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ASSESSMENT OF SNOW ACCUMULATION AND JUSTIFICATION OF PARAMETERS OF STUBBLE COULISSES IN THE ARID STEPPE OF NORTHERN KAZAKHSTAN

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International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET)
Volume 10, Issue 04, April 2019, pp. 496–510, Article ID: IJMET_10_04_048
Available online at http://www.iaeme.com/ijmet/issues.asp?JType=IJMET&VType=10&IType=4
ISSN Print: 0976-6340 and ISSN Online: 0976-6359
© IAEME Publication
Scopus Indexed
ASSESSMENT OF SNOW ACCUMULATION
AND JUSTIFICATION OF PARAMETERS OF
STUBBLE COULISSES IN THE ARID STEPPE OF
NORTHERN KAZAKHSTAN
Vladimir Leonidovich Astafyev, Pavel Grigoryevich Ivanchenko and
Vladimir Viktorovich Kirkilevskiy
Kostanay branch of LLC Scientific Production Center of Agricultural Engineering,
Kazakhstan, 110011, Kostanay, Abai Avenue, 34
ABSTRACT
The main limiting factor for increasing yields in the conditions of the arid steppe
of Northern Kazakhstan is moisture. The accumulation of moisture during winter
precipitation for plants in arid conditions in the initial stage of the growing season
was a serious production problem.
For four years, the accumulation of snow and the amount of water in the snow
were compared over the backgrounds of ordinary stubble, tall stubble left after
stripper header (continuous combing) and stubble coulisses. Research methods
included field observations and mathematical modeling. It has been established that
the water reserves in the snow depend on the height of stubble coulisses, as well as the
density of snow in the coulisses and in between the spaces. Studies of snow
accumulation on stubble coulisses, continuous combing and ordinary stubble showed
that the density of snow between the coulisses is 9-29% higher than the density in the
coulisses and the density of snow between the coulisses is 25-63% higher than the
density in the stubble or continuous combing. The explanation of this phenomenon
was the hypothesis that the dispersal of snow blizzards occurred between the coulisses
due to this, snow blocked this space with high density. Field experiments indicated an
intensive decrease in the depth of snow with increasing distance between the
coulisses. By mathematical modeling, it was found that for stubby coulisses the
following parameters are rational: the distance between the coulisses in snowy
winters is 5...14 m; in the snowless 5...7 m, the width of the coulisses is 1...1.5 m. It
has been established that in snowy winters the water reserves in the snow are slatted
coulisses with rational parameters by 25.8...32.2 mm (13...41%) higher than on the
background of continuous combing; 68.0...99.3 mm (2.1...3.1 times) higher than the
stubble background. In the winters with little snow, the water reserves in the snow of
stubble coulisses with rational parameters are 18.5 mm higher (by 34%) than on the
background of continuous combing; 51.9 mm (3.4 times) higher than the stubble
background.
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Key words: stubble, combing, stubble coulisses, formation, density, depth, water
reserves in snow.
Cite this Article: Vladimir Leonidovich Astafyev, Pavel Grigoryevich Ivanchenko
and Vladimir Viktorovich Kirkilevskiy, Assessment of Snow Accumulation and
Justification of Parameters of Stubble Coulisses in the Arid Steppe of Northern
Kazakhstan, International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology 10(4),
2019, pp. 496–510.
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1. INTRODUCTION
1.1 Relevance
The main limiting factor for increasing yields in conditions of the arid steppe of Northern
Kazakhstan is moisture. During the year in this region an average precipitation is 190-360 mm
about 120…220 of it in the growing season. Maximum precipitation is observed in July. At
the same time, every three years out of ten in the north and seven years out of ten in the south
of the region, drought usually recurs. In drought, the amount of precipitation during the
growing season is reduced to 20...80 mm. Sowing is usually done in May, which is the driest
month for the entire growing season in the majority of the region. Due to the lack of moisture
in the soil after sowing, farmers often receive unfriendly and thinned shoots. The lack of
moisture accelerates the development of crops with the formation of low stems and yield.
