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Greetings Delegates!
It gives me great honor to welcome you to UNW, and I hope that you are as
excited about this experience as I am. To the veteran delegates, I assure you that
a very enlightening debate awaits you, and to the novices, I am thrilled to be a
part of the beginning of your MUN journey. So, I’ll let you know a little about
myself, I’m currently in Grade 11, but besides that, I love public speaking and
mun is a great place for me as well as for all those who want to place their views.
Although most are passionate about MUN because of its heated discussions, my
intentions of still doing MUN is to get the hang of diplomacy. Some may think of
diplomacy as negotiations, while others may say alliances, but this broad strategic
ideology, in any form, in any context, is enough to save the world from strife.
The background guide is intended to familiarize you with the agenda as well as
the committee, however note that this guide is only the starting point of your
research and the Executive Board encourages all delegates to go beyond this
guide and grasp all the important facets of the vast agenda. Represent your
allotted country in its best possible way while respecting its foreign policy and
putting in wholehearted efforts in research.
Lastly, please feel free to contact the President which is myself, Ojassharma or the
vice president, Prenith Pondhen in case of any questions regarding the agenda or
the committee.
The mandate for UN-Women, is articulated in General Assembly
resolution 64/2009 as follows:
“Based on the principle of universality, the Entity shall provide, through its
normative support functions and operational activities, guidance and technical
support to all Member States, across all levels of development and in all regions,
at their request, on gender equality, the empowerment and rights of women
and gender mainstreaming.”
UN-Women combines the mandate of four agencies. The mandate is separated
into political, norm- setting activities and operational activities in cooperation
with UN Member States. To improve coherence, consistency and coordination, it
is pivotal to establish common standards in the field of gender equality and
women empowerment. To this end, UN-Women now serves as the secretariat to
the Commission on the Status of Women (CSW) and supports the agency in
formulating such norms and standards by inter alia submitting an annual report
to the Commission. This mandate was taken over from DAW when the programs
were consolidated. Whereas CSW is overall responsible for the formulation of
standard-setting policies, it is UN -Women that carries out these policies in its
operational activities in the field. UN-Women provides technical and financial
assistance, capacity building as well as policy guidance to Member States that
requests the Entity’s support. UN -Women further facilitates the work of the
General Assembly, Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC), and the Security
Council in their efforts to advance the global agenda on gender equality. Finally,
UN-Women was assigned to hold the UN system accountable for its efforts to
mainstream gender across all aspects of its work
Up to this day, no country, developing or developed, has achieved complete
gender equality. To advance efforts at an international level, the General
Assembly established the United Nations Entity for Gender Equality and the
Empowerment of Women (UN-Women) in July 2010 with the universal directive
“to achieve gender equality, women’s empowerment, and upholding women’s
rights.” The work of UN-Women is guided by the principles laid down in the
Convention on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW), the
Beijing Declaration and Platform for Action (BPfA), UN Security Council Resolution
1325 (2000) on “Women, Peace and Security,” the Millennium Declaration,
Millennium Development Goals, and other norms related to women’s rights and
gender equality. CEDAW and the BPfA are the cornerstones of the activity of UN Women and provide the overall guiding principles for its work. Over the past 15
years, UN Member States have also gained greater awareness and understanding
regarding the role women play in peace and security due in part to the adoption
Security Council resolution 1325 (2000) on women, peace and security, and
subsequent resolutions 1820 (2008), 1888 (2009), 1889 (2009), 1960 (2010), 2106
(2013), and 2122 (2013). These resolutions “represent a critical framework for
improving the situation of women in conflict-affected countries,” and ground
efforts at the international, regional, national and local levels to protect and
promote women’s rights in conflict-affected situations. Supporting efforts to
mainstream implementation of these global norms, as well as the principle of
gender equality at the international, regional and national level is central to
UNWomen’s mandate and at the heart of the organization’s mission. Achieving
this mission is not a goal in itself but an important contribution to sustainable
development as a whole
About gender equality
Gender equality is a right. Fulfilling this right is the best chance we have in
meeting some of the most pressing challenges of our time—from economic crisis
and lack of health care, to climate change, violence against women and
escalating conflicts.
