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EFFECT OF USING BANANA FIBRE AND ZEOLITE AS AN ADDITIVE ON THE ENGINEERING PROPERTIES OF BITUMINOUS CONCRETE

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International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET)
Volume 10, Issue 04, April 2019, pp. 367-372, Article ID: IJCIET_10_04_039
Available online at http://www.iaeme.com/ijciet/issues.asp?JType=IJCIET&VType=10&IType=04
ISSN Print: 0976-6308 and ISSN Online: 0976-6316
© IAEME Publication
Scopus Indexed
EFFECT OF USING BANANA FIBRE AND
ZEOLITE AS AN ADDITIVE ON THE
ENGINEERING PROPERTIES OF BITUMINOUS
CONCRETE
Neetin Khajuria
Student of M.E, Transportation Engineering, Chandigarh University, Punjab, India
Avani Chopra
Assistant Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, Chandigarh University, Punjab, India
ABSTRACT
Generally, bitumen mix comprises of coarse aggregate, fine aggregate, filler and
binder material but in order to improve the engineering properties of the mix, the need
for the suitable material arises which enhance the properties of the mix. The main
motive of this study is to enhance the engineering properties by using banana fibre and
zeolite in the bitumen mix against the normal mix. The banana fibre and zeolite is added
in the mix at different percentages to find the effect in the bitumen mix by laboratory
tests in which stability and flow parameter is analysed. The content of binder ranges
from 4% to 6 % with an increment of .5 % and the Optimum Binder Content for bitumen
mix were found to be 5%. The percentage of both banana fibre and zeolite ranges from
0.05% to 0.3% with an increment of 0.05%. The use of banana fibre and zeolite proves
economical and environmentally friendly as the use of banana fibre improves the
stability of the mix and zeolite helps in lowering the mixing and compacting
temperatures which ensure highly useful especially for heavy traffic roads and multiaxle loads as the size of the heavy load vehicles are also increased. Marshall Test is
carried out in this study.
Keywords: Bituminous mixes, Bituminous Concrete, Banana fibre, Zeolite, Stability,
Flow parameter, Marshall
Cite this Article: Neetin Khajuria and Avani Chopra, Effect of Using Banana Fibre
and Zeolite as an Additive on the Engineering Properties of Bituminous Concrete,
International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology, 10(04), 2019, pp. 367-372
http://www.iaeme.com/IJCIET/issues.asp?JType=IJCIET&VType=10&IType=04
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Neetin Khajuria and Avani Chopra
1. INTRODUCTION
In the present modern era in which more and more traffic is increasing day by day due to which
the need for good roads are also increasing at a rapid rate. For constructing good roads, the
requirement of durability and stability in bituminous mixes also needs to be improved. As the
Axle loads of heavy vehicles are increased so the need for the improvement in the properties
of paving material is also increased. Now a days the highways authorities are continuously
finding solutions for providing smooth, safe and reasonable pavements which have the ability
to carry heavy loads. For achieving this goal, many researchers are continuously doing their
efforts to increase the durability and strength of the bitumen mixes. In this research, study
aggregates are used as per MoRTH specifications. Preparation of samples is created using
different aggregate gradation, bitumen VG 40, filler and banana fibre and zeolite. In this study,
the fibres are used as an additive in the mix. In this study the banana fibre and zeolite help in
enhancing the stability and properties of the bitumen mix. In this present study, a comparison
of BC mix with and without using banana fibre and zeolite is made. The zeolite releases the
water after heating which helps in lowering the mixing and compacting temperature which
helps in saving of fuel consumption which proves to be economical. These materials are also
cheaper and are easily available.
2. MATERIALS AND METHOD
2.1. Bitumen
VG 40 grade is used in this present study to prepare the samples for the experiments according
to (IRC: 111-2009)
2.2. Coarse aggregates
Coarse aggregates of various sizes are used according to MoRTH specifications.
2.3. Fine aggregates
Fine aggregates are also used as per MoRTH specification. The aggregates should be clean,
dry, durable and free from dust.
2.4. Fillers
Fillers are a necessary requirement in the Marshall test as the fillers fill the voids. Fillers are as
per MoRTH specification. Stone dust is used as a filler in this study.
2.5. Banana Fibre
Banana fibre is used according to different percentages used by the weight of the total mix.
2.6. Zeolite
The zeolite is in powdered form and lite grey in colour and is used according to different
percentages by total weight of the mix.
2.7. Emulsion
The slow setting emulsion is used in this study to protect banana fibre from burning during
mixing as the mixing temp is high.
