International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET)
Volume 10, Issue 04, April 2019, pp. 630–639, Article ID: IJMET_10_04_061
Available online at http://www.iaeme.com/ijmet/issues.asp?JType=IJMET&VType=10&IType=4
ISSN Print: 0976-6340 and ISSN Online: 0976-6359
© IAEME Publication
Scopus Indexed
Muhammad Arif Abdul Hakim, Dian Nofita Saputri, Riha Rizanah Warang, Sfenrianto
Information Systems Management Department,
BINUS Graduate Program – Master of Information System Management
Jakarta, Indonesia 11480
The purpose of this study is to design information technology architectures to
automate enterprise business processes. The company's IT architecture needs to be
improved to support the vision and mission in accordance with the needs of the
ongoing business process. Therefore, it is very important for companies to create IT
blueprints to facilitate the development of information systems in the future. The IT
architecture in this study was designed using TOGAF ADM, with SOA and ERP as a
solution to existing problems. The results of this study are in the form of IT
architecture design to support the company's strategic plan through the automation of
enterprise business processes.
Key words: IT Strategic Planning, IT Architecture, Business Process Automation,
Cite this Article: Muhammad Arif Abdul Hakim, Dian Nofita Saputri, Riha Rizanah
Warang, Sfenrianto, Information Technology Architecture Design to Automate
Enterprise Business Process Using TOGAF ADM, International Journal of
Mechanical Engineering and Technology 10(4), 2019, pp. 630–639.
In the current era of development of digital information systems, IT plays a role in business
transformation, so that with IT organizations and management can adapt to information
globalization [1]. Implementation of information technology systems in an organization will
be able to increase competitiveness [2]. One strategy in the IT field, an organization needs to
automate business processes. Automation of business processes is a method to support
organizational business activities broadly with better work flow and communication between
workers [3].
But at the development stage, it turns out that there are still many organizations that have
not considered the IT architecture comprehensively. This is because the company implements
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Muhammad Arif Abdul Hakim, Dian Nofita Saputri, Riha Rizanah Warang, Sfenrianto
information systems partially and is oriented towards the result, the condition is called
application silo stage [4]. The result is the emergence of different platforms between
information systems, diversity of programming languages, differences in databases, and other
fundamental differences in a company's IT architecture. The development of information
systems that are individual in nature will cause problems when the system must communicate
with each other or be integrated. This condition is certainly ineffective and inefficient for IT
investments in an organization. In building an application system, it is necessary to go
through an information system planning approach in terms of architecture that considers
aspects of usability, scalability, and future development [5].
The research conducted refers to several previous studies relating to the design of IT
architecture with a variety of case study backgrounds. Many IT architectural designs have
been carried out using analytical methods Business System Planning (BSP) introduced by
IBM [6] [7] [8], some are designed using Enterprise Architecture Planning (EAP) which is a
development of the Zachman Framework [9] [10] and there is also the design of the IT
architecture using the TOGAF ADM framework [11] [12] [13]. In automating enterprise
business processes architectural planning needs to be considered [14] [15]. Automation of
business processes can be done by implementing an application system by utilizing software
applications based on Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) [16] [17]. The use of Service
Oriented Architecture (SOA) concepts can also be used to support existing system integration
[18]. SOA is not hard coded style but has autonomous character and supports reusability and
resource sharing.
IT strategies need to be aligned with the organization's business strategy. IT strategic planning
is not only about the technology that will be used, but also must include the relationship
between the choice of technology that will be used and the business strategy to be
implemented [19]. IT strategic planning is part of the information engineering methodology
used to identify strategies for achieving information system vision and mission through the
management and development of information systems [20]. The objectives of IT strategic
planning include achieving economies of scale [21], achieving service excellence [22],
achieving supply chain integration [23] and achieving Key Performance Indicators (KPI) in
each division in the organization [24].
Automation of business processes is the incorporation and application of technology to the
process of implementing work on companies that can facilitate communication and
collaboration as well as increase company productivity to achieve business objectives
effectively [25]. The hallmark of business process automation is not changing basic
operations and automating multiple operations [26].
Designing an IT architecture can be done using the Enterprise Architecture Framework
(EAF). With EAF, the techniques for describing architecture become more structured. Some
of the EAFs currently in use include the Open Group Architecture Framework (TOGAF), the
Zachman Framework and Federated Enterprise Architecture (FEA) framework.
The TOGAF framework has a complete process and reference-model guide compared to
other frameworks. So that TOGAF is recommended to be used if the design process is used to
be complete and structured [27]. Therefore, this study uses TOGAF as a framework for
designing IT architecture. The TOGAF consists of three main parts [28]: 1) TOGAF
Architecture Development Method (ADM), 2) Enterprise Continuum and 3) TOGAF
Resource Base. ADM can be said to be a core part of the TOGAF in which there are steps in
the form of cycles and cover the whole part of the development of the IT architecture. ADM
steps can be seen in Figure 1.