The 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development and its 17 Sustainable
Development Goals (SDGs) adopted by world leaders in 2015, embody a
roadmap for progress that is sustainable and leaves no one behind.
Achieving gender equality and women’s empowerment is integral to each of
the 17 goals. Only by ensuring the rights of women and girls across all the goals
will we get to justice and inclusion, economies that work for all, and sustaining
our shared environment now and for future generations.
Role of the 5th SDG: Gender Equality
Women have a critical role to play in all of the SDGs, with many targets
specifically recognizing women’s equality and empowerment as both the
objective, and as part of the solution. Goal 5 is known as the stand-alone gender
goal because it is dedicated to achieving these ends. Deep legal and legislative
changes are needed to ensure women’s rights around the world. While a record
143 countries guaranteed equality between men and women in their
Constitutions by 2014, another 52 had not taken this step. In many nations,
gender discrimination is still woven through legal and social norms. Stark
gender disparities remain in economic and political realms. While there has
been some progress over the decades, on average women in the labour market
still earn 24 per cent less than men globally.
As of August 2015, only 22 per cent of all national parliamentarians were female,
a slow rise from 11.3 per cent in 1995. Meanwhile, violence against women is a
pandemic affecting all countries, even those that have made laudable progress in
other areas. Worldwide, 35 per cent of women have experienced either physical
and/or sexual intimate partner violence or non – partner sexual violence. UN
Women joined the voices of many global actors in pointing out that violence was
absent from the Millennium Development Goals. Women have a right to equality
in all areas. It must be embedded across legal systems, upheld in both laws and
legal practices, including proactive measures such as quotas.
Since all areas of life relate to gender equality, efforts must be made to cut the
roots of gender discrimination wherever they appear. UN Women works to
empower women and girls in all of its programmes. Advancing women’s political
participation and leadership and economic empowerment are two of the entity’s
central goals. UN Women supports more women to get on ballots, attain political
office and go to polls to vote. We assist women to secure decent jobs, accumulate
assets, and influence institutions and public policies, while underlining the need
to recognize, reduce and redistribute the burden on women for unpaid care.
We promote women’s role and leadership in humanitarian action, including in
conflict-prevention and efforts to ensure peace and security. We advocate for
ending violence, raise awareness of its causes and consequences and boost
efforts to prevent and respond, including ensuring the rights of women living with
HIV. We also work to ensure that governments reflect the needs of women and
girls in their planning and budgeting, and engage men and boys, urging them to
become champions of gender equality, including through our HeForShe initiative.
SDG 5: Achieve gender equality and empower all women and girls WOMEN AND
UN Women Eastern and Southern Africa Country Office Selected Initiatives on
Gender Equality and Women’s Empowerment This directly falls within our ambit.
UN Women is grounded in the vision of equality enshrined in the Charter of the
United Nations, works for the elimination of discrimination against women and
girls; the empowerment of women and girls; and the achievement of equality
between women and men as partners and beneficiaries of development, human
rights, humanitarian action and peace and security. UN Women’s Regional focus
varies in different countries depending on country specific needs but are not
limited to (i) expanding women’s leadership and participation; (ii) enhancing
women’s economic empowerment; and (iii) ending violence against women. In
addition, UN Women in Eastern and Southern Africa also actively participates and
contributes to various UN inter-agency processes and collaborates with UN
organizations around specific programme areas and governments within the
UNCT frameworks to support and build development interventions feeding into
the localization of SDGs at country and regional levels. In 2015, for example, UN
Women in Kenya supported the National Gender and Equality Commission (NGEC)
in improving the ability of the Commission to carry out its mandated role to allow
a transformative gender equality in Kenya to take place, UN Women and NGEC
entered into a partnership to work together on a programme for public and
private sector. The cooperation yielded many diverse and complimentary results.
