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9-1 GCSE Combined Science
Knowledge Organiser
Biology- paper 1
Topic 1 – Cell Biology pg 16-39
Topic 2- Organisation pg 40-75
Topic 3- Infection and Response pg 76-90
Topic 4 – Bioenergetics pg 91-105
GCSE Biology Revision – Topic 1– CELL BIOLOGY – Cells and Microscopes
Draw and label an animal cell (pg 16)
Draw and label a plant cell (pg 17)
Microscopes (pg 18-20)
Find out the formula for calculating magnification
Magnification=
1mm= ______mm
1mm= ______nm
Q) A picture of an egg cell is 8mm wide. Its actual size is 200mm
What is the magnification?
Ans=x40
Top tips for preparing slides, using a microscope and drawing
observations
Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes (pg 16)
Explain the difference between these terms
Draw and label a bacterial cell (pg 17)
KEY WORDS:
Describe the difference
between aerobic and
anaerobic respiration in yeast
GCSE Biology Revision – Topic 1– CELL BIOLOGY- Cell specialisation and stem cells
Explain the terms differentiation and
specialisation (pg22)
What is a stem cell, where are they
found?
Explain how stem cells may be useful
to us (pg 24)
Draw and annotate 3 examples of specialised animal cells (pg 22-23)
Arguments against the use of stem cells (pg 25)
Draw and annotate 3 examples of specialised plant cells (pg 23)
How can farmers and garden centres make use of
stem cells? (pg 25)
GCSE Biology Revision – Topic 1– CELL BIOLOGY- Chromosomes and mitosis
What is a chromosome and where are
they found?
Cell cycle:
How many chromosomes are found in
human cells? Where do they come
from?
Mitosis
What is the name of this
process?
(pg 26-27)
Word
Definition (mix and match)
Gene
A chemical arranged as a double helix
46
The stages of growth, DNA replication and
division that cells go through
Chromosome
The process of cell division that produces
identical daughter cells
Cell cycle
A small section of DNA that codes for a
characteristic (my making a protein)
mitosis
A bundle of DNA that can be seen in
dividing cells through a microscope
DNA
The number of chromosomes produced
after a cell has undergone mitosis
Label the diagram:
Write down an
explanation of what is
happening at each stage
in the boxes.
How many daughter cells
produced?
Are the genes identical or
different to parental cell?
Why and where do cells
undergo mitosis?
A gene is a section of D____. It controls a c____________ of
your body. You have ___ chromosomes in the n______ of your
b_______ cells. Arranged in _____ pairs. One of each pair is
inherited from your m________ and one from your f_________.
Your sex cells or g_________ only have _____ chromosomes.
GCSE Biology Revision – Topic 1– CELL BIOLOGY- Diffusion, osmosis and active transport
Diffusion (pg 29) is the movement of
Osmosis (pg 30) is the…
_________ (liquids or gases) from an
Active Transport (pg 32) is the movement of
substances _________ their concentration
area of _________ concentration to
________, ie from a ______ concentration
an area of ______er concentration
to a _____ concentration. This requires an
input of _____.
Cell membranes are said to be
partially permeable because…
Tick/cross – what do they let
through?
Proteins
Glucose
water
Starch
Oxygen
Draw an arrow to show the net movement of water
Draw an example of active transport in
plants and an example in animals (humans)
Investigating osmosis with potato chips- sequence method (pg 31)
Blot the potato chips dry and measure their mass
for the second time
Leave them for 60 minutes
Measure their initial mass and place them in
different sugar solutions
Draw a graph of mass change vs concentration
Cut potatoes into equal size chips
Label the axes. Show where the potatoes have:
A) Shrivelled B) No change C) Shrunken
GCSE Biology Revision – Topic 1– CELL BIOLOGY- Exchanging substances
Diffusion in fish gills (pg 36)
I need to know about diffusion in :
Villi in the small intestine (pg 35)
1) Lungs (a________)
Villi are found in the…
2) S_____ I_______ (v_______)
Their job is to…
3) L_______
They are adapted to do this by:
4) F______ g_______
1)
2)
Diffusion in the leaf (pg 35)
Digested food moves
in to the blood by:
Gill filaments are…
1)
2)
Gill lamellae are…
Word
Definition (mix and match)
Stomata
Gas produced by photosynthesis
that needs to diffuse out
Guard cells
Flattened shape to increase the
surface areas for light absorption
Carbon
dioxide
Holes in the underside of the leaf
that allow CO2 in
Oxygen
What happens to plants when
the stomata don’t close
Leaf blade
Gas required for photosynthesis
that needs to diffuse in to leaf
Wilting
They are responsible for opening
or closing the stomata
Other features are:
1)
2)
Gas exchange in the lungs (pg 34).