Analysis of climatic conditions shows that the main source of moisture in the soil at the
beginning of the growing season is the moisture of winter precipitation. In the winter months,
accompanied by strong winds and snowstorms, the amount of precipitation averages from 60
to 90 mm. When collected, this rainfall is enough to get good seedlings and to ensure the
needs of plants in moisture in the first half of the growing season before the July rains. Thus,
due to winter precipitation, the basis of the future harvest is laid. Therefore, the search for
effective methods of moisture accumulation of winter precipitation to ensure the plants with
moisture in the first half of the growing season in arid conditions is of great production
interest.
1.2. Selection of preferred snow accumulation methods for research
Currently, the following methods of winter precipitation moisture accumulation are used in
the North Kazakhstan region:
1) Leaving plants remains (stubble) of 12-15 cm high after harvesting crops (Barayev, 2008)
[1].
2) Leaving plants remains (stubble) of 20-25 cm high after harvesting crops (Dvurechensky,
2004) [2].
3) Seeding two rows of mustard coulisses with 8 m distance between the coulisses and two or
three rows of sunflower with 12-16 m distance between the coulisses (Dvurechensky et al.,
2008 and Barayev, 2008) [3, 4].
4) Herbicidal (chemical) fallow (Kaskarbayev et al., 2005, and Suleimenov et al., 2008) [5, 6].
5) Seeding of coulisses on herbicidal (chemical) fallow (Kaskarbaev et al., 2005) [5];
6) Snow plowing across the prevailing winds with 5-6 m distance between snow ridges
(Baraev, 2008) [7];
7) Harvesting of crops with continuous combing (Kaskarbaev et al., 2007) [8];
8) Formation of stubble coulisses with 30-50 cm height and 3.5-4.0 m width (Kaskarbaev et
al., 2007) [8].
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A.I. Barayev (2008) claims that the leaving stubble on the field provides an increase in
snow accumulation compared to the dump tilling from 19.2-34.3 cm [1]. According to the
Kustanai Research Institute of Agriculture, the average snow depth for an empty fallow is 818 cm for stubble, treated with a subsurface cultivator 3-20 cm for untreated stubble 32-33 cm
(Dvurechensky, 2004) [2]. In the studies by Barayev (2008) and Dvurechensky (2008), it is
stated that seeding the coulisses on empty fallow in the conditions of Northern Kazakhstan
increases the snow accumulation in comparison with the dump tilling up to 2.5 times [3, 4].
Research of M.K. Suleimenov et al. (2005), J.A. Kaskarbaev et al., (2005), V.I. Dvurechensky
(2008) state that in the same region herbicide (chemical) fallow provides an increase in snow
accumulation by about 1.8 times compared with the stubble and better preservation of
moisture in the soil compared to empty fallow [4-6]. A.I. Barayev, J.A. Kaskarbayev notes
that snow ridging in North Kazakhstan provides an increase in the depth of the snow cover
compared with the dump tilling from 20-25 to 40-50 cm, the depth of soil wetting at the
same time increases from 30-40 to 70-80 cm [7, 8]. J.A. Kaskarbaev (2007) points out that
snow ridging, continuous combing and stubble coulisses are approximately equivalent in
snow and water accumulation and provide an increase in yields of up to 4 c/ha compared to
the stubble [8]. Studies of A.P. Lovchikov et al. (2017) noted that the width of the coulisses
and the height of the stubble are the main parameters affecting the height of the snow cover
[9].
Similar studies of winter precipitation accumulation were conducted in Canada and the
USA. Thus, W. J. Staple, J. J. Lehane and A. Wenhardt (1960) found that 37% of winter
precipitation in Swift Current accumulates on the stubble and only 9% on fallow [10]. Studies
of Joseph M. Caprio, Gary K. Grunwald, Robert D. Snyder and Edward C. Cleary (1986)
established, that in Montana's conditions for stubble, the depth of the snow cover is for 3080% more than on fallow [11]. Sharratt (2002) notes that leaving an even stubble is the easiest
way to hold snow on the surface of the soil in windy areas [12]. Efficiency of snow retention
of stubble Albert Province Wheat Commission recommends determining the height and
number of stems per square meter [13].