For example, a tool to measure inclusivity at the county level and capacity
development on gender responsive budgeting (GRB) at the counties in Kenya was
developed. The capacity of NGEC was also strengthened to lead the monitoring of
compliance on planned inclusivity in the final national budget in Kenya. UN
Women’s analysis showed that the financial year 2015/16 budget was prepared
with a focus on pro-poor growth and sustainable development and the emphasis
was on strategic intervention areas.
Combating Violence against Women Migrant Workers
In 2015 the number of international migrants rose to 244 million, which includes
150 million migrant workers, a number that is 1.4 times larger than 15 years ago
and is expected to increase. Migrants are those that “choose to move not because
of a direct threat of persecution or death, but mainly to improve their lives by
finding work, or in some cases for education, family reunion, or other reasons.”
Migrants are differentiated from refugees, who are defined in the 1951
Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees as persons who move because of
political circumstances including fleeing war, conflicts, and violations of human
rights in their origin countries. The United Nations (UN) Convention on Migrant’s
Rights defines a migrant worker as a "person who is to be engaged, is engaged or
has been engaged in a remunerated activity in a State of which he or she is not a
national." Migrant workers fill a shortage in the labor force and raise the birth
rate of receiving countries, and their remittances – money sent back to their
country of origin – account for a significant proportion of global finance flow.
Women migrants account for almost half of all international migrants, and
women migrant workers are seen as one of the most vulnerable groups suffering
from violence and human rights abuses. Most are engaged in traditionallywomenfilled sectors of work such as domestic work and hospitality work, and are at
times subjected to violence and discrimination. Women migrant workers are
exposed to sexual violence, trafficking, poor access to health care services, and
can be emotionally affected by separation from their children. Thus, at every
stage of migration, from pre-departure to post-return, women migrant workers
are especially vulnerable to human rights violations, and to both physical and
psychological forms of violence. Combating all forms of violence against women
migrant workers is an urgent issue for the international community as the number
of women migrant workers continues to rise. The UN Commission on the Status of
Women (CSW) views the topic of combating violence against women migrant
workers as a significant concern for the international community.
Progress of the 5th SDG in 2018
Based on 2005–2016 data from 56 countries, 20 per cent of adolescent girls
aged 15 to 19 who have ever been in a sexual relationship experienced
physical and/or sexual violence by an intimate partner in the 12 months prior
to the survey.
Globally, around 2017, an estimated 21 per cent of women between 20 and 24
years of age reported that they were married or in an informal union before
age 18. This means that an estimated 650 million girls and women today were
married in childhood. Rates of child marriage have continued to decline
around the world. In Southern Asia, a girl’s risk of marrying in childhood has
dropped by over 40 per cent since around 2000.
Around 2017, one in three girls aged 15 to 19 had been subjected to
female genital mutilation in the 30 countries where the practice is
concentrated, compared to nearly one in two around 2000.
Based on data between 2000 and 2016 from about 90 countries, women spend
roughly three times as many hours in unpaid domestic and care work as men.
Globally, the percentage of women in single or lower houses of national
parliament has increased from 19 per cent in 2010 to around 23 per cent
in 2018.
Pakistan on women equality
The United Nations released on Feb 14 a report on gender equality for its
Sustainable Development Agenda 2030 with Pakistan being one of the main four
countries in focus. The report identifies inequality among women and girls and
paints a sorry picture for the country.
