was poured in to pre-heated Moulds and the samples were compact by 75
blows on both sides. For Room temperature cooling, the samples had been kept overnight.
Then, a standard testing procedure was use extract and test samples with a temperature of 60°C
http://www.iaeme.com/IJCIET/index.asp
413
[email protected]
A Study of Bituminous Mixes with Natural Fibre (Sisal Fibre) by Experiment.
Figure 2. Mixing of SISAL fibre in Aggregate.
In this Experimental study the preparation of samples takes place in following steps:
I.
According to the aim of study the first step was to determine the content for optimal
bitumen (OBC) of the bituminous mix with the help of Marshall stability Test, this
was achieved by preparing the marshal sample at different bitumen percentages (4%
to 6%).
II.
The Marshall Stability parameters and volumetric parameters were used to
determine that 5% bitumen content was found to be an Optimum value.
III.
At this stage keeping the bitumen content constant (5%), SISAL fibre varying from
(0% to 0.8%) and different Fibre length up to (4mm-16mm) will help in determining
the Optimum Fibre content which was (0.4%).
IV.
At the end samples of with sisal fibre 0.4% and without fibre and 5% bitumen
content of bituminous mix tested with drain down test.
3. RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS
3.1. Marshall Stability Test
The standard method is Marshall Stability test which is widely and commonly used for
pavement works Bituminous concrete or bituminous mix is commonly design by Marshall test
Procedure. In this present study Marshall properties stability, flow value, air voids, Vma and
Vfb were investigated to obtain the optimal binder contents (OBC) and optimal fibre contents
(OFC) and Marshall Quotient set as per according to (IS-MORTH) [10]. The Marshall properties
of bituminous mix with addition of sisal fibre are present in Fig 3.
The Marshall properties of modified bituminous mix with addition of sisal fibre are present
in Fig 3. In this present Experimental study modified bituminous concrete with addition of sisal
fibre was evaluated by Marshall mix design procedure. Binder content varied from (4% to6%).
Optimal binder content was found to be 5%. In this graphical representation Fibre content
varying percentage were (0.2%,0.4%,0.6% and 0.8%) and Fibre length varying from length
(6mm,10mm,14mmand 18mm).
Stability graphs show increase in stability till adding up to fiber length 10mm and Fibre
content 0.4 but when adding more than 0.4% fibre content stability start decreases. It is also
observed that with increase in fibre content and fibre length up to a given level, Air void and
flow value decreases Thus the consistency of bitumen changes and becomes harder and adding
up to o.4% fibre shows good characteristic and strength. Void in Mineral Aggregates with
addition of fibre content up to 0.4% shows good result further, addition it starts gradually
http://www.iaeme.com/IJCIET/index.asp
414
[email protected]
Amit Kundal and Dr. Amit Goel
STABILITY
18
16
14
12
10
8
6
4
2
0
FLOW VALUE
STABILITY
increases and decreases. Void Filled with Bitumen till addition of 0.4% shows stable and good
binding character.
FLOW VALUE
4
3.5
3
2.5
2
1.5
1
0.5
0
0.20%
0.20% 0.40% 0.60% 0.80%
FIBRE CONTENT
OBC-5%
FIBRE LENGTH 6mm
FIBRE LENGTH 10mm
FIBRE LENGTH 14mm
0.40%
0.60%
0.80%
FIBRE CONTENT
OBC-5%
FIBRE LENGTH 6mm
FIBRE LENGTH 10mm
FIBRE LENGTH 14mm
Figure A
Figure B
Figure C
Figure D
Figure E
Figure 3. The Marshall Properties with varying Fibre length and Fibre content at OBC-5% (A)
Stability (B) flow value. (C) Air voids. (D) Variation in voids in mineral aggregate. (E) Variation in
VFB.
http://www.iaeme.com/IJCIET/index.asp
415
[email protected]
A Study of Bituminous Mixes with Natural Fibre (Sisal Fibre) by Experiment.
3.2. Drain down Test
Drain Down test in which part of mix separate from sample of bituminous mix and flows
downward and drain down. The test process and determine the amount of Drain Down in an
uncompacted bituminous concrete5. In this Present study bituminous concrete was obtained at
Optimum bitumen content and Optimum fibre content. Drain down test of samples with fibre
and without fibre were determined through drain down method as follow.
 As per AASHTO T305 conditions that the mixture as it is producing, stored,
transported, and placed.
 The Test needs an evaluation of the drain down capability of a bituminous mixture
with fibre and without fibre during mixture design.
 It is observed that drain down of value of Bituminous concrete with fibre decreases
as compare to without fibre which means it reduces and prevent drain down of
bituminous concrete
Table 5. Drain Down values of mix
Without Fibre (OBC-5%) With fibre (OBC-5% OFC-0.4%)
0.02
0.2
0.034
0.2
Figure 4.
4. CONCLUSION
In this Experimental study, Sisal fibre was used as additive in Bituminous Concrete. Two tests
