PNG Studies and International Relations Department PG315 Peace and Conflict Studies Exam PGIR Year 3 TIME: 8:00AM – 10:10AM ROOM: MH07 INFORMATION FOR CANDIDATES: You have 10 minutes to go through the questions. 1. Time: 2 hours (working) plus 10 minutes reading time 2. During your 10 minutes’ reading time, check to see that everything is in order, and that all questions are visible. If you are faced with any problem or come across technical issues, please do alert your lecturer or your supervisor. 3. No other file other than your exam shall be open on the taskbar for the duration of the exam. 4. Mobile phones and dictionaries are NOT allowed. 5. Ensure you select the “finish and submit all” option to submit your final answers. Marking scheme Section Total mark Mark acquired A: Multiple Choice /6 B: True and False /10 C. Short Essays /24 Total /40 PART A. Multiple Choice (1 mark each. 6 marks) Complete the following statements with the choice of answer most suitable to the context 1. Arbitration means that two conflicting parties enter into an agreement Select one: a. to mark one side as wrong and the other as right b. to accept a decision which results from a fair presentation of both sides before an appointed magistrate c. to avoid turning to a magistrate d. to find the real culprit in the offense that has been reported 2. Alternative dispute resolution is a process used a. to try to forget the dispute at hand b. to find an alternative to dealing with serious criminal problems c. to be creative in sentencing and punishment d. to get conflicting parties to go away and solve their own problems 3. When the parties to a dispute are talking to a mediator they should Select one: a. not have any fixed idea about drawing a line under the compromises reached b. take a stand of "this far and no further" right from the start c. carefully consider the costs beforehand so as to be ready to stop the other side d. make it clear how much they will yield and how much they insist upon 4. When a mediator goes into caucus with one side of a dispute, the best result is Select one: a. that the results of the caucus be disclosed freely to the other side b. that no one finds out what happened in the side meeting c. that they plan how to trick the other side d. that the mediator makes it clear which side he is supporting against the other 5. Reframing a statement in mediation means Select one: a. that you put a statement into other words so that what is negative becomes open again b. add emotion to the statements of someone who does not care c. that you turn a negative into a positive d. you change the context of the argument 6. The Biblical term for peace is Shalom which is a concept that conveys Select one: a. a fullness of life and resources within a community and national setting b. primarily the need for an absence of war c. the meaning of an absence of struggle or conflict in any form d. an aggressive sense of continual warfare to maintain peace Part B. True and False (1 mark each. 10 marks) Indicate whether the following statements are True (T) or False (F) 7. Mediation is a process in the courts that shortens the delay time for criminal cases Select one: True False 8. Mediation is a form of justice where the parties are bound to accept the decision of the mediator. Select one: True False 9. 'Man against self' is an external conflict when a man struggles to position himself against the powers of nature. Select one: True False 10. Listening skills can be used to get below the surface of inter-cultural difficulties in social studies. Select one: True False 11. Theories of peace and conflict explore a range of theoretical explanations for peace and armed conflict. Select one: True False 12. Conflict resolution practice is an exploration and application of conflict resolution principles to specific case studies. Select one: True False 13. The aim of negotiating is to build a shared environment leading to a long-term trust and often involves a third neutral party to extract the issues from the emotions and keep the individuals concerned focused on the past happenings. Select one: True False 14. In a fair fight, when you want a fight you should have a formal ritual to inform the other person about the skills and techniques that you will use. Select one: True False 15. The 'Man against society' is an internal conflict a struggle within a person. Select one: True False 16. ‘Man against nature' is a conflict which involves stories in which characters are against each other. Select one: True False Part C. Short Essays (4 marks each. 24 marks) Write short essays (100 words) to answer the following 17. Describe with examples the difference between adjudication, arbitration and mediation as processes within the justice system. 18. For the Hall's Creek case of two families of women feuding with each other, describe the environment that was chosen for the reconciliation. What were some of the essential elements needed for this set-up to bring beneficial and lasting results? 19. Why does Boutros-Ghali believe that if you want peace, you must work for development? Give examples from PNG where we have danger in the cities and tribal warfare which goes from election to election. 20. There is an organisation concerned with the intractable conflict between Israel and Palestine, which promotes the Abraham Walk from the old Babylon to Jerusalem, seeking many people to do it together. What are the essential elements of that walk? How will they achieve their goals? 21. Pat Howley claims that there was a strong sense of a Social Contract in the traditional village, whereby people want conflict resolution and want to develop peaceful structures. What is his evidence for this claim? 22. Why did the Truth and Reconciliation Commission in South Africa take place? After the work of the Commission, what was the national evaluation of the basic questions: Was the truth told? Was there reconciliation? Give evidence.