The advantages of high stubble over short stubble are also confirmed by studies conducted
by Swella G.B. (2011) and others [14].
K.J. Kirkland and C.H. Keys (1981) in Saskatchewan studied the following methods of
accumulating winter precipitation: snow ridging on fallow and stubble; coulisses of sunflower
with a width of 7.5 and 15 m; coulisses of corn with a distance of 3.6 m on fallow field; wheat
stubble [15]. The results of the research indicate that wheat stubble in the long rotation was
most effective and accumulated 50-60 mm of annual moisture more than empty fallow.
During the snow ridging in 11 out of 16 years of experiments, snow was either blown from
the rolls by strong winds or the moisture of the melted snow drained off the field in the early
spring without wetting the frozen soil. The sunflower coulisses slightly increased the moisture
reserves in comparison with the empty fallow. The accumulation of moisture with corn
coulisses was comparable to the accumulation of moisture with wheat stubble. Pomeroy and
Gray (1995) investigated several other methods of accumulating moisture during winter
precipitation such as: even stubble; stubble of different heights; formation of ungathered
coulisses; formation of combed coulisses; snow ridging [16]. According to these studies,
freshly fallen snow in even stubble has an average of about 10% of moisture. However, when
the snow blows, the amount of moisture can increase to 35%. The stubble height 30-60 cm
provides 31 mm of moisture in the soil compared to low stubble height of 15-30 cm. Grain
losses from narrow ungathered coulisses with width of 30 cm can be compensated by
favorable conditions of additional accumulated moisture. Combed coulisses should be formed
with a width of at least 40-60 cm. However, combed coulisses are more effective with the
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following parameters: the width of the coulisses 1.5 m and the distance between coulisses 10
m. These parameters provide an increase of moisture during winter precipitation in favorable
years to 48 mm. Snow ridging gives an effect if the rolls of snow strengthen after their
formation. Otherwise, they can be "blown out" by the wind. Similar results were obtained in
the Canadian steppes by H. Steppuhn, M. Stumborg, G. Lafond and B. McConkey (2009)
[17].
The analysis of applied methods of snow accumulation allowed us to identify the
advantages and disadvantages of various methods of snow accumulation in the conditions of
Northern Kazakhstan [18]. Leaving stubble on the field does not provide sufficient
accumulation of moisture. Herbicidal fallow, snow ridging, and coulisses on empty fallow
require additional time and cost. For example, sowing the coulisses on empty fallow requires
an additional cost of up to 30 dollar/ha for preparing fallow and about 2 dollar/ha for sowing
the coulisses; laying a herbicidal fallow - up to 30 dollar/ha; snow ridging - about 7 dollar/ha.
The advantages of these methods include an increase in snow accumulation up to 2 times
compared with the stubble background. With a continuous combing and the formation of
stubble coulisses performance and cost is comparable with the performance and cost of direct
combining. The yield increase for all the snow accumulation methods being compared is not
constant: from 0% in a wet year, to 100% in a dry year. Of all the considered methods of
snow accumulation, continuous stripping and the formation of stubble coulisses are most
preferable, since they provide the greatest accumulation of snow and do not require additional
costs for implementation. At the same time in snowy winters stubble coulisses allow you to
accumulate snowy moisture up to 1.5 times more compared with a continuous combing.
However, in conditions of snowless winters, these methods were not compared.
1.3. Goal and objectives of study
Research objective: To compare and evaluate snow accumulation on the backgrounds of
continuous combing and stubble coulisses and to justify rational parameters of stubble
coulisses in conditions of snowy and little snowy winters of the arid steppe of northern
Kazakhstan.
To achieve this goal, the following tasks were studied:
- collection of snow moisture reserves on the backgrounds of stubble coulisses with different
parameters and continuous combing in conditions of snowy and snowless winters and
establish their preference;
- perform mathematical modeling of snow moisture reserves on the background of stubble
coulisses and justify rational parameters of stubble coulisses that provide the greatest
accumulation of moisture in winter precipitation in conditions of snow and light snow
winters.