Using data from a UN Demographic and Health Surveys 2012-2013 report which
takes into account variables such as wealth, location and ethnicity, the report
reveals that 12 per cent of women in Pakistan (4.9 million) aged 18-49 are
simultaneously deprived in four Sustainable Development Goals-related
1. Child marriages
2. Education
3. Healthcare
4. Employment.
Howeverthere have been important advances in gender equality in Pakistan in
recent years. Pakistani women today are more likely to participate in the labour
force and decision-making, and access health and education services, than their
mothers and grandmothers. With about a fifth of parliamentary seats held by
women, Pakistan has a strong representation in terms of women’s political
representation in South Asia.
Pakistan has adopted a number of key international commitments to gender
equality and women’s human rights – the Universal Declaration of Human
Rights, Beijing Platform for Action, the Convention on the Elimination of all forms
of Discrimination Against Women, and the Sustainable Development Goals.
National commitments in place include a National Policy for Development and
Empowerment of Women, Protection against Harassment of Women at
Workplace Act, Criminal Law (Amendment) (Offences in the name or pretext of
Honour) Act, Criminal Law (Amendment) (Offences Relating to Rape) and a
National Plan of Action on Human Rights. Local commitments adopted include
Gender Equality Policy Frameworks and Women’s Empowerment Packages and
CEDAW Committee on the Elimination of all forms of Discrimination against Women
is one of the human rights bodies of the United Nations. It consists of 23
independent women’s rights experts from around the world, monitoring the
implementation of the Convention on the Elimination of all forms of Discrimination
against Women. The Convention has 189 state parties, all obliged to submit regular
reports on how they implement the Convention. During the sessions, the
Committee considers the country reports and addresses its concerns and
recommendations to the State party in the form of concluding observations.
On average, for every $1 a woman earned in Norway, a man earned $1.27, which
translates to an average annual salary equalling about $57,856 for women and
$73,257 for men. Just slightly under 76 percent of Norwegian women are part of
the national labour market, while Norwegian men's participation is 80 percent.
Norway's best result in the report came within the category of political
participation, where it placed third overall. Its worst result was in
women's health, where it was just 68th.
Italy is one of only two G20 countries to have seen a fall in the proportion of
women in its top civil service jobs this year. And if we consider its overall progress
since 2013 – or, indeed, since 2007 in the EU table – it’s clear that forward
progress has only ever been faltering.
According to the European Gender Equality Index, Italy has the lowest level of
gender equality in the EU. Female civil servants aspiring to leadership positions
have few role models; it was 30 years after the 1946 foundation of the
republic that the first female minister was appointed, and the country has
never had a woman president or prime minister.
Yet as many women as men join the civil service every year, according to
EdoardoOngaro, Professor of Public Management at the UK’s Open Universit and
President of the European Group for Public Administration. So why don’t they
make it to the uppermost ranks?
Ongaro says that there are some basic structural features of Italian public service
that help to explain the imbalance. When a graduate wins the public
competition to join the civil service, he says, they join “the ranks of the state
technically forever; for the rest of their life”. And because the “Anglo-American
model of public sector hiring and firing is not the Continental and certainly not
the Italian way”, staff turnover is very low.
The problem for women is compounded by child-rearing, Ongaro says. Italy has
one of the longest compulsory statutory maternity leave entitlements in Europe –
five months – and mothers can, if they wish, take a phased re-entry into work
over as long as three years.
However, Ongaro insists that gender inequality is a live issue in the corridors of
power; in recent years, he says, attempts have been made to redress the balance. In
2007, a national directive for implementing Measures for Equality and Equal
Opportunities between Men and Women was issued by the Department for Public
Administration. The directive aimed to increase the presence of women in
managerial positions; develop good practices for HR management in view of equal
opportunities; and promote the awareness and application of tools for gender
equal opportunities among HR managers in the public sector.
However, women in top positions remain stubbornly in the minority. “By and
large, the right policies are there,” concludes Ongaro. “But those structural
features of the service impede them; you need decades to produce outcomes.”
However, Ongaro insists that gender inequality is a live issue in the corridors of
power; in recent years, he says, attempts have been made to redress the balance.