The job of the lungs is…
Alveoli are…
Alveoli are adapted for diffusion by
•
1
•
2
•
•
3
4
GCSE Biology Revision – Topic 2– Organisation – Cells Organisation
Cell Organisation (pg40 – 41) - Label the organisation of cells on the below diagram
Cell Differentiation (pg 41)
1) What is cell differentiation? (provide an example)
2) Why do Larger organisms required cell differentiation?
Tissues (page 40)
Organs (pg41)
Using an example and
diagram, explain how a tissue
is formed form cells.
Explain how the Stomach is
made up of different
tissues to perform a
certain Function.
Organ Organised (pg41)
An Organ system is a ________ ___ ________ working together to perform a
particular __________ .
Use the Flow Chart to show how organs work together for the Digestive System
Organ:
Organ:
Organ:
Organ:
Organ:
KEY WORDS:
Function:
Function:
Function:
Function:
Function:
REMEMBER!
You should know that _____
are organised into _______,
the Tissues into ______, the
Organs into ______ _______
and multiple systems into a
whole _________.
GCSE Biology Revision – Topic 2– Organisation – Emzymes
What is a Catalyst? (pg 42)
Using a Labelled diagram, explain why
Enzymes have a specific shape? (pg 42)
How does temperature effect the Enzymes activity?
(pg 43, add labels to the graph to help)
What is an Enzyme? (pg 42)
What are Enzymes made from? (pg 42)
Draw and Label the ‘Lock and Key’ model of how Enzymes Function
What effect does pH have on the Enzymes
rate of activity? (pg 43)
REMEMBER! Enzymes speed up Chemical Reactions!
If the substance ______ ___ to the Active Site, the
Enzyme _____ Catalyse the reaction. Enzymes are not
very ________ and need the __________
temperature and _____ conditions to function
correctly.
GCSE Biology Revision – Topic 2– Organisation – Enzyme Practical and Rate of Reaction
Investigating the effect of pH on Enzyme Activity (pg 44)
What is an Independent Variable?
Outline the Method to carry out this investigation
1)
What is the Independent Variable in this
2)
practical?
3)
What is an Dependent Variable?
4)
5)
What is the Dependent Variable in this
practical?
6)
7)
What is a Control Variable?
8)
Suggest how this test could be modified to test the effects of temperature on Enzyme activity?
What is the Control Variables in this
practical?
Rate of Reaction (pg 44)
What does Iodine test for?
The rate of reaction can be determined as the ________ of change
that has occurred _______ by the ______ taken.
RATE = ___________
Positive test ______
Negative test______
How was the Iodine used in the test to show
the enzyme was effecting the reaction?
GCSE Biology Revision – Topic 2– Organisation – Enzymes and Digestion
Big Molecules (pg 45)
Starch, _______ and
_______ are big
molecules. Why do they
need to be broken down
by Enzymes?
Bile (pg 45)
Where is Bile produced,
stored and released?
Draw and explain how Carbohydrates are broken down (pg 45)
What are the two main
functions of Bile during
Digestion?
Draw and explain how Proteins are broken down (pg 45)
Why do the products
need to be soluble?
Complete the table to show where Digestive Enzymes are
produced, the organ they are used in and the products formed
(pg 45)
Enzyme
Where it is
produced
Where they
are used for
digestion
Products that
are formed
Draw and explain how Lipids (Fats) are broken down (pg 45)
GCSE Biology Revision – Topic 2– Organisation – digestive system and food tests
The digestive system pg 46
Food tests pg 47-48
Label the organs, describe what happens.
____________________________
Add
protease,
amylase
lipase
Food type
Describe the test (chemicals added
etc)
Sugar
Add Benedict’s solution and heat to
75oC
Starch
Positive result
Negative result
Turns Black
Stays blue
Protein
Lipid
Hazards:
?
GCSE Biology Revision – Topic 2– Organisation – The Lungs and heart
Label the lungs pg 51
A double circulatory system is…
Describe the heart’s pace maker
P
Label the heart pg 53
Gas exchange in the alveolus pg 52
Describe arteries (pg 54)
Describe capillaries
Describe veins
GCSE Biology Revision – Topic 2– Organisation – Health and disease pg 62-66
Health is…
Risk factors that increase your chance of getting
a non-communicable disease
Cancer is…
Communicable disease are …
Non-communicable disease are …
Benign tumours are…
Risk factors that cause diseases directly
Give examples of diseases that interact
Malignant tumours are…
List the factors that affect health)
What is correlation?
List 5 risk factors that link to
different cancers
1)
Does correlation always prove causation?