Object of research: the process of accumulation of snow moisture in stubble coulisses and
compared backgrounds.
2. MATERIALS AND METHODS
The following study methods were used:
- experimental studies of snow moisture reserves on stubble backgrounds, continuous
combing and stubble coulisses with various parameters;
- mathematical modeling of snow moisture reserves in stubble coulisses.
Experimental studies established experiments to determine snow moisture reserves on
stubble backgrounds, stubble coulisses with different parameters and continuous combing in
conditions of a light snowy winter (2018) and high snowy winters (2015-2017). The width of
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the coulisses in the experiments ranged from 1.0 to 3.9 m. The distance between the coulisses
was from 5 to 26 m. The depth of the snow cover, the density of snow was determined by
known methods using a portable snow gauge and weight snow meter VS-43 (GOST RK
53056-2010) [19]. Then calculations of water reserves in the snow were carried out. The
obtained measurement results were processed by mathematical statistics methods
(Dospekhov, 1965, Guter, 1970) [20, 21]. Experimental studies on the accumulation of snow
on various backgrounds and with different parameters of stubble coulisses were conducted on
the fields of the “Zhanahay” peasant farm in the Kostanay region. “Zhanahay” farm was
located in the moderately arid forest-steppe zone of the northern region of Kazakhstan with an
average annual rainfall of about 360 mm.
In modeling, the water reserves in the snow between the coulisses were found by the
formula (1):
,
(1)
where
- water reserves in the snow between the coulisses, mm;
– average depth of snow between the coulisses, cm;
– average density of snow between the coulisses, g/cm3 (0,19 g/cm3in conditions of
snowless winter; 0,30 g/cm3 in winter with heavy precipitation);
10 - multiplier of converting centimeters to millimeters.
Water reserves in the snow found by the formula (2):
,
(2)
where
- water reserves in the snow of the coulisses, mm;
– average depth of snow in the coulisses, cm;
– average density of snow in the coulisses, g/cm3 (0,15 g/cm3in conditions of snowless
winter and 0,24 g/cm3in winter with heavy precipitation);
10 - multiplier of converting centimeters to millimeters.
The total water reserves in the snow of stubble coulisses, taking into account the fraction
of the distance between the coulisses and the width of the coulisses were found by the formula
(3):
(
).
(3)
where – distance between coulisses, mm;
– coulisses width, cm;
In modeling, the width of the coulisses was 1; 1.5; 2; 3; 4 m. The distance between the
coulisses was set 6; 7; 9; 11; 14; 18; 26 m. The height of the snow cover between the
coulisses was taken according to experimental data for 2015-2018, depending on the distance
between the coulisses. The density of snow in the coulisses and between the coulisses was
taken according to experimental data for 2016-2018.
According to the results of calculations, graphs of water reserves in snow were plotted
depending on the parameters of stubble coulisses in conditions of little snow and winter with
abundant precipitation.
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3. RESULTS
3.1. Investigation of the parameters of snow and moisture accumulation on the
backgrounds of stubby coulisses and continuous combing
The results of studies of snow accumulation and water reserves in the snow by backgrounds
of continuous combing and stubble coulisses in 2015 are shown in Table 1.
Table 1 Dependence of water reserves accumulation in snow from parameters of the stubble coulisses
(2015)
Var.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
Backgro
und
Stubble
coulisses
in 6 m
Stubble
coulisses
in 9 m
Continuo
us
combing
Stubble
(control)
46/1
Averag
e depth
of snow
(cm)
46
Average
density of
snow,
g/cm3
0,24
46/2
47
0,23
108,1
46/1
46/2
46/3
37
45
45
0,24
0,24
0,23
88,1
108,0
104,0
46/ Continuous
46
0,17
78,2
20/ Continuous
20
0,18
36,0
Parameters of stubble
coulisses, height (cm),
width (m)
Reserves of
water in
snow (mm)
110,4
Snow accumulation and water reserves in snow depend on the ground. The smallest depth
of snow and water reserves in 2015 are accumulated on stubble with an average snow depth
of 20 cm, water reserves are 36.0 mm. Reserves of water in snow with a continuous combing
are 78.2 mm. On stubble coulisses the water reserves in the snow are 2.9-3.1 times larger
(Variants 2, 4, 5) than on stubble. Calculations show that the difference in the accumulation of
water according to the grounds is significant. The decrease in water reserves in snow on
continuous combing is explained by a decrease in snow density by 35-41% compared to the
snow density on stubble coulisses at the same stubble height. Also in 2015, we have a lower
density of snow by 28-33% on stubble than on stubble coulisses. Analyzing these facts,
hypothesis was suggested that a decrease in the density of snow on stubble or continuous
combing was due to the absence of a zone to disperse snow blizzards. On stubble coulisses
the acceleration of blizzards occurs between the coulisses due to this, the snow clogs this
space with high density. In connection with this in the studies of 2016 and 2017, we set the
goal to estimate the density of snow in the coulisses and between the coulisses.