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Information Technology Architecture Design to Automate Enterprise Business Process Using
Figure 1. TOGAF Architecture Development Method (ADM) [29]
The design of IT architecture is aimed at building an adaptive IT infrastructure to adapt to
the rapidly changing business world [30] and forming Enterprise Application Integration
(EAI) [31]. To achieve these two things, there are several IT solutions that can be applied,
among others, with SOA and ERP.
SOA is an approach to building an IT system in the form of parts of a software module
called service. The purpose of developing SOA-based systems is for organizations to develop
systems from simpler modules [28]. Whereas ERP is a system that integrates between design,
management, and all organizational resources which aims to integrate all functional areas of
the organization and get the right flow of information between one functional area and
another functional area [32].
This study took a case study of one IT provider company with the aim of creating a
blueprint for the design of IT architectures to automate business processes at the enterprise
level. Current conditions of the company's architecture include; non-adaptive infrastructure,
applications that are currently silo and do not support the needs of overall business processes
and some of the existing business processes are still done manually so that the process takes a
long time. The application of business process automation is an effort to improve the
competitiveness and excellence of the company through information system strategic
Theoretical framework built in this study relates to the design of IT architectures to automate
enterprise-level business processes that are part of the company's IT strategic plan. The design
of the IT architecture in this study used the TOGAF ADM framework as a guide to work
steps in making a blueprint. The results of this study are in the form of an IT architecture
design summarized in the target IT architecture to answer the need of automating business
processes at the enterprise level. An overview of the theoretical framework can be seen in
Figure 2.
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Muhammad Arif Abdul Hakim, Dian Nofita Saputri, Riha Rizanah Warang, Sfenrianto
Figure 2 Theoretical Framework
The preliminary phase of TOGAF ADM in designing the IT architecture is to determine
the architecture principles and requirements of the company to achieve the organization's
vision and mission which is then followed by steps in TOGAF ADM. The SOA approach
applied at the architectural design stage is one of the IT solutions for application integration.
This will affect the design of IT architecture both in terms of information systems, technology
and infrastructure used. SOA designs that are made are influenced by services created to
support application integration that is formed from the legacy system or from solutions to
application systems by implementing an ERP module that is open source.
This study uses TOGAF ADM as a framework for designing IT architectures. Research is
limited to the design stage, not to the implementation stage. The step in designing the IT
architecture with the TOGAF ADM framework is done through an iterative approach that
defines baseline architecture first, then continues with designing the target architecture. The
presentation of the TOGAF ADM steps used in the study is more easily divided into 5
sections of the discussion, with illustrations of the flow from the design in Figure 3.
Figure 3 TOGAF ADM Activity in this study
In the TOGAF ADM framework, each phase will obtain artifacts in the form of output
produced during the process of developing enterprise architecture. The output can be text or
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Information Technology Architecture Design to Automate Enterprise Business Process Using
table, diagram, matrix or catalog. Figure 4 presents the TOGAF ADM artifact used in the
Figure 4 TOGAF ADM artefacts in this study
In this study the design of IT architecture follows the steps set out in the methodology. The
preliminary stage is the initial stage of designing the IT architecture on TOGAF ADM, which
consists of requirements management and architectural principles. Requirements
management, describing the underlying objectives, needs to be done in the enterprise business
process automation, including: 1) Achieving economies of scale; 2) Achieving excel service;
3) Achieving digital collaboration; 4) Improving company wide monitoring; 5) Achievement
of predetermined KPIs. The business needs to achieve these objectives include: 1) Having an
adaptive IT infrastructure; 2) Integrated application system; 3) Automation of business
processes; 4) Data sources can be synchronized and used together; 5) Having a robust IT
architecture design using standard best practices. While the architectural principles set out in
the design of the IT architecture to create the concept of business process automation consist
of: 1) Design for Change; 2) Agility and Flexibility; 3) Business Continuity; 4) Integrated
Process; 5) Corporate Data Model; 6) Secure Information; 7) Meet Business Needs; 8) Ease
of Use; 9) Service Orientation; 10) Reusability; 11) Identity and Access Management; and 12)
Interoperability. The architectural principles that have been defined above are supporters of
what is the goal in designing this IT architecture.
Furthermore, at the stage of architecture vision, the solution to the IT architecture to be
achieved in a high-level and comprehensive manner is illustrated through solution concept
diagrams by displaying current conditions with the conditions to be achieved. Based on the
case study, an illustration of the high-level architecture of the baseline is obtained as
illustrated in Figure 5:
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Muhammad Arif Abdul Hakim, Dian Nofita Saputri, Riha Rizanah Warang, Sfenrianto
Figure 5 Current High-Level IT Architecture Conditions
The solution concept diagram illustrates the target IT architecture developed based on the
current condition of the IT architecture with a pattern of solutions to achieve the architectural
vision to achieve enterprise business process automation as expected. The solution concept
diagram in Figure 6 explains that the IT architecture that will be built must be able to
overcome current problems consisting of adaptive IT infrastructure, infrastructure resource
sharing, integrated applications, automated business processes, data resource sharing, digital
collaboration and company wide monitoring. The concept of the solution will be discussed
further at the stage of identifying the problem solution.