2)
3)
Provide an example
•Explain why non-communicable diseases can be costly
4)
5)
GCSE Biology Revision – Topic 2– Organisation – Plants pg 68-72
Benign tumours are…
The purpose of the xylem is…
Structure
function
•Explain what transpiration is
The purpose of phloem is…
•Draw and label a diagram to explain how a potometer
works
Helps reduce water loss by evaporation
Air spaces in
spongy
mesophyll
Tightly packed layer of cells full of
chloroplasts
These cells open and close the stomata
Stomata
List 4 risk factors that affect the rate of
transpiration
1)
2)
Carries water from roots to leaves
3)
phloem
4)
epidermis
•Explain how stomata open and close
GCSE Biology Revision – Topic 3– INFECTION AND RESPONSE pages 76-77
What is a pathogen?
BACTERIA
Bacteria are
Name the 4 different types of
pathogen.
_______ ________ cells that
reproduce __________ inside the human body.
How do they make you feel ill?
VIRUSES
1) Viruses are _________ _________
2) They are much _____________ than a bacterium.
PROTISTS
Write 3 facts about protists:
3) They ___________ rapidly.
Where do viruses live?
How do they replicate?
How do they made you feel ill?
FUNGI
Fungi can be _________ ___________ or have a ________ made up of hyphae.
How do fungi cause disease in plants and animals?
How do fungi reproduce?
List the ways in which pathogens can be spread
(include examples)
GCSE Biology Revision – Topic 3– INFECTION AND RESPONSE pages 78-79
Give examples of diseases caused by:
Viruses
Fungi
HIV
How is it spread?
Part of this protist’s life cycle takes place inside a ________.
Protists
Bacteria
MEASLES
A disease caused by a protist is MALARIA.
Symptoms:
Describe how the mosquito spreads the malaria parasite.
How do antiretroviral drugs work?
How is it spread?
Symptoms:
Complications:
Why is it such a serious disease?
How can it be prevented?
TOBACCO MOSAIC VIRUS
This virus affects _________
What effect does it have on plants?
How does it affect the immune
cells?
What is AIDS?
EXTENSION: How can it be
prevented?
Symptoms:
Prevention:
Bacterial diseases:
GONORRHEA
Spread by =
FUNGAL DISEASE: ROSE BLACK
SPOT
Symptoms =
Affects _______ and causes
_________________ spots to develop.
Treatment =
The leaves then _______ ___ and so
the plant cannot carry out __________
and the plant does not grow well.
Spread by:
Treatment:
SALMONELLA
Causes _______ _____________
Symptoms =
Spread by =
EXTENSION: how can both of these bacterial infections be
prevented?
GCSE Biology Revision – Topic 3– INFECTION AND RESPONSE pages 80-82
Method of
disease
prevention
For example…
How does this prevent/reduce
disease?
DEFENCE AGAINST MICROBIAL INVASION
How do the following protect us against disease?
•Skin
Being hygienic
•Nose (hair and mucus inside)
Destroying
vectors
•Airways (trachea and bronchi)
Isolating
infected people
Vaccination
•Stomach
If microbes do invade, our IMMUNE SYSTEM kicks in…
The _______ _______ cells form our immune system and they can act in 1 of 3 ways:
1. Consume the microbe – engulf and digest (_______________)
2. Produce antibodies – draw a cartoon with captions in the space below showing how this is done using the keywords antigen and antibody (use the diag below
and the one on page 82 for guidance)
3. Produce antitoxins – counteract __________ made by invading _________.
GCSE Biology Revision – Topic 3– INFECTION AND RESPONSE pages 83 - 86
Vaccination
Highlight the keywords in the diagram below.
Describe what a vaccine is.
Vaccination
Pros:
Give an example of a vaccine.
Cons:
What is the advantage of being vaccinated?
Drugs
Give examples of drugs that can relieve
symptoms of illness:
Bacterial resistance
Use the information on page 85 to add captions to the diagram below, showing how bacteria develop
resistance.
What type of drug cures illness?
Which type of microbe is it used to
destroy?
Which type of microbe can’t it destroy?
How can antibiotic resistance be
reduced?
Which drugs come from plants?
Which drugs come from microbes?
Describe how Alexander Fleming discovered penicillin
GCSE Biology Revision – Topic 3– INFECTION AND RESPONSE page 87
Drug testing
Preclinical testing:
Drugs are tested on
____________________________
____________________________
in the laboratory.
Limitations with this are…..
Preclinical testing:
Clinical testing:
Drugs are tested on
____________________________
Drugs are tested on __________________________ in a
clinical trial.
This is to test for ___________
(whether the drug works),
_____________ (if it is harmful)
and to find the best ___________.
Firstly, the drug is tested on……
The dose is……
Pros of animal testing:
The drug is then tested on……
The dose is……
Cons of animal testing:
Write a list of keywords for drug testing
The patients are randomly put
into 2 groups - 1 is given the
drug, 1 is given a _________.
Peer review
1.
Why is a placebo given?