It is also found that the depth of the snow cover and the accumulation of water in the snow
depend on the parameters of the stubble coulisses. With an average height of 46 cm and a
distance of 9 m between the coulisses with a reduction in the width of the coulisses from 3-1
m, the depth of the snow cover decreases from 45-37 cm and the water reserves in snow fall
from 108.0-104.0 mm (Variants 4, 5) to 88.1 mm (Variant 3). Calculations show that this
difference is significant. The smallest significant difference with a confidence probability of
0.95 for these variants is 11.2 mm in fact, 15.9-19.9 mm. The decrease in the depth of the
snow cover according to the variant 3 was due to the collapse of the coulisses by the wind
and snow storms with a width of < l m. In this variant, the depth of the snow cover was
significantly uneven, although the snow between the coulisses had an increased density.
Reserves of water in snow under variant 3 are at the level of variant 6. In variants 2, 4 and 5,
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the water reserves in the snow are at the same level. Variants 1 and 3 are not studied because
of coulisses collapse possibility with wind and snowstorms and a width of < l m.
Thus, under the conditions of 2015, the stubble coulisses allow increasing the water
reserves in snow as compared to the stubble by 2.9-3.1 times and by 1.4 times compared to
the continuous combing.
The results of studies of the depth of snow cover and water reserves in the snow on
various backgrounds under the conditions of 2016 are shown in Table 2.
Table 2 The dependence of the accumulation of water reserves in the snow against the background
and the parameters of stubble coulisses (2016)
Parameters of
stubble
coulisses, height
(cm),
width (m)
V
a
r.
Backgrou
nd
1
Stubble
coulisses
in 7 m
50/1,5
Stubble
coulisses
in 18 m
50/3,9
2
3
4
Continuou
s combing
Stubble
(control)
Average
depth of
snow
(cm)
Average
density of
snow,
g/cm3
In coulisse
48
0,24
Between coulisses
48
0,29
In coulisse
50
0,24
Between coulisses
47
0,31
50/ Continuous
15/ Continuous
Reserves of water in
snow (mm)
115,2
Average
135,0
139,2
120,0
Average
141,1
145,7
50
0,24
120,0
120,0
33
0,19
63,4
63,4
In 2016, the density of snow between the coulisses was higher than in the coulisses by 2129%. The difference in water reserves of the Variants "in the coulisses" and "between the
coulisses" is significant at a confidence coefficient of 0.90. It should be noted that the density
of snow between the coulisses during 2016 was higher by 53-63% than on the stubble.
On 15 cm height stubble, the average depth of the snow cover was 33 cm, the water
reserves in snow was 63.4 mm. On stubble coulisses, the water reserves in the snow were 2.02.2 times larger. This difference is significant at a confidence coefficient of 0.95. It should be
noted that in the northern region of Kazakhstan in January-March 2016, there was
precipitation, exceeding the average annual rate by 2.2 times. However, even with increased
snow accumulation on stubble, the stubble coulisses showed their effectiveness.
The results of studies of the depth of snow cover and water reserves in the snow on
various backgrounds in the conditions of 2017 are shown in Table 3.
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Table 3 Dependence of water reserves accumulation in snow from parameters of the stubble coulisses
(2017)
Parameters of
stubble
coulisses,
height (cm),
width (m)
V
ar
.
