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Author
Nanoparticle
Base
fluid
Temperature Particle
size
Eastman
Cu
EG
Particle
vol
fraction
0.01-0.56
Hong et al.
Fe
EG
0.1-0.55
Hemmat Esfe et
al. [94]
Cu -TiO2
Water -EG
0.1–2 vol%
Chen et al. [53]
MWCNT -Fe2O3
Water
0.05–2 vol%
Kumar et al.
(2016)
nanoparticles
Cu-Zn
Vegetable oil.
Paraffin
oil and SAE
oil
Cu
Water, EG
30,40, 50
80
0.1
Cu
Water, EG
30,40, 50
80
0.5
Cu
Water, EG
30,40, 50
80
1
Cu
Water, EG
30,40, 50
80
2
Cu
Water, EG
30,40, 50
80
3
Findings
Thermal
conductivity
enhance ment
41%
Thermal
conductivity
enhance ment
18%
Thermal
conductivity
enhance ment
24%
Aluminium
Aluminium
Aluminium
Water
, EG
30,40, 50
80
0.1
Water
, EG
30,40, 50
80
0.5
Water
, EG
30,40, 50
80
1
Thermal
conductivity
enhance ment
28%
Thermal Conductivity:
Hybrid nanofluids
with vegetable oil as
base
fluids shows 53%
better results as
compared to paraffin
oil and SAE oil.
Thermal conductivity
enhancement for water
is 3.8,5.3. 5.5 and for
EG is 6, 5.8, 8
Thermal conductivity
enhancement for water
is 9.5, 10.5,.13 and for
EG is 7, 13, 15
Thermal conductivity
enhancement for water
is 15.5, 18,.19 and for
EG is 18, 21.5, 23
Thermal conductivity
enhancement for water
is 23, 24, 27 and for
EG is 23.5, 32, 30
Thermal conductivity
enhancement for water
is 25, 28, 33 and for
EG is 29, 33, 36
Thermal conductivity
enhancement for water
is 2.9, 3.2, 4 and for
EG is 4.5, 5.5, 4
Thermal conductivity
enhancement for water
is 10. 9, 12 and for EG
is 7.5, 9.5, 14
Thermal conductivity
enhancement for water
is 11, 16, 18.5 and for
EG is 15.5, 17, 20
Aluminium
Water
, EG
30,40, 50
80
2
Water
, EG
30,40, 50
80
3
Al2O3
Water
, EG
30,40, 50
150
0.5
Al2O3
Water
, EG
30,40, 50
150
1
Al2O3
Water
, EG
30,40, 50
150
2
Al2O3
Water
, EG
30,40, 50
150
3
Al2O3
EG
20-50
0.5-3
THW
CuO
CuO
Cu
Trinh(2017)
Al
Sundar(2013) Fe3O4
Water
EG
EG
EG
Water
20-50
20-50
20-50
20-50
20-60
0.5-3
0.5-3
0.5-3
0.5-3
0.2
THW
THW
THW
Sundar(2014) MWCNTFe3O4
Water
20-60
0.1
Sundar(2014) MWCNTFe3O4
Water
20-60
0.3
Aluminium
Patel(2010)
Thermal
conductivity
enhancement
for water 18.5,
21.5, 24 and for
EG is 17.5,
21.5, 23
Thermal
conductivity
enhancement
for water 21,
27, 28 and for
EG is 21.5, 24,
27
Thermal
conductivity
enhancement
for water 2.5, 3,
4.3 and for EG
is 2.5, 3.3, 4.3
Thermal
conductivity
enhancement
for water 4, 3.5,
4 and for EG is
3.7, 4.6, 5.5
Thermal
conductivity
enhancement
for water 4.5,
6.5, 7 and for
EG is 8, 7, 8
Thermal
conductivity
enhancement
for water 9, 9.5,
10.5 and for EG
is 9.5, 10.3, 11
Thermal
conductivity
enhancement
for waterAl2O3
nanofluid is 1432
3-16.5
9-25
8-36
4-27
0.65240.7619
W/(m.K)
0.67340.7891
W/(m.K)
0.68560.8389
W/(m.K)
Sundar(2016) ND-Fe3O4
Water
20-60
0.1
Sundar(2016) ND-Fe3O4
Water
20-60
0.2
Al2O3MWCNT
Water
(Al2O3
eCu
Water
2and
10
wt%
2 vol%
Al2O3
Water
2 vol%
MWCNTeFe3O4
Water/EG 20/60
0.3
Vol%
(Suresh 2011)
0.6345-0.7177
W/(m.K)
0.6571-0.769
W/(m.K)
4 and 13 %
enhance ment
12.11%
enhance ment
7.56% enhance
ment
13.88% higher thermal
conductivity was
obtained for 0.3%
nanofluid compared to
water at 20 C. Similarly
28.46% higher thermal
conductivity was
obtained by 0.3%
nanofluid
compared to the thermal
conductivity of base fluid
at 60 C
Author
Nanoparticl
e
Base
fluid
Temperatur
e
Particle
size
Jha et
al.(2008
)
MWCNT
Wate
r
26.5 °C
Jha et
al.(2008
)
MWCNT
EG
26.5 °C
O.D: 2530 nm,
I.D: 5-8
nm
O.D: 2530 nm,
I.D: 5-8
