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ELEMENT OF RELIGIOSITY PRACTICES AMONG TEENS IN ISLAMIC PERSPECTIVE

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International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET)
Volume 10, Issue 04, April 2019, pp. 94-101, Article ID: IJCIET_10_04_010
Available online at http://www.iaeme.com/ijciet/issues.asp?JType=IJCIET&VType=10&IType=04
ISSN Print: 0976-6308 and ISSN Online: 0976-6316
© IAEME Publication
Scopus Indexed
ELEMENT OF RELIGIOSITY PRACTICES
AMONG TEENS IN ISLAMIC PERSPECTIVE
Zaizul Ab Rahman, Jaffary Awang, Ahmad Yunus Mohd Noor, Mohd Haidhar
Kamarzaman
Centre for Aqidah and Global Peace, Faculty of Islamic Studies
Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Malaysia
Azmul Fahimi Kamaruzaman
Centre for the Middle East and Nusantara, Faculty of Islamic Studies,
Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia
Mohd Izhar Ariff Mohd Kashim
Centre for Contemporary Fiqh and Syariah Compliance, Faculty of Islamic Studies
Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia
ABSTRACT
This paper focus of social Muslim ummah that different from the generation of
prophet Muhammad s.a.w when it comes to observing voluntary worship practices.
After prophet Muhammad s.a.w and the following salaf generation, religious practices
of the Muslim ummah have been polarized by the discipline of the fiqh knowledge. Most
Muslims have misunderstood this discipline of knowledge. Muslims do not just make
fiqh as a matter of ruling in carrying out a practice, but fiqh has been turned into a
position to carry out a practice. An example is the prayer in congregation where in the
perspective of fiqh, it is a non-obligatory act and just a voluntary deed. Voluntary is
defined as something that if it is done, one will be rewarded for it but it also does not
matter if one were to abandon it. People who are dependent on rulings would
psychologically find it easy to leave the congregation prayer, because the ruling states
that it is okay to do so as long as the obligatory prayer is still performed. What this
means is people perform such deeds not to follow the context of the people during the
time of prophet Muhammad s.a.w, but because they preferred the ruling context set by
the fiqh.
Key words: Religiosity Practices, Islamic Mental-Cognitive Process, Adolescents’ At
Risk, Psychology of Religion
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94
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Zaizul Ab Rahman, Jaffary Awang, Ahmad Yunus Mohd Noor, Mohd Haidhar Kamarzaman,
Azmul Fahimi Kamaruzaman and Mohd Izhar Ariff Mohd Kashim
Cite this Article: Zaizul Ab Rahman, Jaffary Awang, Ahmad Yunus Mohd Noor,
Mohd Haidhar Kamarzaman, Azmul Fahimi Kamaruzaman and Mohd Izhar Ariff
Mohd Kashim, Element of Religiosity Practices among Teens in Islamic Perspective.,
International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology, 10(04), 2019, pp. 94–101
http://www.iaeme.com/IJCIET/issues.asp?JType=IJCIET&VType=10&IType=04
1. INTRODUCTION
One has to believe that Allah loves people who are brave in voicing the truth. Islamic selfesteem and self-worth means that he is not be affected by his or other people’s poverty nor
wealth and never despairs or gives up on the blessings of Allah SWT (Zaizul Ab Rahman et al
2018, Jalaluddin et al 2018, Sawal et all 2018, Ezlin et all 2018, Wan Hamidun et all 2018).
Possessing self-esteem and self-worth that he is the person of choice to carry out all duties
entrusted by Allah SWT. What Maslow meant about self-actualization can only be
accomplished with the fulfillment of his physical needs and appreciation from self or society
towards himself is a concept that is a contradictory with the reality of being a true believer
(Khaidzir & Kharil 2011; Zaizul Ab Rahman et al 2018).. True believers like the companions
of the Prophet SAW, are depicted in history as people having to eat dried up dried leaves and
twigs but this did not demotivate or discourage them in executing their highest social role which
is the martyrs that uphold the truth (Khaidzir & Khairil 2011; Zaizul Ab Rahman et al 2018).
