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PREPARATION OF NEW ALUMINUM MATRIX COMPOSITE REINFORCED WITH HYBRID NANO REINFORCEMENTS FE2O3 AND AL2O3 VIA (P/M) ROUTE

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International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET)
Volume 10, Issue 01, January 2019, pp. 2046-2058, Article ID: IJMET_10_01_200
Available online at http://www.iaeme.com/ijmet/issues.asp?JType=IJMET&VType=10&IType=1
ISSN Print: 0976-6340 and ISSN Online: 0976-6359
© IAEME Publication
Scopus Indexed
PREPARATION OF NEW ALUMINUM MATRIX
COMPOSITE REINFORCED WITH HYBRID
NANO REINFORCEMENTS FE2O3 AND AL2O3
VIA (P/M) ROUTE
H. J. M. Alalkawi, Ghada Adel Aziz and Hussain A. Aljawad
University of technology,Iraq
ABSTRACT
Nanocomposites are materials fabricated from two or more materials with
different mechanical and electrical properties. Combining these materials produce a
new designed material with new and better properties differ from the individual
components .In recent years nanocomposites have been developed and employed
almost in all industries . The current study deals with fabricating a hybrid composite (
when there are a minimum of three materials , the composite is called as hybrid
composite ) . Pure aluminum 99.6 % as the base matrix and Iron oxide Fe2O3 (alpha)
and aluminum oxide Al2O3 (alpha alumina) . Fe2O3 weight percentage (wt%) is
varied ( 1.5 , 2.5 and 5 % by weight ) and the wt% of Al2O3 is held constant (2 wt%) .
The new designed nanocomposite was produced using Powder Metallurgy (P/M)
method . This method has been widely used for fabricating aluminum matrix
composites (AMCs) due to it is low costs and gives high accuracy as well as the ease
of using . The matrix used was aluminum powder with an average particle size of
(60µm) with 99.6% purity and Fe2O3 ( 99% purity and 30 nm particle size ) and
Al2O3 with (99.5% purity and 14-20 nm particle size ) . The experimental results
revealed that the microstructure images of composites showed uniformly distributed of
Fe2O3 and Al2O3 in aluminum matrix . The maximum compressive strength (CS) and
hardness (HV) are 152 MPa and 47.2 respectively in composite containing (1.5
Fe2O3 + 2 Al2O3 ) wt% . The improvement percentage was recorded to be 30% and
18.5% for CS and HV respectively . The electrical properties of the composites were
enhanced due to addition the nanohybrid Fe2O3 + Al2O3 nanomaterials. The
maximum conductivity was observed in composite including (1.5% Fe2O3 + 2%
Al2O3 ) which is equal to 69521 ( 〖Ω.m )〗^(-1) while the zero nano exhibited 1170 (
〖Ω.m )〗^(-1) . Also the conductivity for all composites are higher than that of matrix.
The conductivity increased with increasing the frequency
Keywords: hybrid nanocomposites,
conductivity and resistivity.
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Cite this Article: H. J. M. Alalkawi, Ghada Adel Aziz and Hussain A. Aljawad,
Preparation of New Aluminum Matrix Composite Reinforced with Hybrid Nano
Reinforcements Fe2o3 And Al2o3 Via (P/M) Route, International Journal of
Mechanical Engineering and Technology, 10(1), 2019, pp. 2046-2058.
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1. INTRODUCTION
Aluminum matrix composites (AMCs) is one of the most important advance-engineering
materials in industrial , because of their high specific strength , lightweight and good wear
resistance . AMCs have gained wide applications in automotive, aerospace and electronic
equipment .. etc. At present AMCs reinforced with nanoparticles like Al2O3, SiC , TiB2 ,
Fe2O3 etc . So exhibit improved electromagnetic, physical and mechanical properties and
have obtained rapid development in recent years .
E. Bayraktar , et al. [1] (2010) studied the effect of the iron oxide (Fe3O4) nanoparticles
with various content ( 2,8,14,18,23 ) wt% on the mechanical and electrical properties
(conductivity) with pure aluminium of 99.7% purity . The experimental results revealed that
the density after sintering improved regularly in addition to improved in hardness . The above
improvement depended on the pressure and percentage of the Fe3O4 . The results revealed
that an optimum content of nanoreinforced value 8 wt% showing best physical , mechanical
and electrical properties .
M. hajizamani et al. [2] (2011) fabricated hybrid composite of Al. alloy with different
wt% of Al2O3 and 10% ZrO2 nanoparticles . The experimental results observed that the
tensile and compression strength are considerably improved by the addition of the hybrid
nanoreinforced . The mechanical properties and hardness of composites increased with the
increase in (Al2O3 + ZrO2 ) reinforced materials but the better mechanical properties was
occurred with wt% ( 1% Al2O3 + 10% ZrO2 ) than zeronano and other composites. Also the
microstructure of 1 wt.% Al2O3-10% ZrO2 showed fairly uniform distribution of the
nanoparticles resulting in improving the above properties .
