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A REVIEW OF LEADERSHIP PERCEPTIONS STYLE OF CHAIRMAN IN CENTERS

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International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET)
Volume 10, Issue 04, April 2019, pp. 83-93, Article ID: IJCIET_10_04_009
Available online at http://www.iaeme.com/ijciet/issues.asp?JType=IJCIET&VType=10&IType=04
ISSN Print: 0976-6308 and ISSN Online: 0976-6316
© IAEME Publication
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A REVIEW OF LEADERSHIP PERCEPTIONS
STYLE OF CHAIRMAN IN CENTERS
Zaizul Ab Rahman, Kamarudin Salleh, Ahmad Yunus Mohd Noor
Centre for Aqidah and Global Peace, Faculty of Islamic Studies
Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia
Abu Yazid Abu Bakar, Salleh Amat
Centre for Educational Diversity, Faculty of Education
Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Malaysia
Mohd Izhar Ariff Mohd Kashim
Centre for Contemporary Fiqh and Syariah Compliance, Faculty of Islamic Studies
Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia
ABSTRACT
The main purpose of this study is to review lecturers’ perceptions on the leadership
style of chairman and also its relationship with the motivational level of the lecturers
in the National University of Malaysia (UKM). This descriptive quantitative study was
carried out using the Leader Behavior Description Questionnaire (LBDQ) and a
Questionnaire Measure of Individual Differences in Achieving Tendency (QMAT). This
study involved 100 respondents from five departments in the National University of
Malaysia (UKM). Analysis of the findings were obtained using frequency, percentage,
mean, standard deviation, ANOVA and Pearson correlation analysis of level ± = .05.
Findings showed that the lecturers' perceptions on the leadership style of the
chairwomen in the National University of Malaysia (UKM) are quite satisfactory
overall. Although the leadership style of the chairman based on the task-structure
dimension is more dominant than the consideration dimension, both are found to be
only at a moderate level. From the aspect of motivational level, findings showed that
lecturers’ motivations towards their tasks are at a satisfactory level. The study also
found that there was no significant difference towards the lecturers' perceptions on the
style of leadership of the chairman based on the demographic factors of the lecturers.
Similarly, there was no significant difference shown on lecturers' perceptions of the
chairman’s motivational level based on the demographic factors of the chairman,
except for the age factor. However, there is a significant relationship between the level
of motivation for the chairwomen and the lecturers’ perceptions on the style of
leadership of the chairman. This confirms that the higher the perception of the lecturers
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Zaizul Ab Rahman, Kamarudin Salleh, Ahmad Yunus Mohd Noor, Abu Yazid Abu Bakar, Salleh
Amat and Mohd Izhar Ariff Mohd Kashim
on the leadership style of the chairman, the higher the motivational level of the
lecturers. This study supports the relevant findings and general assumptions that the
leadership style of chairman does affect the motivational level of lecturers.
Keywords: Leadership Style of Chairman; Religiosity; Motivational Level of the
Lecturers; Sustainability of National University of Malaysia; Psychology of Religion
Cite this Article: Zaizul Ab Rahman, Kamarudin Salleh, Ahmad Yunus Mohd Noor,
Abu Yazid Abu Bakar, Salleh Amat and Mohd Izhar Ariff Mohd Kashim, A Review of
Leadership Perceptions Style of Chairman in Centers., International Journal of Civil
Engineering and Technology, 10(04), 2019, pp. 83–93
http://www.iaeme.com/IJCIET/issues.asp?JType=IJCIET&VType=10&IType=04
1. INTRODUCTION
The scenario that exists in the profession of lecturers in Malaysia today is that the number of
male lecturers has exceeded the number of female lecturers. Thus, the choice of a leader is not
based only on gender, but should be based on criteria such as ability, seniority, experience and
level of knowledge (Abu Yazid & Noriah 2018; Abu Yazid et al. 2015; Harvey & Donaldson
2003; Zaizul et al 2012; Mohd Noor, A. Y et al 2017). As heads of departments or centres,
chairman often encounter dualism in their burden of duties; being the chairperson of their
workplace and also carrying the task and responsibility of managing their household (Langer
& Boris-Schacter 2003; Gan Pei Ling 2003; Zaizul et al 2018). The ability to carry out
leadership tasks at work may be underestimated by their subordinates, especially the male
workers. This sense of doubt affects the trust and cooperation given. In addition to that, female
leaders are also confronted with personal challenges, namely society’s expectation towards
female leaders that always associate them with their caring nature (Langer & Boris-Schacter
2003, Jaffary et al 2018, Zaizul et al 2018).