were performed to evaluate its characteristic Marshall Tests and drain down test. Marshall Test
was performed on the bituminous samples to found out the optimum Fibre content. Drain Down
test helps to determine and evaluating the prevention of drain down of bituminous mix.
 It was observed that after adding Sisal fibre to 0.4% and fibre length 10mm and
bitumen content-5% the stability of the mix increases, but when adding more than
0.4% fibre content stability start decreases.
 It was identified that with increase in fibre content and fibre length up to a certain
level, Air void and flow value decreases Thus the consistency of asphalt changes
and becomes harder.
 Use of emulsion coated fibre increases resistance to moisture induced damages.
 Drain down of binder decreases which show good characteristics of bitumen.
http://www.iaeme.com/IJCIET/index.asp
416
[email protected]
Amit Kundal and Dr. Amit Goel
ACKNOWLEDGMENT
The author thanks Er. Shaurya Sharma of Civil Engineering Department, Chandigarh
University for sharing his skills and knowledge.
REFERENCES
[1]
[2]
[3]
[4]
[5]
[6]
[7]
[8]
[9]
[10]
[11]
[12]
[13]
[14]
[15]
[16]
[17]
P Teja Abhilash. A Study on bituminous mix with sisal fibre. International Journal of
Civil engineering and Concrete Structures (Int. J. Civil Engg. Conc.Structs). October
2016, ISSN 2455-7714 www.trpubonline.com Vol. 1, No. 3.
Garnepudi Sandeep. Experimental study of bituminous mixture mixes with natural fibre
International Journal of Advance Engineering and Research Development (IJAERD).
2017 February ISSN: 2348-4470, Vol.4 Issue 02.
Ministry of Road Transport & Highways. Specifications for road and bridge works. 5thedn.
IRC: Delhi, 2013.
Rajkumar JSS, Vijayalakshmi MM. Evaluating the Performance of Super pave Graded
Bituminous Mix. Indian Journal of Science and Technology. 2016 September; 9(35):1-7.
Naveen Kumar. Drain down Analysis of Bituminous Mix Modified with Natural Fibre.
International Journal of Innovations in Engineering and Technology (IJIET),
December-2016, ISSN 2319-1058 Volume Issue 4.
Bureau of Indian Standards. Methods of testing for aggregate for concrete. 2002 March;
IS: 2386.
IRC 94. Specification for Dense Bituminous Macadam. Indian Road Congress. New Delhi,
India. 1986
L.R Kadiyali. Principles and Practices of Highway Engineering. Khanna Publications:
2005.
IRC: SP: 107. Guideline for Gap Graded Wearing Courses with Rubberized Bitumen
(Bitumen - Rubber). Indian Road Congress. New Delhi, India. 2015; p. 1-28
IRC SP 53. Guidelines on use of modified bitumen in road construction. Indian Road
Congress. New Delhi, India.2010.
Chakraborty, P., & Das, A. “Principles of Transportation Engineering”, Prentice Hall of
India, New Delhi, (2010), pp 294-299.
T Subramani. Experimental investigations on coir fibre Reinforced Bituminous Mixes.
International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA). May 2012
ISSN: 2248-9622 Vol. 2, Issue 3.
Anuj Narwhal. Analysis of results on bituminous mixes using natural fibers. International
Journal of All Research Education and Scientific Methods (IJARESM). June-2016,
ISSN: 2455-6211, Volume 4, Issue 6.
IRC SP 53. Guidelines on use of modified bitumen in road construction. Indian Road
Congress. New Delhi, India.2010.
Gowtham C. Effect of Steel Slag on Marshall Properties of Plain and Modified Bituminous
Concrete Grade 1 Mix. International Journal of Engineering Research & Technology
(IJERT). 2018 July; ISSN: 2278-0181, Vol.7 Issue 07.
Ghulamsakhi A, Amit G. Use of Waste Plastic, Waste Rubber and Fly Ash in Bituminous
Mixes. Indian Journal of Science and Technology. 2018 July; Vol 11(28), DOI:
10.17485/ijst/2018/v11i28/130784.
Midhila V S. A Review on Comparative Study on Bitumen Modification Using Synthetic
and Natural Fiber. International Journal of Science and Research (IJSR). May 2017,
ISSN: 2319-7064, Volume 6 Issue 5.
http://www.iaeme.com/IJCIET/index.asp
417
[email protected]
A Study of Bituminous Mixes with Natural Fibre (Sisal Fibre) by Experiment.
[18]
[19]
[20]
P Teja Abhilash. A Study on bituminous mix with sisal fibre. International Journal of
Civil engineering and Concrete Structures (Int. J. Civil Engg. Conc.Structs). October
2016, ISSN 2455-7714 www.trpubonline.com Vol. 1, No. 3.
Shruti S. Wadalkar, Study of Pavement Performance Indicators: RII Approach. Indian
Journal of Science and Technology, June2018, Volume 11 DOI:
10.17485/ijst/2018/v11i22/121101.
Nitish. Quality improvised of bituminous mix by natural fiber. International Journal of
Advance Research, Ideas and Innovations in Technology IJERT).2018, ISSN:2454132X (Volume 4, Issue 4).
http://www.iaeme.com/IJCIET/index.asp
418
[email protected]
Download
Random flashcards
Arab people

15 Cards

Nomads

17 Cards

Marketing

46 Cards

Ethnology

14 Cards

Create flashcards