In 2007, a national directive for implementing Measures for Equality and Equal
Opportunities between Men and Women was issued by the Department for
Public Administration. The directive aimed to increase the presence of women in
managerial positions; develop good practices for HR management in view of equal
opportunities; and promote the awareness and application of tools for gender
equal opportunities among HR managers in the public sector.
However, women in top positions remain stubbornly in the minority. “By and
large, the right policies are there,” concludes Ongaro. “But those structural
features of the service impede them; you need decades to produce outcomes.”
Italy’s policymakers have seen fit to bring in gender quotas elsewhere in the
country’s economy, but no such measures exist yet in the public sector. In 2011,
a quota system was imposed on the boards of directors and boards of statutory
auditors of companies listed on the Italian Stock Exchange, beginning at 20% and
raised to 33% by 2015. Fines for non- compliance can be up to a million euros.
This has undoubtedly had an impact: Italy is currently second among G20 nations
for the proportion of women on boards, at 30.6%.
Marital rape no law against it strictly.
Laws against Rape practices are not enforced.
Women are not allowed to individualproperty but can be allowed if
prenuptial agreement is formed, seldom known to few regardless.
Domestic violence is widespread and accepted.
No sexual-harassment case has ever made it to trial.
Tribal chiefs can fine women who wear pants.
Some Targets to keep in mind
Eliminate all forms of violence against all women and girls in the public and
private spheres, including trafficking and sexual and other types of exploitation
Eliminate all harmful practices, such as a child, early and forced marriage and
female genital mutilation
Recognize and value unpaid care and domestic work through the provision of
public services, infrastructure and social protection policies and the promotion
of shared responsibility within the household and the family as nationally
Ensure women’s full and effective participation and equal opportunities for
leadership at all levels of decision-making in political, economic and public
Ensure universal access to sexual and reproductive health and reproductive
rights as agreed in accordance with the Programme of Action of the International
Conference on Population and Development and the Beijing Platform for Action
and the outcome documents of their review conferences
Violence Against Women
Violence against women has become a major for UN Women. Predominantly
coming from intimate partner violence and sexual violence, the World Health
Organization (WHO) reports that 1 in 3 women worldwide have experienced
some form of physical or sexual violence in their lifetime. Intimate partner
violence is defined as, “the behaviour by an intimate partner or ex-partner that
causes physical, sexual or psychological harm, including physical aggression,
sexual coercion, psychological abuse and controlling behaviours.” Sexual violence
is defined as, “any sexual act, attempt to obtain a sexual act, or other act directed
against a person’s sexuality using coercion, by any person regardless of their
relationship to the victim, in any setting. It includes rape, defined as the physically
forced or otherwise coerced penetration of the vulva or anus with a penis, other
body part or object.” Furthermore, 38% of all murders of women are committed
by their male intimate partner. Not only does violence against women ruin their
own life, but it also has detrimental effects on the children in the relationship.
Currently, the UN has many policies in place which attempt to end violence
against women. One example is the UN Declaration on the Elimination of Violence
Against Women, which was the first international declaration clearly addressing
violence against women. It defined violence against women “as any act of genderbased violence that results in, or is likely to result in, physical, sexual or
psychological harm or suffering to women, including threats of such acts, coercion
or arbitrary deprivation of liberty, whether occurring in public or in private life.”
Yet despite this, and other policies, still too much violence occurs today. UN
Women works UN Women Page 8 with governments around the world to adopt
and pass improved laws to hold all countries to international standards.
Not only is violence against women a direct violation of human rights, but it also
sweeps across all ages, socio-economic levels, geographic locations, education
levels, and every other aspect of society. The UN needs to create more programs
in which women are able to safely involve themselves within society, and not be
silenced by those who hurt them. UN Women needs to be the catalyst for
change by empowering everyone who is currently powerless.