Backgroun
d
1
Stubble
coulisses
in 11 m
55/1,6
Stubble
coulisses
in 26 m
55/3,9
2
3
4
Continuous
combing
Stubble
(control)
Average
depth of
snow (cm)
Average
density of
snow,
g/cm3
In coulisse
50
0,27
Between coulisses
52
0,30
In coulisse
54
0,23
Between coulisses
38
0,25
55/ Continuous
54
17/ Continuous
27
0,23
0,20
Reserves of water in
snow (mm)
135,0
Average
153,3
156,0
124,2
Average
98,8
95,0
124,2
54,0
124,2
54,0
With a distance between the coulisses in 11 m, water reserves in snow on 54.5 mm
were higher than at a distance of 26 m between the coulisses. This difference is significant
at a confidence coefficient of 0.95. The water reserves on the stubble were 2.9 times lower
than on the stubble coulisses in 11 m. The density of snow on the stubble was 25-55% lower
than the density of snow between the coulisses. The density of snow between the coulisses
was only 9-11 % higher than the density of snow in the coulisses or in continuous combing.
The results of studies of the depth of snow cover and water reserves in the snow on
various backgrounds under the conditions of 2018 are shown in Table 4.
Table 4 The dependence of the accumulation of water in the snow against the background and the
parameters of stubble coulisses (2018)
Parameters of
stubble coulisses,
height (cm),
width (m)
V
ar
.
Background
1
Stubble
coulisses
in 5 m
53/1,4
Stubble
coulisses
in 9 m
50/2,6
Stubble
coulisses
in 18 m
50/2,6
2
3
4
6
Continuous
combing
Stubble
(control)
Average
depth of
snow (cm)
Average
density of
snow, g/cm3
In coulisse
43
0,15
Between coulisses
39
0,19
In coulisse
41
0,13
Between coulisses
25
0,17
In coulisse
42
0,15
Between coulisses
24
0,15
Reserves of water in
snow (mm)
64,7
Average
73,10
75,6
62,0
Average
49,35
45,7
62,3
Average
42,11
39,2
49/ Continuous
39
0,14
54,6
54,6
15/ Continuous
16
0,13
21,2
21,2
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Under conditions of a snowless winter of 2018, during which 68 mm of precipitation fell,
of which about 40 mm was snow, the largest snow accumulation was observed in stubble
coulisses with the distance of 5 m between the coulisses. The water reserves in the snow were
23.75 mm and 30.99 mm higher than when the distance between the coulisses was 9 and 18
m, respectively. This difference was significant at a confidence level of 0.95. The water
reserves in the snow on the background of stubble coulisses with the distance of 5 m between
the coulisses were 3.4 times higher than on the stubble and 1.3 times higher than on the
background of continuous combing.
It should be noted that at the same time, the density of snow in the space between the
coulisses was 27...36% higher than in the coulisses or on the background of a continuous
combing. It should also be noted that with an increase in the space between the coulisses from
5 to 18 m, the accumulation of precipitation in stubble coulisses in the conditions of a
snowless winter of 2018 decreased by 40%, whereas in winter with heavy precipitation in
2016 with an increase in distance between the coulisses from 7 to 18 meters there was no
decrease in precipitation accumulation in stubble coulisses.
As shown by studies conducted in 2015–2018, the depth of snow cover in the coulisses
under conditions of little snow and in conditions of winter with heavy precipitation depended
to a greater extent on the height of the coulisses and did not depend on their width (Figure 1
and 2). Consequently, the amount of precipitation that can be accumulated due to limitation
by the height of the coulisses. This statement was also true for continuous combing, however,
against the background of stubble coulisses, it was possible to accumulate more precipitation
due to the higher density of snow.
cm
60
55
50
45
40
2015
2016
–
–
2017
2018
height of stubble coulisse
depth of snw cover in coulisse
Figure 1 Height of stubble coulisses and depth of snow cover in stubble coulisses
Figure 2 Depth of snow cover in stubble coulisses depending on the width of stubble coulisses (2018)
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Vladimir Leonidovich Astafyev, Pavel Grigoryevich Ivanchenko and Vladimir Viktorovich Kirkilevskiy
Based on the obtained results, the dependence of the depth of snow cover between the
coulisses on the distance between the coulisses in winter conditions with abundant
precipitation of 2016–2017 and in conditions of a light snow winter of 2018, presented in
Figure 3, was constructed.