nm
CuMWCNT
EG
CuMWCNT
DI
CuMWCNT
DI
CuMWCNT
EG
Cu
water
Cu
water
Eastma
n et al
Saterlie
et
al.(2011
)
Cu: 3-5
nm,
MWCN
T: 20-30
nm
Cu: 3-5
nm,
MWCN
T: 20-30
nm
Cu: 3-5
nm,
MWCN
T: 20-30
nm
Cu: 3-5
nm,
MWCN
T: 20-30
nm
120-200
nm
Surfactant
Stability
0.04%
Thermal
conductivit
y
enhanceme
nt
14.8 %
0.04%
7.3%
Functionalise
d with HNO3
0.8 %
34%
Settling
stareted as
grown after
few hrs but
settles
slowly as
compared
to EG
Stable after
20 days
Functionalise
d with HNO3
1%
12.7 %
Stable after
20 days
Functionalise
d with HNO3
0.03 %
35.3 %
Stable after
20 days
Functionalise
d with HNO3
0.03 %
10.1%
Stable after
20 days
0.3 %
40%
0.55%,1
%
22%
enhanced
from 0.6 to
0.73
W/(m.K)
Oleic acid
caped Cu and
SDBS as
ispersant
Particle
vol
fraction
Settled as
grown after
few hrs
Particle
settled too
rapidly
during
measureme
nt and
clogged the
set up at 1
vol% and
no thermal
conductivit
y is
obtained
Autho
r
Nanopartic
le
Bas
e
flui
d
Author
Nanoparti
cle
Base
fluid
Saterlie et
al.(2011)
Cu
water
Farbod et
al.(2014)
MWCNT
Water
Vvv7
Bandyopa
dhyaya et
al.(2001)
SWCNT
Water
Room
temp
Jung et
al.(2011)
Fedele et
al.
Garg et
al.(2009)
Al2O3
WATER
TiO2
MWCNT
Distilled
water
WATER
Yang and
Liu et
al.(2011)
SiO2
water
Temperatu
re
Temperatu
re
Particl
e size
Surfacta
nt
Particl
e vol
fractio
n
Metho
d
Method
Partic
le size
Surfactant
Particle
vol
fraction
120200
nm
CTAB acid caped
Cu and SDBS as
ispersant
0.55%,
1%
Functionalized with
sulphuric acid and
nitric acid
GA,SDS,CTAC,DT
AB,PEO
300
nm
PVA
0.05
wt%
Thermal
Stabilit
conductivity y
enhanceme
nt
Two-step
Ultrasonica
tion
Acetic acid
30 C
Gum Arabic
Trimethoxysilane
Ultrasonica
tion
Thermal
conductivit
y
enhanceme
nt
48%
enhanced
from 0.6 to
0.89
W/(m.K)
Stability
Particle are well
dispersed allowing
for successful
thermal cond.
measurements
Stable for 80 days
Gum Arabic was
found to be most
stable one and is
found stable for 3
months
Satble for 1 month
Stable suspension
for 35 days
Stable for more
than 1 month and
no visible sign of
sedimentation
Stable for 12
months.Pure
nanofluid
sedimented within
few days
Author
Nanoparticle
Base
fluid
Anoop et al.
Al2O3
Water
Temperature
Particle
size
Surfactant
Particle
vol
fraction
Ph
control :
6.5(1 wt
%)
1-6 wt
%
Method
Thermal
conductivity
enhancement
Stability
Several weeks of
stability was
achieved
6.0 (2
wt%)
5.5 (4
wt%)
5.0 (6
wt%)
MWCNT–Fe3O4
Distilled
water
NanoSperse
AQ
GO/Fe3O4
water
Tannic
acid
Baghbanzadeh
et al.(2012)
Silica nanosphere/
MWCNT
Distilled
wate
SDBS
Byrne et
al.(2012)
CuO
DI Water
CTAB
Phuoc and
massoudi et al
Fe2O3
DI-water
PVP
Meng et al
CNTs
Glycol
nil
Robertis et al
Cu
EG
PVP
Kumaresen
and velraj et
al
CNTs
DIWaterEG
SDBS
Sundar et
al.(2014)
No particle
sedimentation is
observed up to
60 days
Highly stable for
60 days
0.005,
0.01,
0.1
vol%
1-4
vol%
0.5 to
4%
0.25
to 1
vol%
Stable
nanofluids were
observed for
duration up to
1
month..MWCNT
is stabilized with
silicate
Nanofluid was
found stable for
seven days
Nanofluids were
stable for two
weeks
Nanofluids
could remain
stable for more
than two months
without
sedimentation
No
sedimentation or
agglomeration
even after 48
hours. The
particles
settlement was
about 28.5% in
50 days.
Nanofluids were
stable after 3
months
Kathivaran et
al
Cu polycrystalline
DI-water
SDS
O.25,
0.5
and 1
wt%
Nanoparticles
were dispersed
in water evenly
even after
10 hours
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