2. Why are clinical trials blind?
3. What does double-blind mean?
4. Why are results peer-reviewed?
GCSE Biology – CHAPTER 4 – Photosynthesis (p91)
Where exactly in the plant does the
photosynthesis reaction occur? (3
marks)
Label the different tissues in the leaf
and explain their function:
Explain how plants use glucose for the following:
Respiration
Building up molecules (2 examples)
Suggest 3 ways that leaves are
adapted to do photosynthesis?
•
•
•
Storage (2 examples)
What is the word equation for photosynthesis? (4 marks)
____________ +__________
Key concept: Remember that plants do photosynthesis
AND respiration!
__________ + __________
What is the balanced symbol equation for photosynthesis? (4 marks)
____________ +__________
__________ + __________
Explain why animal cells cannot carry out photosynthesis
What should be written on the arrow?
r___________ describes the chemicals on the left.
p___________ describes the chemicals on the right.
Note where the LEFT chemicals come from.
Explain why animals do not need to photosynthesise
GCSE Biology CHAPTER 4 – Photosynthesis – Limiting Factors (p92-4)
Define “Limiting factor”
Name 3 limiting factors for
photosynthesis
•
•
•
Suggest why water is NOT a limiting
factor.
Give 3 causes for a lack of chlorophyll in
leaves
•
•
Suggest which factor(s) are likely to be limiting rate in these
examples:
•At night
•In winter
•At midday in July
Explain how the amount of chlorophyll
can limit photosynthesis.
Suggest how you could adjust these limiting factors in a lab to
investigate them:
1.
Light intensity
2. Temperature
Suggest why plants that grow on the
forest floor have very dark green leaves
3. Carbon dioxide Concentration
Suggest how the optimum temperature for enzymes in plants
differs to in humans, explain why. (2 marks)
Under each graph – Describe the trend shown, explain why using limiting factor
p94
What do these
graphs show?
GCSE Biology CHAPTER 4 –Photosynthesis –Measuring rates Required practical
(p95-6)
Name the independent variable ___________________
What is being measured to
determine rate of photosynthesis
( in the picture):
Explain how this is being varied ______________________
______________________________________________
Name the dependent variable ______________________
Suggest an appropriate unit to measure this in _________
Explain how this is being measured
(refer to equipment and
measurements)
Suggest 3 variables that should be controlled to get valid
results
Required
practical!
Circle the graph that fits what is being investigated in the picture above:
Explain the meaning of valid
Suggest why each measurement should be repeated
The Inverse Square Law…
As the lamp is moved away from the pondweed, what happens to
1. distance?
2. light intensity?
“As the distance _________, the light intensity ___________”
This means that distance and light intensity are______________
proportional to each other.
The inverse square law states that:
light intensity= 1/ d2 (d is the distance between light and plant!)
Now design a results table that would hold the results
So… if the distance is doubled, the light intensity is 4x _________
If the distance is halved, the light intensity will be _____ times greater!
Work out light intensity (in a.u) for these distances:5cm,10cm,15cm,20cm
GCSE Biology– CHAPTER 4 – ENERGY FROM RESPIRATION (p100-103)
Write down the word equation for aerobic respiration:
Key concept
Remember that plants do photosynthesis AND respiration
• Respiration is controlled by e ________________
•It takes place all the time in a___________ and p________________.
• Is called aerobic respiration because it uses o______________
•Respiration takes place in the m________________.
Write down the equation for anaerobic respiration:
•Where and when does anaerobic respiration take place?
•Why do muscles become fatigued if you exercise hard?
Reasons
for
respiration
•Why is anaerobic respiration much more inefficient than aerobic?
•What is oxygen debt?
The response to exercise:
Heart rate →
Breathing rate →
The fit person has a ______________resting heart rate,
before they begin to exercise
The fit persons heart rate rises more ______________
The maximum heart rate reached by the fit person is a
lot __________________than the unfit person
The fit persons heart rate drops ____________when
they finish exercise
The heart rate of the fit person returns to their resting
heart rate in a _________________time.
GCSE Biology– CHAPTER 4 – ENERGY FROM RESPIRATION (p100-103)
Write down the balanced symbol equation for aerobic respiration:
Use the equation to explain why respiration is NOT breathing
Cyanide is a toxin that stops enzymes in respiration working. Suggest why this
can cause death.
Building larger molecules from smaller
(3)
Explain why respiration is actually more like combustion (burning)
Investigating the effect of exercise on the body
To investigate the effect of different types of exercise on heart
rate:
1.
Write the number of
examples shown
around the 2 headings.
p101
Metabolic
reactions
Suggest what type of graph would be most appropriate and why
2. Suggest how you would reduce the effect of random errors on your
results
3. Explain why the person should rest between each type of exercise
Breaking down large molecules into
small (2)
The response to exercise:
Heart rate →
Breathing rate →
Could be measured by:
4. Suggest 4 types of exercise you could use and sketch the graph
you’d expect to see for the effect of each on heart rate
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