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ENGINEERING-GEOLOGICAL ZONING OF THE ROUTE OF TECHNOLOGICAL TUNNEL DESIGNED UNDER COMPLEX STRUCTURAL AND TECTONIC CONDITIONS

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International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET)
Volume 10, Issue 04, April 2019, pp. 341-350, Article ID: IJCIET_10_04_036
Available online at http://www.iaeme.com/ijciet/issues.asp?JType=IJCIET&VType=10&IType=04
ISSN Print: 0976-6308 and ISSN Online: 0976-6316
© IAEME Publication
Scopus Indexed
ENGINEERING-GEOLOGICAL ZONING OF
THE ROUTE OF TECHNOLOGICAL TUNNEL
DESIGNED UNDER COMPLEX STRUCTURAL
AND TECTONIC CONDITIONS
Lange Ivan
Department of hydrogeology and engineering geology, St. Petersburg Mining University, 2,
21st Line, Vasilyevsky Island, 199106, Russia
Lebedeva Yana
Department of hydrogeology and engineering geology, St. Petersburg Mining University, 2,
21st Line, Vasilyevsky Island, 199106, Russia,
ABSTRACT
The paper deals with the route of the designed tunnel and its main technical
characteristics. The paper presents specific features of engineering-geological
conditions of the territory of its location, as well as the analysis of the impact of
structural and tectonic conditions on the state and properties of rocks, enclosing the
tunnel structure. Forecast of the risk of inrush formation while performing mining
workings, based on calculations of the enclosing rocks stability, have been made.
Taking into account the degree of fracturing, rock inrush formation and water inflows
value, a scheme of engineering-geological zoning of the designed tunnel route has been
developed.
Keywords: tunnel, structural and tectonic conditions, flysch formation, fracturing,
inrush formation, stability of rocks, engineering-geological zoning.
Cite this Article: Lange Ivan and Lebedeva Yana, Engineering-Geological Zoning of
the Route of Technological Tunnel Designed Under Complex Structural and Tectonic
Conditions, International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology, 10(04), 2019,
pp. 341-350
http://www.iaeme.com/IJCIET/issues.asp?JType=IJCIET&VType=10&IType=04
I. INTRODUCTION
Currently, the operation of oil industry enterprises is represented by a consistent
implementation of the production cycle stages, from the development of fields and oil
production to petroleum products sales to the end consumer. The inescapable link in this cycle
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341
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Lange Ivan and Lebedeva Yana
is the transportation of petroleum refinery products, which is the most frequently carried out
using the main pipeline systems [4-8, 25, 26]. In connection therewith, for the delivery of
exported petroleum products, by one of oil processing plants, the construction of main product
pipelines, located in the technological tunnel of total length greater than 4.0 km, was designed.
The territory of the tunnel route is located in the southern part of Russia and is confined to
a large geological structure - the Semigorskaya anticline, the structure of which comprises
flysch deposits of Cretaceous period - interbedding of marls, sandstones and limestones, rarely,
mudstones, crumpled into isoclinal folds. One of the reasons for the intensive folding of rocks
is the high seismic activity of the territory under consideration (intensity 8 on the MSK-64
scale), with about 16 tectonic disturbances, intersecting its profile - from normal faults to
reverse-thrust faults. Thus, the complex structural and tectonic conditions predetermined the
formation of the enclosing rocks fracturing [17, 18, 19].
2. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
The analysis of the results of geological survey performed in respect to the designed tunnel
route witnesses in favor of a high heterogeneity of the flysch strata depending on the position,
in sectional view, of discontinuous faults (fig.1).
Figure 1 – Section of the designed tunnel route.
The revealed heterogeneity consisted in the difference in the degree of fracturing of the
enclosing rocks. Quantitative assessment of the disintegration of rocks was performed by the
rock quality designation (RQD) and the fracture index Mj. According to regulatory documents,
the RQD parameter is defined as the ratio of the total length of the intact core samples of more
than 10 cm in length, to the length of the drilled interval in the well. At the same time, the
fracture index describes the number of cracks per 1 meter of the measurement line
perpendicular to the main fracture system or systems. According to the numerical values of
these parameters, rocks are divided into five groups by the degree of fracturing – from very
weakly fractured (Mj <1.5; RQD 90 ÷ 100%) to very highly fractured (Mj > 1.5; RQD 0 ÷ 25%)
[2,3].