1 – in conditions of snowy winter (2016-2017)
2 – in conditions of a light snow winter (2018)
Figure 3 Dependence of the average depth of the snow on the distance between the coulisses
3.2. Mathematical modeling of water reserves in the snow against the background
stubble coulisses
Results of determining the water reserves in the snow in conditions of snowy winters,
calculated by the formula (5), are shown on Figure 4.
160
mm
b = 1,5m 2,0m 3,0m 4,0m
140
120
100
80
60
40
20
5
7
11
14
18
26
m
Figure
160
140
120
100
80 4 The dependence of water reserves in the snow on the parameters of stubble coulisses in
60
40
20
conditions of snowy winters
5
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Results of determining the water reserves in the snow in conditions of a snowless winter
are shown on Figure 5.
mm
80
60
b = 1,5m 2,0m 3,0m
40
20
m
5
7
11
14
18
26
Figure
160
140
120
100
80 5 The dependence of water reserves in the snow on the parameters of stubble coulisses in
60
40
20
conditions of light snow winters
5
Modeling results showed that with increasing distance between the coulisses, the water
supply in the snow decreases. For each meter of increase in the distance between the
coulisses, the decrease in water reserves in the snow in conditions of snowy and little snowy
winters was about 2 mm. Under the same conditions, the largest water reserves in the snow
were observed at a distance of 5 m between the coulisses, the smallest - with a maximum
increase (26 m). The average difference between the water reserves in the snow with a
maximum distance between the coulisses was about 30 mm. The average difference between
the water reserves in the snow under conditions of snowy and light snowy winters was about
70 mm. The rational interval of the distances between the coulisses in the conditions of snowy
winters was 5...14 meters, since the average difference of water reserves in the snow
according to these options was within 10%. The rational interval of the distances between the
coulisses in conditions of snowless winters was 5...7 meters.
With the distance between the coulisses up to 14 meters in conditions of snowy winters
and up to 7 meters in conditions of light snowy winters, with an increase in the width of the
coulisses, the water supply in the snow decreased by about 1...2 mm per meter of width of the
coulisses. When the distance between the coulisses was over 14 meters under conditions of
snowy winters and over 7 meters under conditions of little snowy winters, with an increase in
the width of the coulisses, the amount of water in the snow increased slightly locally. This is
because with increasing distance between the coulisses, the main source of water in the snow
became the coulisse, in which the snow height was constant, while between the coulisses, the
water reserves in the snow decreased due to a significant decrease in snow height.
The width of the coulisses should be no more than the track width of a combine harvester
to prevent propulsion from rolling (Figure 6). In the conditions of snowy and little snowy
winters, the width of the coulisses should be no more than 1.5 meters. On the other hand, the
width of the coulisses must be at least 1.0 meters to avoid knocking over with wind and
snowstorms.
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Figure 6 Rolling of the coulisses by the combine harvester
4. DISCUSSION
Thus, modeling results indicate that the following parameters are rational for stubble
coulisses: the width of the coulisses is 1.0...1.5 meters; the distance between the coulisses in
the snowy winters is 5...14 meters, in the little snow - 5...7 meters.
The obtained results on different density of snow in the coulisses and between the
coulisses in the stubble coulisses and on the continuous combing in the stubble coulisses and
on the stubble are new. A hypothesis explaining the cause of these phenomena is also new.
The obtained dependences of the snow cover depth on the distance between the coulisses are
also new. The new results show the preference of the stubble coulisses before snow ridging,
continuous combing and stubble. These results are the opposite to the statements by J.A.