Healthcare for Women
Women’s healthcare is an issue that affects the wellbeing of the human
population as a whole. Healthcare is defined as “the maintenance and
improvement of physical and mental health, especially through the provision of
medical services”. What does this definition, then, entail for women? Well,
female sexual and maternal health is the keystone of our society because,without
women, we have no population. However, these two types of healthcare are
commonly overlooked by many national governments. For example, many do not
take the time to consider the effects of a lack of access to female hygiene
products but for homeless women, this issue can lead to diseases or infection.
This increase in reproductive organ complications may lead to a higher mortality
rate or birthing disorders in children. Furthermore, in many third world
countries, particularly in Africa, a gender imbalance in healthcare leads to many
maternal mortalities which creates another problem, an increasing orphan
There is also gender -based inequality when it comes to female sexual health
treatment and care. Overall, women who suffer from conditions such as HIV/AIDS
are overlooked as opposed to their male counterparts. This is detrimental to the
human population as a whole because females can pass on this horrible disease
to their children whether that be through pregnancy, labour, delivery or
breastfeeding. Once again, more attention needs to be paid to women's health in
order to lead a more progressive and efficient world.
Economic Empowerment for Women
The feminization of poverty is described as a situation in which women are
disproportionately represented as the majority of the world’s poor, which is
defined as the 1.5 billion people living on a dollar or less a day. The poverty gap
between genders has widened for many reasons. Many attribute this, as UNIFEM
describes it, to the “burden of poverty borne by women, especially in developing
countries.” This is furthered and worsened by a lack of income, gender biases
present in societies, cultures, governments, and workplaces, and denial to
women of resources such as credit, land, inheritance, health care, and equal pay.
Currently, The UN is currently working to implement policies and procedures in
order to help empower women within the workforce.
Today, women globally earn just over 50% of what the average man earns. For
example, restrictions on women’s rights in Saudi Arabia greatly contribute to such a
gap, with only one aspect being restrictions on schooling and employment. Often
times, the work women perform is undervalued and underpaid. As of 2011, the
International Labor Organization stated that women constituted a mere
18.6% of the global workforce. Other sources claim less than 11% of women are
employed. Even though about 70% of students who pursued higher education
are women, they lack the job opportunities to put their skills to use. The stigmas
associated with women and religious and cultural beliefs have prevented many
women from being able to be economically stable and independent.
When women are trapped in poverty, their children are also more likely to enter
a cycle of poverty. Empowering women living in poverty and giving them the
resources and opportunities to break this cycle is the key to fighting poverty
globally. The UN has expressed interest in supporting women to become
autonomous. The Beijing Platform for Action called upon nations to “undertake
legislative and administrative reforms to give women full and equal access to
economic resources, including the right to inheritance and ownership of land.”
One example of change being initiated comes from the UN Women Page 14
ProgreseaProgramme in Mexico. Founded in 1997, this platform offers aid to
women in need of employment, education, and health care. Another source of
change comes from Germany, and the project called, “Assistance for single
homeless mothers,” which attempts to help women join society and seek out
employment opportunities.
Even though there have been areas of change, progress has been slow, as
few nations have concretely changed laws or worked toward changing
cultures. Therefore, the UN must take more decisive action in order to help
with the economic empowerment for women.
Worldwide and more
Certain cases can be traced to terrorist organizations. Boko Haram, a militant
Islamist organization founded against Western education, was responsible for
the abduction of 276 female students from the Government Secondary School in
Chibok, Nigeria. The travesty drew international attention with the “Bring Back
Our Girls” campaign, but the central claim made by Boko Haram was that girls
should not be in school and rather be married. In the same vein, the Taliban,
another Islamist insurgent group, banned girls older than age eight from
attending school in Afghanistan and Pakistan. The international community
focused on the Taliban when a Taliban assailant shot MalalaYousafzai, a
young proponent for girls’ education.