2. PERCEPTIONS OF LECTURERS ON THE LEADERSHIP STYLE OF
CHAIRMAN OF CENTERS
To describe the lecturers’ overall level of perception on the leadership style of chairman of
centers for task-structure and consideration, as well as the motivational level of lecturers, the
total of mean is calculated and divided by the number of items to produce the overall mean.
The mean interpretation that is used is shown in Table 1.
Overall, the mean score of the leadership style scale for the centers chairman was quite
satisfactory, in which the mean = 2.85 (SD = .57). The mean for the task-structure dimension
is meam = 2.97 (SD = .62), while for the consideration dimension, mean = 2.60 (SD = .62) (see
Table 1). Although the mean difference shown is small, this shows that the leadership style of
the chairwomen based on the task-structure is more dominant according to the perception of
the lecturers. Both dimensions of leadership style of chairman are at a moderate level only.
This shows that the leadership style of chairman for both dimensions needs to be improved.
TABLE 1. Distribution of the mean and standard deviation
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3. LEADERSHIP STYLE OF THE CENTERS’ CHAIRMAN BASED ON
TASK-STRUCTURE DIMENSION
The task-structure dimension is the first dimension in the leadership style of some centers’
chairman. The findings of the study revealed that the leadership style of the chairman based on
this dimension was at a moderate level with mean = 2.97 (SD = .62). The female leadership
style on this dimension is measured based on the perceptions of lecturers-respondents on the
way chairman structure and define their rules and the rules of their employees towards
achieving their goals.
TABLE 2. Mean and standard deviation of lecturers' perceptions on the leadership style of the
centers’ chairman.
However, the analysis of items show that lecturers are more likely to see centers’ chairman
implementing structures related to the disciplinary monitoring of lecturers, but not necessarily
on other official duties, particularly in areas of teaching, conducting research, service and
administrative lecturers. The task-structure items are "He asks all employees to follow all
specified rules and working conditions" with mean = 3.58 (SD = .88), "He explains what the
lecturers expected" with mean = 3.40 (SD =1.03), "He decides all lecturers to carry out their
duties fully" with mean = 3.36 (SD = 1.00) and "He ensures that the presence of the daily
lecturers are optimal" with mean = 3.36 (SD = 1.06).
This suggests that lecturers have a perception that chairman emphasize on the discipline of
lecturers. Structure items such as "He monitors the tutorial activities" mean = 2.25 (SD = 1.17),
"He monitors the lecturing activities" with mean = 2.28 (SD = 1.52) proved that the lecturers
perceive that the chairman at least conducted monitoring at the study centers. Overall, the mean
and standard deviation for the task-structure dimension are listed in Table 4.
TABLE 3. Mean and standard deviation of task-structure in the leadership style of the centers’
chairman based on the perceptions of lecturers.
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Zaizul Ab Rahman, Kamarudin Salleh, Ahmad Yunus Mohd Noor, Abu Yazid Abu Bakar, Salleh
Amat and Mohd Izhar Ariff Mohd Kashim
3. LEADERSHIP STYLE OF THE CENTERS’ CHAIRMAN BASED ON
CONSIDERATION DIMENSION
The consideration dimension is the second dimension in the leadership style for the chairman
of centers. The findings of the study show that the chairman’s leadership style based on this
dimension as a whole is also quite satisfactory with mean = 2.59 (SD = .62). The style of
leadership of female heads in this dimension is measured based on the perceptions of teachersrespondents on the way the chairman display friendship, mutual respect, mutual trust and a
cordial relationship between the leaders and their employees.
Based on Table 4, the consideration items in the leadership style of chairman based on the
perceptions of the lecturers are "He is approachable and friendly with all lecturers" mean =
2.92 (SD = 1.06), "He is ready to make changes if necessary" mean 2.80 (SD = 1.30) and "He
is responsible for the actions of all lecturers" mean = 2.76 (SD = 1.33). This suggests that
lecturers are of the opinion that the department heads are concerned about their staff, friendly
and ready to make changes.