One example of leaving the makruh is the reminder by prophet Muhammad s.a.w to enter the
toilet starting with the left leg and exit with the right. However when this reminder of prophet
Muhammad s.a.w is considered in terms of fiqh , the ruling is voluntary and the act is
abandoned, the ruling becomes makruh. Makruh means that if an act is abandoned, one would
be rewarded for it but if it is performed, one would not be sinful because of it. So there is no
force in psychology ruling to consider this warning.
2. THE DIFFERENCE OF ISLAMIC MENTAL-COGNITIVE PROCESS,
RELIGIOSITY PRACTICES, ISLAMIC PSYCHOSOCIAL, SELFESTEEM AND SELF-CONTROL BETWEEN ADOLESCENT
OFFENDERS AND ORDINARY ADOLESCENTS
In general, the findings show that the level of mental-cognitive process, Islamic psychosocial,
Sunnah practices and self-control for ordinary adolescents are much higher than adolescent
offenders. This finding shows that there are effects of Islamic mental-cognitive process, Islamic
psychosocial and Sunnah practice on adolescent behavior. This means that the way of thinking
and acting that is based on Islam can be used as a sign to control the behaviour of adolescents.
Meanwhile in terms of self esteem between offenders and ordinary teens, it can not affect their
behavior (Khaidzir & Kharil 2011; Zaizul Ab Rahman et al 2018).
In referring to the nature of self esteem, Fauziah et al (2018) described that self esteem is
closely related to the physical, psychological, social environment, intelligence level, status of
socioeconomic, ethnic and cultural, and birth order. This means that self esteem is a state of
human personality that does not have a consistent value of standard measurement to describe
human beings universally. The factors that influence self esteem that is featured by Fauziah are
not in the form of a value system, but as a phenomenon of human life. For example,
socioeconomic status is not a value. Economic status is just an existence and not a substance
of life. In other words, rich or poor is not a value that will determine the quality of an individual
in the society. Historically and empirically, there were many individuals who had social roles
that were beyond their economic capability. The companions of prophet Muhammad s.aw
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Element of Religiosity Practices Among Teens in Islamic Perspective
mostly suffered from poverty and starvation, but the social role they played has changed the
face of the world to this day.
3. THE DIFFERENCE OF ISLAMIC MENTAL-COGNITIVE PROCESS,
RELIGIOSITY PRACTICES, ISLAMIC PSYCHOSOCIAL, SELFESTEEM AND SELF-CONTROL BASED ON TYPE OF OFFENSE
The findings show that the psychosocial level of the respondents' group who made the mistake
of running away from home was higher than the group of respondents who made the crime of
stealing. This finding is interesting to be discussed. When the offenses are ranked in levels
according to their nature, sexual crimes is at the highest level followed by stealing,
gangsterisme, drugs, out-of-control adolescents and lastly adolescents running away from
home. The ranking of such offenses is based on the form of losses suffered by others. Sexual
crimes are serious crimes that directly affect humans physically and mentally. On the other
hand, adolescents running away from home cause a lighter loss and damage to others compared
to the sexual crime. People with low psychosocial level are more inclined to commit crimes
against other people (Mutsalim Khareng et al 2016). This is in line with the study conducted
by Larimer, Palmer & Marlatt (2004) that suggests psychosocial therapy is needed for
criminals. Correspondingly, the findings also show that the level of Religiosity practices in the
respondent group that ran away from home is higher than the group of respondents who commit
sexual crimes, drugs, stealing, gangsterism and out-of-control adolescents.
The same can also be discussed as in psychosocial discussions. The phenomenon of running
away from home is due to the adolescents’ egoistic impulses that may be caused by
disproportionate responses of the parents at home (Zaizul Ab Rahman et al 2018). Thus this
group has not been sorted as a category of offense that is approaching severe crimes. However
running away from home is the beginning of a new crime pattern and will continue to grow
heavily and damagingly.