Poverty is the top barrier preventing
girls from having equal access to
educational and empowering
opportunities. 250 adolescent girls live
under conditions of poverty, yet less
than two cents from every dollar
donated to development funds and
charities reach these girls. They face
risks associated with poverty, including
those directly correlated to schooling,
like overly expensive school fees. They
often lack fulfilment of basic needs,
suffering food insecurity and increased susceptibility to diseases like HIV/AIDS.
Finally, girls who live in impoverished areas tend to also be victim to social norms
and traditions that prevent them from achieving. In many poverty-ridden areas,
girls are given less value than boys. In others, they are subject to child labour.
Perhaps the greatest barrier is early marriage.
Gender violence and violence in schools also poses a major barrier to girls’
education. Bullying is pervasive worldwide, with students from all regions of the
world reporting instances of verbal and physical abuses in school. Sexual
harassment and sexual abuse are common in many developing regions as well.
Certain countries have near-institutionalized norms of sexual abuse toward
female students. Families often report not wanting to send their daughters into
unsafe or inaccessible areas, and girls who are victim to domestic abuse or are
impregnated as a result of sexual assault often do not have the opportunity or
desire to return to school.
Yet education resolves this cycle of gender inequity, and everybody benefits when
women are educated. When a girl completes secondary schooling, 90% of her
future income is reinvested into her family. Investing in girls so they complete
further education would increase their lifetime earnings to be equal to 1.5%
increases to GDP per year. However, a lack of girls’ education leaves these issues
room to expand, creating a cycle of gender inequity and continued poverty.
The global fight for women’s rights is longstanding. Attention began to focus on
equitable access to education in 1960 when the UN released the Convention on
Discrimination in Education. However, the focus on girls grew over the last twentyfive years as the UN directly addressed young women and as studies began to prove
the effects of girls’ education. The Millennium Development Goals further
kickstarted worldwide efforts to educate girls and empower women.
Past International Action
Though there is no one document that directly addresses girls’ education, several
take it into consideration as a human right and foundation for gender equality.
The first of such documents was created in 1948 when the United Nations
General Assembly (UNGA) passed the Universal Declaration of Human Rights.
Though the Declaration was written in response to World War II, it codified the
UN’s dedication to human rights, of which education is one. Though Article 2
states that freedoms cannot be denied based on sex, girls had very low access to
education early on. Likewise, the Convention Against Discrimination in
Education, passed by the United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural
Organization (UNESCO) in 1960, states that education systems cannot
discriminate based on race, sex, language, religion, origin, or economic condition.
However, the document mainly focused on ending racial and ethnic segregation.
Turning attention back to women, the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms
of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW) was passed in 1979 by UNGA. The
Convention, described as an international bill of rights for women, has been
ratified by 180 states. The Convention’s goal is to ensure to women equal rights
with men. It holds that women cannot be discriminated against in schooling and
calls for ratifying states to take “appropriate measures to eliminate discrimination
against women.” In schools, these measures include ensuring equal female
teacher representation, equal access to participate in athletics, and equal
distribution of scholarships.
Ten years later, the UNGA passed the Convention on the Rights of the 5 Child,
which pulls focus back onto youths. With 194 participants, of which 192 have
ratified the Convention, it is a powerful treaty calling for increased freedoms and
liberties for children. Article 28 of the Convention calls for equal access to primary
and secondary schooling for all children but does not specifically focus on girls.
The most recent UN policy regarding girls’ education is 2000’s Millennium
Development Goals (MDGs), which directly focus on gender equality in Goal 3,
Target 3.A. This goal calls for the elimination of gender disparities in primary and
secondary education by 2005, and in all levels of education by 2015. Though these
goals will not be fully achieved, the MDGs explain the progress made in very
recent years as well as the creation of UN Women and rise in UN initiatives and
NGO partnerships.
https://tribune.com.pk/story/1634815/1-un-women-report-shows-worryingdegree- gender-inequality-pakistan/check this for graphical representations
of women lifestyles in Pakistan.