Kaskarbaev, V.P. Shashkov (2007) that the stubble coulisses are equivalent in the
accumulation of water in the snow with snow ridging and continuous combing. This also
contradicts the statements by K.J. Kirkland and C.H. Keys (1981) that the maximum of
accumulated moisture is observed in standing stubble in a long crop rotation. They also
contradict the statements of A.P. Lovchikov (2017) that the width of the coulisses is the main
parameter affecting the height of the snow cover. The results presented in this article develop
the existing knowledge about methods of snow accumulation and are consistent with the
claims of J.W. Pomeroy, D.M. Gray, (1995) and H. Steppuhn, M. Stumborg, G. Lafond, and
B. McConkey (2009) about the advantage of stubble coulisses and explain the reason for this
advantage.
5. CONCLUSIONS
In this connection, the purpose of the research was to justify an effective method of
accumulating moisture during winter precipitation for the cultivation of grain crops in the arid
steppe of Northern Kazakhstan. Earlier studies have found that the most preferred methods of
snow accumulation are continuous combing and the formation of stubble coulisses, since they
provide the greatest snow accumulation and do not require additional costs for
implementation. In this connection, the purpose of the research was to justify an effective
method of accumulating moisture during winter precipitation for the cultivation of grain crops
in the arid steppe of Northern Kazakhstan.
Research methods included experimental studies of snow accumulation and mathematical
modeling of water reserves in snow in conditions of snow and light snow winters.
1. Studies of snow accumulation against the backgrounds of stubble coulisses, continuous
combing and stubble have established that the height and density of snow depends on the
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Assessment of Snow Accumulation and Justification of Parameters of Stubble Coulisses in the
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conditions of the year. Therefore, with a height of stubble 15 cm, in conditions of snowy
winters the height of snow reaches 33 cm, and in conditions of light snowy winters - 2 times
less. Field experiments found that the height of the snow in the coulisses depends and is
approximately equal to the height of the coulisses and does not depend on their width (with
the width of the coulisses over 1 m). Studies indicate a decrease in the average depth of snow
with increasing distance between the coulisses.
2. It was established, that in stubble coulisses the density of snow between the coulisses in
snowy winters reaches 0.30 g/cm3by the end of winter, in little snow - 0.19 g/cm3. At the
same time, the density of snow in between the coulisses in snowy winters is 9...29% higher,
and in little snow, 27...36% higher than the density of snow in the coulisses or against the
background of continuous combing. The explanation of this fact is the hypothesis that the
decrease in the density of snow on the stubble background, the background of a continuous
combing or the background of the coulisses is due to the lack of a zone for the acceleration of
snowstorm. Against the background of stubble coulisses, the acceleration of snowstorms
occurs between the coulisses, due to this, snow clogs this space with high density. Density of
snow in stubble reaches 0.20 g/cm3 in snowy winters, 0.13 g/cm3 in little snow.
3. Modeling has established that the following parameters are rational for stubble coulisses: in
snowy winters the distance between the coulisses is 5...14 m, in winters with little snow 5 ... 7
meters, the width of the coulisses is 1.0 ... 1.5 meters. With the distance between the coulisses
increasing beyond recommended values of water, reserves in the snow are reduced by about 2
mm per meter of distance between the coulisses. With the increase of the width of the
coulisses in excess of the recommended values and with an increase in the distance between
the coulisses in the range of recommended values, the water supply in the snow decreases by
1...2 mm per meter of width of the coulisses. With the increase of the width of the coulisses in
excess of the recommended values and with an increase in the distance between the coulisses
in excess of the recommended values, the water reserves in the snow slightly increase.
4. Experimental studies indicate that water reserves in snow depend on the height and density
of snow. Thus, the water reserves in the snow of stubble coulisses with rational parameters in
snowy winters are 25.8...32.2 mm (13...41%) higher than on the background of a continuous
combing; 68.0...99.3 mm (2.1…3.1 times) higher than the stubble background. In the winters
with little snow, the water reserves in the snow of stubble coulisses with rational parameters
in snowy years are 18.5 mm higher (by 34%) than on the background of continuous combing;
51.9 mm (3.4 times) higher than the stubble background.
Obtained results are explained by the established patterns of changes in the density of
snow and the depth of snow in stubble coulisses and other backgrounds.
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