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Effect of Using Banana Fibre and Zeolite as an Additive on the Engineering Properties of
Bituminous Concrete
3. PREPARATION OF MIX
To prepare samples the following procedure is followed
First of all, aggregates are graded according to their gradation as per MoRTH specification.
After that 3 reference samples in which binder content ranges from 4% to 6% of each were
prepared with an increment of .5%. On the basis of this optimum binder content is calculated.
After that on the basis of OBC modified samples are prepared in which bitumen content
remains the same according to OBC but an additive is used in which both coated banana fibre
and zeolite is used with different percentages. Banana fibre coated with emulsion is placed in
an oven for 24 hrs at a temp of 110℃ to make sure that fibre is not burnt during mixing. Both
banana fibre and zeolite are used at an increment of .05% ranging from 0.05% to 0.2%. Zeolite
is used in powdered form. After gradation is done aggregates are mixed with each other to get
a sample of the weight of 1200gms. After mixing samples are placed in an oven for 3 to 4 hrs
at a temperature of 150℃ to 180℃.VG 40 grade bitumen was heated in high temperature to get
liquified so that it will mix with all the aggregates and fibre easily. All components are mixed
thoroughly to prepare a homogeneous mix sample. A mould is used which is cylindrical in
shape and made up of iron and has a diameter of 100mm. Mould is also heated before use.
After heating all the required component, the mixture which is prepared is put into mould and
hammering was performed with the help of a hammer. Hammering was performed by giving
75 blows to each side of the specimen. After hammering is done samples are left in room
temperature to cool down for 24 hrs. After removing samples from the mould and name
according to their binder content and modified material percentages are glued to sample to
recognize it later. The weight of all individual samples is taken both in room temperature and
in water. After weighing the samples, samples are placed in a water bath for 40 minutes at a
temperature of 60℃. After 40 minutes samples are placed in the Marshall apparatus and the
readings are taken carefully.
4. TEST PROCEDURE
The procedure is followed according to (ASTM D 6927-15).
5. TEST RESULTS
Table 1 Marshall stability, flow, VA, VMA, VFB values for banana fibre and zeolite modified
bitumen mix at optimum bitumen content 5%.
Percentage Fibre
0
0.05
0.1
0.15
0.2
0.3
Range as per
MoRTH
specification
VA (%)
5.67
4.08
4.06
5.69
6.12
7.34
VMA (%)
17.44
16.38
16.03
17.46
18.17
17.46
VFB (%)
67.38
75.09
74.67
67.41
66.31
57.96
Stability(kN)
22.3
21.3
24.1
26.9
21.53
19.8
Flow(mm)
2.65
2.79
3.46
2.70
2.45
2.92
3-6
Min 11
65-75
>900
2-4
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Neetin Khajuria and Avani Chopra
Stablity (kN)
Stablity (kN)
30
26.9
27.5
25
24.1
22.3
22.5
21.53
21.3
19.8
20
Stablity (kN)
17.5
15
0
0.05
0.1
0.15
0.2
0.3
Fibre Content (%)
Figure.1 Effect of fibre content on Stability
Flow (mm)
3.46
Flow (mm)
4
2.65
3
2.79
2.92
2.7
2.45
2
Flow (mm)
1
0
0
0.05
0.1
0.15
0.2
0.3
Fibre Content (%)
Figure.2 Effect of fibre content on Flow
VA
7.34
8
7
6
5
VA
5.69
5.67
4.08
6.12
4.06
4
3
VA
2
1
0
0
0.05
0.1
0.15
0.2
0.3
Fibre Content (%)
Figure.3 Effect of fibre content on Air Voids (VA)
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Effect of Using Banana Fibre and Zeolite as an Additive on the Engineering Properties of
Bituminous Concrete
VMA
VMA
18.17
18.5
18
17.5
17
16.5
16
15.5
15
14.5
17.46
17.44
17.46
16.38
16.03
VMA
0
0.05
0.1
0.15
0.2
0.3
Fibre Content (%)
Figure.4 Effect of fibre content on VMA
VFB
80
75
74.67
75
VFB
70
67.41
67.38
66.31
65
57.96
60
VFB
55
50
0
0.05
0.1
0.15
0.2
0.3
Fibre Content (%)
Figure.5 Effect of fibre content on VFB
6. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION




After adding the banana fibre and zeolite powder into the mix it is found that the
presence of fibre in BC mixture enhancing the stability values, which means a
growth in toughness of the BC mixture.
It is found that stability of the modified mixture increases firstly and after reaching
the maximum value it decreases with the increase in fibre content.
Zeolite allows us to reduce the mixing and compaction temperatures.
It also saves fuel energy required for heating and compaction because it lowers
temperature for mixing and compaction. The maximum stability is found to be at
0.15% fibre content.
7. FUTURE SCOPE:

In this study, only VG 40 bitumen is used but the other grades are also needed to be
evaluated.
Some other natural fibres are also present in nature they are also to be evaluated and
compared
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

Various gradation is suggested by MoRTH they are also to be evaluated.
Stone dust is used as a filler in this study but the use of some other fillers is also to
be evaluated.
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