Other items such as "He requests the consent of the lecturers before proceeding with
important things" mean = 2.38 (SD = .86), "He socializes less with the lecturers" with mean =
2.39 (SD = 1.13), and "He refuses to explain all her actions" with mean = 2.40 (SD = 1.12)
indicate that the lecturers perceive that chairman of the centers are less involved in the decisionmaking process and exclude the involvement of lecturers in important matters. The mean score
of these items clearly indicates that although the centers’ chairman are friendly, responsible
and willing to change, they are seen to be less likely to include the lecturers in discussions
about decisions they need to take or have taken. It is obvious here that the leadership style of
chairman for consideration dimension leans more to friendliness and cordiality but not
necessarily towards involvement of the staff.
TABLE 4. Mean and standard deviation of consideration in the leadership style of centers’
chairman based on the perception of lecturers.
4. LECTURERS’ PERCEPTIONS ON THE MOTIVATIONAL LEVEL
OF THE CENTERS’ CHAIRMAN
The results show that the overall mean score for the level of motivation of the lecturers was
satisfactory with mean = 2.90 (SD = .41). The overall achievement of the overall mean score
is also only satisfactory. However, the analysis of items show that the perception of the
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motivational level of lecturers is actually unequal on certain aspects. The following items show
the high motivational level of lecturers. These items have been re-encoded in the positive form
thus bringing the meaning of lecturers’ motivation to a very satisfactory level. The items are "I
work because I have to" with mean = 1.49 (SD = .96), "Learning new skills do not interest me"
with mean = 1.73 (SD = 1.17) and "I only work hard as required by the center chairperson"
with mean = 1.84 (SD = 1.51). This mean score indicates that lecturers disagree with this
statement. This means that lecturers work not because they are forced to. They are also
interested in learning new skills and are willing to work hard with sincerity even without the
instructions from the center’s chairperson. Apart from that, the following items such as "I
believe if I work hard, I will achieve my life’s goal" with mean = 3.96 (SD = .74), "I'm
optimistic about my work as a lecturer" with mean = 3.94 (SD = 1.01) , "I am satisfied if I can
complete important work that requires extra effort" with mean = 3.91 (SD = .82) clearly
indicate the high motivational level of a lecturer.
The analysis of other items such as "I can perform well if there is competition" with mean
= 2.99 (SD = 1.18), "I like working under my current department head" with mean = 2.93 (SD
= 1.11), “I prefer to do a work that is easy and one that I am confident with rather than doing a
hard work" with mean = 2.91 (SD = 1.15) and "I cannot work well under pressure" with mean
= 2.84 (SD = 1.02) explain the simplicity of self-perceptions when dealing with risky situations
Generally, the average of means in these items indicates that although the motivational level
of lecturers is generally positive, they lack confidence in facing challenges and risky situations
influence the lecturers' motivation.
5. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION
In addition to that, findings have shown that the correlation of lecturers' perception on
motivational level with their perceptions of the leadership style of chairman is significant, but
weak. Primarily, their perceptions of their own level of motivation are also quite satisfactory.
The conclusion that can be made is that male leadership factor is just one of several other
factors that influence lecturers’ motivational level (Hersey, P. (1977) Langer, S. (2003)
Hussine Hangah @ Haji Hangah (1998). Other future studies need to be carried out to identify
other factors. Even though studies by Hussine (1998), Kamal Arifin (2003) Khadijah (1999),
Abd Latiff (2003), Mutsalim Khareng et al (2014), Zaizul et al ( 2017, 2018), Mohd Noor, A.
Y et al (2017); Collard, John L. (2001) found that lecturers' motivation has significant
relationship with leadership, their study did not take into account the leaders’ gender factor.
Furthermore, the findings also revealed that there was no significant difference towards the
lecturers' perceptions on the style of leadership of the chairman based on the demographic
factors of the lecturers. This shows that although the demographics were different, the lecturers'
perceptions of the leadership style of the centers’ chairman are the same. The information
obtained from this study is very useful and valuable to the chairpersons of centers, especially
chairman.
6. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
This study received the support and funding from the Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia through
the research code EP-2018-017 and UKM Premier Challenge Grants DCP-2017-006/4.
Appreciation is also conveyed to the CRIM (Centre for Research and Instrumentation), Centre
of Aqidah and Global Peace, Faculty of Islamic Studies, UKM, Faculty of Engineering and
Built Environment, Faculty of Education, Faculty of Medicine, Faculty of Law, Faculty of
Economy and Faculty of Social Science and Humanities, UKM as well as all those who have
made this research a success.
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Zaizul Ab Rahman, Kamarudin Salleh, Ahmad Yunus Mohd Noor, Abu Yazid Abu Bakar, Salleh
Amat and Mohd Izhar Ariff Mohd Kashim
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