4. THE INFLUENCE OF ISLAMIC MENTAL-COGNITIVE PROCESS
AND RELIGIOSITY PRACTICES TOWARDS SELF ESTEEM
The findings show no significant regression equality between Islamic mental-cognitive process
and Sunnah practices towards self esteem. This finding suggests that the Islamic mentalcognitive construct that is centred of Tauhid is unrelated to the construct of self-esteem that
revolves around mankind itself. Another possibility is the inconsistencies in self esteem as one
of the fundamentals of human judgment. As in the study conducted by Mahmood Nazar (1995),
he found there is inconsistencies in self-esteem impairment amongst drug addicts. He found
that new addicts had low self esteem while long-time addicts had a higher sense of self esteem.
On the other hand, the effect of Religiosity practices on self esteem illustrates that a person
who performs worship at any time feels he is worthy and valuable because of his worship
(Mohd Noor, A. Y et al 2017; Jaffary Awang et al 2017; Zaizul Ab Rahman et al 2018).
5. THE INFLUENCE OF ISLAMIC MENTAL-COGNITIVE PROCESS
AND RELIGIOSITY PRACTICES ON ISLAMIC PSYCHOSOCIAL
The findings show significant influence between Islamic mental-cognitive process and the
practice of sunnah towards the Islamic psychosocial. The Islamic mental-cognitive process and
Sunnah practices are two concepts closely related to Islamic psychosocial. The Islamic mentalcognitive process as an Islamic-based way of thinking strongly influences the Islamic
psychosocial as the basis of appreciation and social responsibility of an Muslim individual
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Zaizul Ab Rahman, Jaffary Awang, Ahmad Yunus Mohd Noor, Mohd Haidhar Kamarzaman,
Azmul Fahimi Kamaruzaman and Mohd Izhar Ariff Mohd Kashim
(compared with Ahmad, M. Y. et al 2018; Razali, W. M. et al 2018; Zidni nuran et al 2017;
Zaizul Ab Rahman et al 2018). This means the quality of a person’s thinking can determine
his self-worth and social responsibility. Judging from the domain of Islamic mental-cognitive
process that consists of Tauhid, Islamic law, Islamic knowledge and Islamic history, they
indicate the quality aspects of a person's way of thinking that will lead him into becoming an
individual capable of adapting and benefiting social mankind (Zaizul Ab Rahman et al 2018).
Tauhid as the fundamental for humans to think of the existence of a supreme Being as his
standard of living. Thus he is inclined to fulfill all the commandments that come from his Lord,
especially the commands of doing good and bearing social responsibility (Connor, K.M.
(2003); Fredrickson, B.L. (2001); Gursoy, F. et al (2012); Ahmad Munawar et all 2018, Zaizul;
et al 2017; Mohd Noor, A. Y et al 2011). While the practice of religiosity is a manifestation of
human connectivity with religious practices that are always preserved. People who always
preserve and protect their religion will be showered by by goodness and will bring benefit to
others.
6. CONCLUSION
The relationship between the variables in this study, whether significant or not, is a reflection
of what it is, without being accompanied by engineering and manipulation. From the
descriptive analysis that is conducted, it shows that the level of variables measured is
reasonable with the conditions of adolescent offenders. In other words, this study is able to
explain the existence of an important entity that is still insufficiently nurtured and possessed
by adolescents, which is the basis of thought and action that is based on the true teachings of
Islam.
7. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
This study received the support and funding from the Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia through
the research code EP-2018-017 and GGPM/2018/031. Appreciation is also conveyed to the
CRIM (Centre for Research and Instrumentation), Centre of Aqidah and Global Peace, Faculty
of Islamic Studies, UKM, Faculty of Engineering and Built Environment, Faculty of Education,
Faculty of Medicine, Faculty of Law, Faculty of Economy and Faculty of Social Science and
Humanities, UKM as well as all those who have made this research a success.
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