According to this classification, a comparative assessment of the degree of fracturing of the
enclosing rocks both within and outside zones of tectonic disturbances have been conducted
by the staff members of the Department of hydrogeology and engineering geology of Saint
Petersburg Mining University. The results of the assessment performed are given in table 1.
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Engineering-Geological Zoning of the Route of Technological Tunnel Designed Under Complex
Structural and Tectonic Conditions
Table 1. Characteristics of the degree of fracturing of flysch rocks within and outside zones of
tectonic disturbances (referring to the above-mentioned section of the tunnel route).
Age
K2an
K2nt2
K2nt1
K2kr
K2an
K2nt2
K2nt1
K2kr
The total
The total
length of
number of
The drilled
Core
RQD,
Fracture index
interval recovery, the intact
cracks per
Rock family
%
Mj
length, m
m
core
interval,
samples, m
pcs.
Within zones of tectonic disturbances
Flysch
interbedding
2.2
2.0
0.5
22.5
38
19.0
of marls and
sandstones
Flysch
interbedding
of marls,
4.5
4.5
0.6
13.3
20
4.4
sandstones,
limestones and
mudstones
Flysch
interbedding
26.5
26.1
3.1
11.6
385
14.8
of marls and
sandstones
Flysch
interbedding
9.0
9.0
1.3
14.1
157
17.4
of marls and
sandstones
Flysch
interbedding
of marls,
9.0
9.0
0.7
7.9
240
26.7
sandstones and
mudstones
Outside zones of tectonic disturbances
Flysch
interbedding
72.0
72.0
60.9
84.7
375
5.2
of marls and
sandstones
Flysch
274.5
274.3
221.2
80.6
1243
4.5
interbedding
of marls,
sandstones,
177.0
177.0
137.8
77.9
1108
6.2
limestones and
mudstones
Flysch
interbedding
149.0
149.0
119.2
80.0
921
6.2
of marls and
sandstones
Flysch
interbedding
of marls,
63.0
63.0
48.0
76.2
517
8.2
sandstones and
mudstones
Degree of
fracturing*
Very highly
fractured
Very highly
fractured
Very highly
fractured
Very highly
fractured
Very highly
fractured
Weakly fractured
Weakly fractured
Weakly fractured
Weakly fractured
Weakly fractured
Note: When assessing the degree of fracturing, the RQD parameter was taken as the basis.
Table 1 shows, that in terms of the core quality, by RQD parameter, the enclosing rocks
within zones of tectonic disturbances were characterized as very highly fractured, and outside
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Lange Ivan and Lebedeva Yana
the said zones as weakly fractured. Fracture systems, characterized by a northwest and
northeast strike, are associated with regional faults and complicated by smaller fractures of
different directions [10-13, 22-28].
Intensive and multidirectional disintegration of the enclosing rocks caused the formation
therein of a free aquifer of Upper Cretaceous deposits, the level of which is above the design
reference marks of the tunnel and varies from 1.0 m to 76.0 m. To assess the impact of
groundwater on the construction works performance, calculations of possible water inflow into
the designed tunnel [9, 14-16, 20, 21] have been made. On the basis of the hydrodynamic
scheme, chosen by the production company, the staff members of the Department of
hydrogeology and engineering geology of Saint Petersburg Mining University made
calculations using the formula [3,4]:
Q
k hS
,
Ф
Where k is the filtration coefficient of rocks, m/day; h is the average depth of the filtration
flow, m; S is the water level above the tunnel line, m; Ф is the coefficient, calculated by the
formula:
Ф
2h


S

1

l 
rd
1
y1 
 rd
 ln

2 y1  rh 
,
Where l is the calculated tunnel route length, m; rd is the cone of depression radius of effect,
m; rh is the tunnel radius, m; y1 is the aquifer thickness in the calculated interval, m;
The calculation results showed, that within the selected section of the route (see Fig.1), the
value of water inflow into the tunnel varies from 163.8 to 228.4 m3/day (Table 2).
Table 2. Water inflow values within the selected section of the tunnel route (within and outside zones
of tectonic disturbances).
