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project-management

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INTRODUCTION TO
PROJECT MANAGEMENT
OVERVIEW
The purpose of presentation is to
provide leaders and team members of
projects, committees or task forces with
advanced techniques and practical skills
for initiating, planning, tracking,
controlling and evaluating any kind or
size of project.
Introduction to Project Management
 On time
 On budget
 Meeting the goals that
have been agreed upon
WHAT IS A PROJECT?
• A project is an activity that :
• is temporary having a start and
end date
• is unique
• brings about change
• has unknown elements, which
therefore create risk
• Generally projects are formed to solve
a problem or take advantage of an
opportunity.
• Business as usual activities can often be
mistaken for projects.
• Generally it is the uniqueness of the
activity that is the deciding factor – do
we do this every year? If so, then it is
not truly a project – although you can
use project methods to get it done.
QUIZ – ARE THESE PROJECTS?






Building a deck
Implementing a new system
Mowing the lawn
Planning a wedding
Planning a fundraiser
Planning a student graduation
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
No
No
No
No
No
No
COMMON PROJECT TERMS
• Deliverables: Tangible ‘things’ that the project produces
• Milestones: Dates by which major activities are
performed.
• Tasks: Also called Actions. Activities undertaken during
the project
• Risks: Potential problems that may arise
• Issues: Risks that have happened
• Gantt Chart: A specific type of chart showing time and
tasks. Usually created by a Project Management program
like MS Project.
• Stakeholder: Any person or group of people who may be
affected by your project
EXAMPLE: Building a deck
•
•
•
Deliverables:
Milestones:
Tasks:
A plan, a consent form, the deck
Plan drafted
Plan approved
1 Jun
15 Jun
Plan submitted
Plan approved
16 Jun
19 Jun
Materials purchased
Resources booked
Equipment identified
Deck constructed
Deck tested
Deck quality approved
“Deck warming” completed
16
16
16
20
24
24
28
Jul
Jul
Jul
Jul
Jul
Jul
Jul
tasks
Subtasks
Plan drafted
Requirement gathered
Best practice researched
Draft 1 prepared
Distributed to stakeholders
Plan approved
Feedback gathered
Amendments made
Final plan prepared
Distributed to stakeholders
Sign-off obtained
WORK-BREAKDOWN STRUCTURE
 WBS
 Hierarchy of tasks required to complete project
 Each task is broken into smaller tasks that can
be managed and estimated
 Define task dependencies
▪ Some tasks must begin at the same time,
some must end at the same time and some
cannot start until the other tasks have
finished.
 Estimate task durations and cost
 May be inputted into project management
software
• Final WBS plan is called baseline WBS
•
•
Risks:
• Plan is not approved after first round of feedback
• Resources are not available at the required time
• Plan is not given consent
For each of the above, you should have a contingency plan, or do
some activity that may prevent it happening in the first place.
•
Issues:
– If any of the above actually happens, then it becomes an issue
to solve.
•
Gantt Chart:
•
Stakeholder:
– House owner, Builder, Council, ???
A successful Project Manager must simultaneously
manage the four basic elements of a project:
resources, time, money, and most importantly,
scope.
All these elements are interrelated. Each must be
managed effectively. All must be managed together
if the project is to be a success. The resource that
can be leveraged to the greatest extent in all
projects is the people involved.
THE PROJECT MANAGER
A person with a diverse set of skills –
management, leadership, technical, conflict
management, and customer relationship –
who is responsible for:
– initiating,
– planning,
– executing,
– controlling,
– monitoring,
– and closing down a project.
Project Managers are essentially jugglers. They must make
sure that everything keeps to task, that potential issues are
quickly eliminated and the project is delivered on time, all the
while making sure everyone knows what is happening and
the project quality and budget are acceptable. Specifically
they:
 direct all activities required to successfully
meet the project objectives
 manage risk – scanning ahead for potential
issues and resolving them before they become
a problem
 solve problems - recommending alternative
approaches to problems that arise and
providing guidance to the Project Sponsor
 track and report project progress
 communicate to all stakeholders in the project
• Ultimately responsible for the
Project’s Success
• Plan and Act
• Focus on the project’s end
• Be a manager & leader
PROJECT INITIATION
The Initiation phase of the project is the
most important phase. The success of the
entire project depends on how clearly and
completely the Terms of References are
established.
–
–
–
–
Project Sponsor
Lines of Authority
Participants
Objectives
PROJECT INITIATION
- Constraints
- Costs/Budget
- Resources
- Deliverables
- Phases & Time Scales
- Strategy
- Risks
- Roles & Responsibilities
con’t
CHARACTERISTICS OF PROJECTS
• A project contains a well defined
objective. The project objective is
defined in terms of scope ( or
requirements), schedule, and cost.
• A project is carried out via a set of
interdependent tasks.
• A project uses various resources to
carry out these tasks.
• A project has a definite start date and
an expected completion date. The
actual completion date may not
always be the same as the expected
date.
• A project is a one time or unique
endeavor.
• A project has a customer.
• So why do projects fail?
WHY DO PROJECTS FAIL?
1. Poor project and program
management discipline
2. Lack of executive-level support
3. Wrong team members
4. Poor communication
5. No measures for evaluating the
success of the project
6. No risk management
7. Inability to manage change
A project has a degree of UNCERTAINTY. In
project planning many assumptions are made
regarding:
• access to resources.
• resource capability.
• impact of environmental factors.
• These assumptions are not always accurate.
• Requires project managers to re-assess and
trade-offs between requirements, costs, and
time. Above all, be PRO-ACTIVE.
MEASURING PROJECT SUCCESS
We measure the success of a project
using 4 major project constraints,
specifically:
– Scope.
– Cost.
– Schedule (Time).
– Customer satisfaction (quality and
performance).
PROJECT CONSTRAINTS
• Project scope – Have all the project
requirements (i.e., deliverables) been
completed?
• Project cost – Is the cost of the project
close to the amount the customer has
agreed to pay?
• Schedule – Was the project completed
on time?
• Customer satisfaction – Is the customer
happy with the quality of the project?
PROJECT SUCCESS – 12 Golden Rules
 Rule #1
Thou shalt gain consensus on project
outcome.
 Rule #2
Thou shalt build the best team
possible.
 Rule #3
Thou shalt develop a comprehensive,
viable plan and keep it up-to-date.
 Rule #4
Thou shalt determine how much stuff
you really need to get things done.
 Rule #5
Thou shalt have a realistic schedule.
 Rule #6
Thou won’t try to do more than can
be done.
 Rule #7
Thou will remember that people
count.
 Rule #8
Thou will gain the formal and
ongoing support of management and
stakeholders.
 Rule #9
Thou must be willing to change.
 Rule #10
Thou must keep others informed of
what you’re up to.
 Rule #11
Thou must be willing to try new
things.
 Rule #12
Thou must become a leader.
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