# class12 FM

```Class12: Energy losses in pipe flow
When a fluid is flowing through a pipe, the fluid experiences some resistance
due to which some of the energy of the fluid is lost.
Energy losses
Major energy loss
(due to friction)
Minor energy losses
a. Sudden expansion
b. Sudden contraction
c. Bend in pipe
d. Pipe fitting
e. An obstruction in pipe
Entry length
Near the beginning of the pipe, the flow is not fully developed.
If we have uniform velocity profile at the pipe entrance, how far down the pipe
must we go before entrance effects are negligible?
Entry length
Laminar flow:
Turbulent flow:
L Re
≈
D 16
L
≈ 10 − 50
D
Fully developed flow:
The flow no longer changes in the flow direction.
Frictional losses in pipe flows
• The viscosity causes loss of energy in flows which is known as frictional
loss.
1
p1 A
2
p2 A
Consider a horizontal pipe, having steady flow as shown above.
Let L = length of the pipe between sections 1 and 2.
d = diameter of the pipe
f = friction factor
hf = loss of head due to friction.
p1 = pressure at section 1
v1 = velocity at section 1
p2, v2 are the corresponding values at section 2.
Applying Bernoulli’s equations for real fluid at sections 1 and 2, we get
2
2
p1 v1
p
v
+
+ z1 = 2 + 2 + z2 + h f
ρ g 2g
ρ g 2g
But z1 = z2 , and V1 = V2 , as the pipe is horizontal and the
diameter of the pipe is same in both sections.
hf =
p1
p
− 2
ρg ρg
(1)
Darcy friction factor is defined as ,
dp f ρV 2
⇒−
=
dx
2 Dh
f ρV 2 L
⇒ p1 − p2 =
2 Dh
dp
Dh
f = − dx
1
ρV 2
2
Hydraulic
diameter,
Dh =
4( Area)
Perimeter
Using Eq. (1), we obtain
L V2
hf = f
Dh 2 g
Darcy-Weishbach equation
Loss of energy due to friction
Darcy-Weishbach equation:
L V2
LV2
hf = f
= 4C f
d 2g
d 2g
L: length of the pipe
V: mean velocity of the flow
d: diameter of the pipe
f is the friction factor for fully developed laminar flow:
f =
64
( for Re < 2000)
Re
ρ uavg d
Re =
µ
C f is the skin friction coefficient or Fanning’s friction factor.
1 2
16
For Hagen-Poiseuille flow: C f = τ wall / ρ uavg =
2
Re
For turbulent flow:
ε
1
18.7
= 1.74 − 2.0 log10  p +
f
 R Re f



Moody’s Diagram
ε p : degree of roughness (for smooth pipe,ε p = 0)
Re → ∞ : completely rough pipe
Minor Energy head loss: Sudden expansion
A2p2
A1p1
Let A1 = Area at section 1.
p1 = pressure at section 1
v1 = velocity at section 1
A2, p2, v2 are the corresponding
values at section 2.
1
2
Applying Bernoulli’s equations for real fluid at sections 1 and 2, we get
2
2
p1 v1
p2 v2
+
+ z1 =
+
+ z2 + he
ρ g 2g
ρ g 2g
2
p1 − p2 v1 − v22
⇒ he =
+
2g
ρg
(1)
But z1 = z2 as the pipe is
horizontal.
Consider a control volume of liquid between sections 1 and 2. Resolving the
forces acting on the liquid inside the control volume, we get
Fx = p1 A1 − p2 A2 + p '( A2 − A1 )
where p’ is pressure of the liquid eddies in the area (A2-A1). Experimentally it is
known that p ' = p1 , hence
Fx = ( p1 − p2 ) A2
ρ A1v12
2
Momentum of liquid/sec at section 2= ρ A2 v2
Change of momentum of liquid/sec = ρ A2 v22 − ρ A1v12 = ρ A2 ( v22 − v1v2 ) = Fx
Momentum of liquid/sec at section 1=
(Using the continuity equation)
p1 − p2 v22 − v1v2
=
ρg
g
Thus from (1), we obtain
he
v1 − v2 )
(
=
2g
2
Minor energy head loss: Sudden contraction
A1p1
A2p2
Let A1 = Area at section 1.
p1 = pressure at section 1
v1 = velocity at section 1
A2, p2, v2 and Ac, pc, vc are the
corresponding values at section 2
and c, respectively.
1
c
2
Continuity equation:
Ac vc = A2 v2 ⇒
Head loss due to expansion from section c to 2
hc
(v − v )
= c 2
2g
2
2
2
2


v  vc
v  1
v22
=
 − 1 = k
 − 1 =
2 g  v2 
2 g  Cc 
2g
2
2
2
2
 1

− 1 . The value of k is 0.5 to 0.7.
where, k ≡ 
 Cc 
vc A2
1
=
=
v2 Ac Cc
v2
• Head loss at the entrance of the pipe: hi = 0.5 ,
2g
where v is the velocity of the liquid in the pipe.
v2
• Head loss at the exit of the pipe: h0 =
,
2g
where v is the velocity of the liquid at the outlet of the pipe.
kv 2
• Head loss due to bend in pipe: hb =
,
2g
where v is the velocity of the flow, k is the coefficient of the bend which
depends on the angle of the bend, radius of curvature of the bend and
diameter of pipe.
• Head loss due to pipe fittings:
kv 2
hf =
,
2g
where v is the velocity of the flow, k is the coefficient of pipe fitting.
```
Arab people

15 Cards

Pastoralists

20 Cards