Age
K2an
K2nt2
Water inflow to the
Average Water level
100th interval,
Depression depth of the above the
Rock family
Ф coefficient
m3/day
radius rd, m
filtration tunnel line
flow h, m
S, m
Within zones of tectonic disturbances
Flysch
interbedding
956.5
103.1
73.8
10.2
223.1
of marls and
sandstones
Flysch
interbedding
of marls,
sandstones,
975.4
100.1
75.8
10.3
219.9
limestones
and
mudstones
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Engineering-Geological Zoning of the Route of Technological Tunnel Designed Under Complex
Structural and Tectonic Conditions
K2nt1
K2kr
Flysch
interbedding
of marls and
sandstones
Flysch
interbedding
of marls and
sandstones
Flysch
interbedding
of marls,
sandstones
and
mudstones
871.8
95.1
69.8
9.3
214.3
1003.3
108.1
75.8
10.7
228.4
Outside zones of tectonic disturbances
K2an
K2nt2
K2nt1
K2kr
K2kr
Flysch
interbedding
of marls and
sandstones
Flysch
interbedding
of marls,
sandstones,
limestones
and
mudstones
Flysch
interbedding
of marls and
sandstones
Flysch
interbedding
of marls,
sandstones
and
mudstones
786.5
114.1
71.8
8.7
187.5
767.8
111.6
70.8
8.5
185.5
762.5
109.6
70.8
8.4
184.1
683.9
85.1
69.8
7.2
163.8
680.8
78.1
59.8
7.2
194.0
According to the data of table 2, the largest values of water inflow were obtained for rocks
within zones of tectonic disturbances, wherein the values of water inflow outside the said zones
are lower.
The presence of highly fractured, water-flooded rocks, confined to zones of tectonic
disturbances, cast doubt on their stability when driving the designed tunnel. It is highly likely
that, during construction in the specified zones, rock inrush formation may occur. To forecast
this process development, calculations were made using the formula by N.S. Bulychev [1]:
𝑆=𝑓∙
𝐾𝑀 ∙ 𝐾𝑅 ∙ 𝐾𝑊
,
𝐾𝑁 ∙ 𝐾𝑡 ∙ 𝐾𝐴 ∙ 𝐾𝛼
where 𝑆 is the empirical parameter of stability; 𝑓 is the rock-hardness ratio according to
M.M. Protodiakonov; 𝐾𝑀 and 𝐾𝑁 are the coefficients accounting for the impact by the degree
of fracturing of rocks and the number of fracture systems, respectively; 𝐾𝑅 is the coefficient,
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depending on the relief of walls; 𝐾𝑊 is the coefficient, depending on the hydration of rocks; 𝐾𝑡
is the coefficient, assessing the degree of unfilled cracks opening; 𝐾𝐴 and 𝐾𝛼 are the
coefficients, depending on the nature of cracks filler and on the angle α between the axis of
mines and the main direction of the crack, respectively.
Depending on the parameter of stability S, the rocks are divided into five groups according
to their susceptibility to inrush formation: I - completely stable (> 70); II - stable (5-70); III medium stability (1-5); IV - unstable (1-0.05); V - highly unstable (<0.05).
The results of calculations for the resistance of rocks to inrush formation are given in Table
3.
Table 3. The results of calculations for the resistance of rocks to inrush formation within the specified
section of the route (within and outside zones of tectonic disturbances).