Figure 6 The High-level Conditions of IT Architecture Expected
Based on current high-level conditions, the company's business processes consist of four
primary activities and three supporting activities. Primary activities consist of research &
development, sales, solution development and manages service. While supporting activities
consist of human resources management, financial management and business support. Each of
these activities has derivative functions from the domain unit, or specific business processes.
The problems of IT architecture at enterprise level are generally described as consisting of
silo infrastructure, silo application, business process manuals and redundant data. These
problems will be identified further in this study by using PIECES analysis by considering the
condition of the information system on each issue based on indicators of performance,
information, economy, control, efficiency and service. SWOT analysis needs to be done to see
strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats in developing enterprise business process
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Information Technology Architecture Design to Automate Enterprise Business Process Using
automation before further development of the IT architecture. The results of this SWOT
analysis will encourage awareness and attention of all stakeholders involved in the importance
of designing this IT architecture. From the problems that exist, then a solution is needed to
overcome them. Problems that have been identified are diverse, therefore need solutions that
are specific to each type of problem. Table 1 below is a solution pattern of the problems that
have been identified.
Table 1 Solution Pattern Problems
Business activities are
currently processed
manually and require a
long time
Data resource sharing
has not been
Target Solution
Pattern Solution
All existing business
processes need to be
application system
Resource sharing data
needs to be applied to
the application
IT infrastructure is
made flexible to
SOA-based application
development with the
use of shared services
ESB and
Development of SOAbased infrastructure by
through middleware
Integration and
development of SOAbased application
Development of
enterprise dashboard
system applications
combined with
business intelligence
IT infrastructure has not
been adaptive to change
Resource sharing
infrastructure has not
been implemented
Current applications are
silo and not integrated
Resource sharing
infrastructure needs
to be implemented
Need to have an
integrated application
The function of
monitoring business
processes at the
enterprise level is not
Need to have a
system that supports
company wide
The monitoring function
of IT operations is
Have a predictive
implementation of
ITSM analytic
Development of the
ITSM Predictive
Analytic application
system by utilizing data
warehouse and
machine intelligence
HR performance is less
productive because the
utilization is not optimal
The application has not
fully supported the needs
of business processes
Have a system for
optimizing and
calculating resource
Having an application
system that is in
accordance with
needs and integrated
development for the
workforce management
system and employee
portal was updated
application system
Server, storage
and network
and BI
AI and
and Artificial
Furthermore, the solution that has been determined in its implementation must follow the
established architectural principles. In general, IT architecture consists of business
architecture, data architecture, application architecture and technology architecture. The
design of the proposed IT architecture solution can be seen through the solution concept
diagram in Figure 7.
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Muhammad Arif Abdul Hakim, Dian Nofita Saputri, Riha Rizanah Warang, Sfenrianto
Figure 7 Solution Concept Diagram
After obtaining the IT architecture design based on the solution provided, the next step is
to evaluate the suitability of the target architecture that has been designed as a consideration
of implementation by stakeholders. The evaluation was carried out at the opportunity and
solution stages of the TOGAF ADM step, to identify opportunities for implementing the
designed IT architecture and the resulting gap analysis. Opportunity identification is done
using the benefits diagram by showing what opportunities are obtained from the application
of the IT architecture design made. While the gap analysis is carried out on information
system architecture and technology using a model on TOGAF by forming the Architecture
Building Block (ABB) matrix from baseline architecture and target architecture.
Based on the results of the research that has been done, some conclusions can be drawn
1. The IT architecture design obtained along with the results of the gap analysis has been
able to answer the research problem formulation, namely, “How to design an IT
architecture to automate enterprise business processes using the TOGAF ADM
framework that focuses on identifying baseline architecture and implementing solutions
on the target architecture to answer the problems faced”
2. The targeted condition, which is to automate enterprise business processes as an IT
strategy, is expected to be achieved with the IT architecture produced in accordance with
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Information Technology Architecture Design to Automate Enterprise Business Process Using
established architectural needs and principles. This is supported by verification of
stakeholders that the design of the IT architecture produced has accommodated most of
the business processes currently in the organization.
3. The blueprint of the IT architecture produced will be used for several purposes as
a) Integrated Guidelines, become a consistent and integrated guideline in developing and
selecting information technology solutions that can be used to automate business
processes in the company more effectively and efficiently
b) Comprehensive Overview, describe the complete and comprehensive corporate
architecture, from business, data, applications and technology, which can be easily
understood by all stakeholders
c) Collaboration Enhancement, collaboration between divisions that have been hampered
due to lack of understanding of global business processes can be overcome by this
architectural design
d) Performance Improvement, improving company performance in each business line
based on the KPI that has been determined to carry out the organization's vision and
mission by maximizing the use of information technology
e) Economices of Scale, increases revenue and reduces the company's operating costs
f) Business Process Standards, a robust IT architecture design using technology
standards that are best practice that meet good corporate governance standards in
accordance with the provisions of Good Corporate Governance (GCG) that have been
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