Schwartz, R. G., Leonard, L. B. (1984). Words, objects, and actions in early lexical acquisition. Journal of Speech and Hearing Research, 27, 119-127. Research Questions/Purpose Results Discussion/Implications “The influences of referent type and within category o Children used 65% of 16 nonsense words correctly o At this point children more readily acquire object words than referent relationships upon children’s acquisition of o Children acquired more object words than action words verbs lexical concepts were examined” (Schwartz and o No difference in speed of acquisition o Production of objects versus actions were related to the Leonard 1984). referents o Actions difficult to learn because of transitory referents o The grammatical order of words may have something to do with acquisition o Functional similarity not a sole determinant of acquisition o Words that are more functionally applicable to a child’s life may be lexicalized faster o Functional and perceptual relationships have no effect on acquisition and lexicalization, but they are both important Participants 12 children o 12.5 – 15.5 mo. o 6m 6f o middle class o monolingual English speakers o no more than 5 true words Procedures Language Sampling o in home o played with toys and vocalizations recorded and transcribed by investigator and parent o unfamiliar objects and actions presented with 16 nonsense words attached o 10 sessions over 3.5 months o nonsense words presented 60 times Questions/Critique and Take Home Message Very small sample size Take home Message Children acquire different words at different rates, likely due to functionality in their day to day lives.