Age
Rock family
Hardness
coefficient f 𝑲
𝑴 𝑲𝑵
Coefficients
𝑲𝑹 𝑲𝑾
𝑲𝒕
𝑲𝑨
𝑲𝜶
Parameter
S
Class of
stability
Within zones of tectonic disturbances
Flysch
interbedding of
K2an
marls and
sandstones
Flysch
interbedding of
marls,
K2nt2 sandstones,
limestones and
mudstones
4
0.5
6.0
0.5
0.8
1.0
1.0
1.0
0.13
Unstable
5.8
2.5
6.0
0.5
0.8
1.0
1.0
1.5
0.64
Unstable
Flysch
interbedding of
K2nt
marls and
sandstones
5.4
0.5
6.0
0.5
0.8
1.0
1.0
1.0
0.18
Unstable
Flysch
interbedding of
marls and
sandstones
3.0
0.5
6.0
0.5
0.8
1.0
1.0
1.5
0.07
Unstable
Flysch
interbedding of
marls,
sandstones,
limestones and
mudstones
3.0
0.5
6.0
0.5
0.8
1.0
1.0
2.0
0.05
Unstable
1
K2kr
Outside zones of tectonic disturbances
Flysch
interbedding of
K2an
marls and
sandstones
4.0
4.5
6.0
0.5
0.8
1.0
1.0
1.0
1.2
Medium
stability
Flysch
interbedding of
5.8
4.5
6.0
0.5
0.8
1.0
1.0
1.5
1.2
Medium
stability
K2nt2
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Engineering-Geological Zoning of the Route of Technological Tunnel Designed Under Complex
Structural and Tectonic Conditions
marls,
sandstones,
limestones and
mudstones
Flysch
interbedding of
K2kr
marls and
sandstones
Flysch
interbedding of
K2kr
marls,
sandstones and
mudstones
K2nt1
5.4
3.0
6.0
0.5
0.8
1.0
1.0
1.0
1.0
Medium
stability
3.0
3.0
6.0
0.5
0.8
1.0
1.0
1.0
0.6
Unstable
3.0
2.5
6.0
0.5
0.8
1.0
1.0
1.0
0.5
Unstable
According to the data obtained, as shown in Table 3, within zones of tectonic disturbances,
the S parameter varies from 0.05 to 0.64 (unstable rocks), outside zones of tectonic disturbances
- from 0.5 (unstable) to 1.2 (medium stability). The presence of unstable rocks outside zones
of tectonic faults can be generally explained by complex structural and tectonic conditions of
the region, associated with high water encroachment by water of the Upper Cretaceous horizon.
3. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
The results of the assessment of flysch rocks fracturing, the values of possible water inflow, as
well as the enclosing strata resistance to the inrush formation were used as the basic criteria for
drafting a scheme of engineering-geological zoning of the tunnel route (Figure 2). The designed
tunnel route zoning makes it possible to substantiate a safe method of tunneling and a
technology of work performance [28]. In total, three zones along the tunnel route were selected
by the presence of favorable conditions for the mining workings implementation (Table 4).
Table 4. Basic criteria of engineering-geological zoning within the selected section of the route.
Basic criteria *
Number and name of
Water inflow
The presence of
the engineeringDegree of the rocks
value, m3/day
tectonic
geological zone
fracturing
disturbances
I – Conditionally
favorable
No
Weakly fractured
Less than 200
II – Unfavorable
Yes
Weakly fractured
III – Very unfavorable
Yes
Very highly fractured More than 200
Class of stability
of rocks
Medium stability
Unstable
Unstable
Note: *In case of the difference in criteria within one zone, the class of stability of rocks
was taken as the basis.
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Figure 2 - Scheme of engineering-geological zoning of the designed tunnel route (section).
Engineering-geological zones: I – conditionally favorable; II – unfavorable; III – very unfavorable.
It is worth noting, that according to the scheme of engineering-geological zoning, the main
part of the selected section of the route is characterized as unfavorable and very unfavorable.
Referring to the entire route of the designed tunnel, the total length of such zones exceeds 3.5
km (over 80% of the total length of the tunnel).
4. CONCLUSIONS
The following conclusions can be made from the results obtained:
When designing a tunnel under complex structural and tectonic conditions, it is necessary
to take into account the seismicity of the territory under consideration and the specific features
of its geological structure, determining the mode of occurrence of rocks, the presence of
discontinuous faults, the nature of the enclosing strata disintegration.
Prior to the designed tunnel construction implementation, a comprehensive engineeringgeological assessment of the state and properties of rocks should be performed. In connection
therewith, special attention should be drawn to the study of rocks fracturing (genesis,
orientation, presence of cracks filler), rigidity and water permeability, with a mandatory
forecasting the development of hazardous engineering- geological processes (rock inrush
formation, breakthrough, etc.).
3. The construction of lengthy tunnels requires drafting schematic maps of engineeringgeological zoning, necessary to select the most useful technique of tunneling and safe execution
of construction works, as well as reducing material costs during work performance.
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Structural and Tectonic Conditions
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