T. Rajmohan , et al. [3] (2013) studied the effect of the hybrid reinforced materials ( SiC +
CuO ) with various content ( 0 CuO + 10 SiC wt% , 1 CuO + 10 SiC wt% and 2 CuO + 10
SiC wt% ) on the microstructural and mechanical properties of the aluminum using sintering
process . The experimental results revealed that the distribution of SiC and CuO were
relatively homogeneous in the Al matrix and the mechanical properties are improved with
increase in content of CuO nanoparticles reinforcement. The best improvement was observed
in composite including (2 CuO + 10 SiC wt% ) .
A. Baradeswaran , et al. [4] (2014) investigated the effect of the hybrid nanoreinforced
materials ( B4C + graphite ) with content (10 B4C wt% , 5 graphite wt% ) on the mechanical
properties of the AA6061 and 7075 alloy . The experimental results revealed good
improvement in mechanical , hardness and elongation compared to the base alloys of
aluminum .
K.R. Padmavathi , et al. [5] (2014) examined the effect of the hybrid nanoreinforced
materials (Carbon nanotubes and Silicon Carbide) with various amount of ( 0 CNTs + 15 SiC
wt% , 0.5 CNTs + 15 SiC wt% and 1 CNTs + 15 SiC wt% ) on the mechanical properties of
the (Al. 6061) alloy. The experimental results revealed high advancement hardness of hybrid
composites compared to the base metal . The best advancement in mechanical , hardness
properties were observed in composite including ( 1 CNTs + 15 SiC wt% ) .
G. Singh and S. Goyal [6] (2016) examined the microstructure and mechanical behavior
of Al matrix hybrid composites nanoreinforced by (SiC) and (B4C) particles based on
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AA6082 with different wt% of SiC and B4C (5, 10, 15, and 20 wt%). The experimental
results of SEM showed that the agglomeration of nanoparticles increases whenever increasing
weight percentage of reinforcement . Also it is observed the hardness was improved by 10%
for composite with 15 wt% of reinforcement . The improvement of UTS of composite was
21% with 20 wt% from 318 to 385 MPa .
M. A. Taha et al. [7] (2017) manufactured Al 4.5 Cu composites reinforced with different
weight percentages of ZrO2 (0, 2, 4, 6 and 8 wt%) . Significant improvement was observed in
microhardness and compressive strength with increased wt% of ZrO2 contents . While the
relative density and the electrical properties (conductivity) of the nanocomposite slight
decreases with increasing of ZrO2 nanoparticles .
V. Mohanavel et al. [8] (2017) , tested AA6351 alloy hybrid matrix composites fabricated
reinforced with Al2O3 and Gr with various content ( 4 Al2O3 + 3 Gr wt% , 8 Al2O3 + 3 Gr
wt% , 12 Al2O3 + 3 Gr wt% , 16 Al2O3 + 3 Gr wt% and 20 Al2O3 + 3 Gr wt% ) . The
microstructural characterization revealed uniform distribution of reinforcement particles with
increasing of reinforcement particles . The flexural strength increased from 248 to 427 MPa .
Also the hardness and tensile strength are linearly increased . The highest mechanical
properties of the hybrid composite with 20% Al2O3 and 3% Gr .
A. Fathy et al. [9] (2015) , investigated the effect of iron addition to pure aluminum
matrix composites containing ( 0 , 5 , 10 , 15 % ) Fe using the powder metallurgy technique
on mechanical properties . The experimental results showed that the presence of Fe in the
composites enhances both hardness and compression strength . These improvement related to
grain refinement of the composites and relatively uniform distribution of the nanoparticles .
Amal E. Nassar , et al. [10] (2015) fabricated the Al alloy (MMCs) with TiO2
nanoparticles by powder metallurgy technique . The SEM observed that the TiO2 particles are
despaired in to the metal matrix in homogeneous distribution . From results observed an
improvement in tensile strength and hardness when increase wt% of TiO2 .
A. Tan , et al. [11] (2016) investigated the effect of the hybrid reinforced materials ( micro
SiC + nano TiB2 ) with various content ( 1 TiB2 + 10 SiC wt% , 3 TiB2 + 10 SiC wt% and
5 TiB2 + 10 SiC wt% ) on the microstructure and mechanical properties of the aluminum
using powder metallurgy method . The experimental results revealed that the distribution of
SiC and TiB2 were relatively homogeneous in the Al matrix and the mechanical properties
are improved with increase in the amount of TiB2 nanoparticles reinforcement. The best
improvement was observed in composite including (5 TiB2 + 10 SiC wt% ) which showed
and enhancement of 64 and 23% in ultimate tensile strength and yield strength respectively.
F. Khodabakhshi et al. [12] (2017) fabricated Al hybrid matrix nanocomposites reinforced
with SiC nanoparticles (50 nm) up to 6 vol.% and Al2O3 particles (20 nm) with 2 vol. % by
powder metallurgy technique . Electrical and mechanical properties were examined for the
matrix and the composites . They concluded that the addition of hybrid nanoreinforced
materials leads to improve the above properties ( conductivity , resistivity , ultimate and yield
strength ) for the composites . Also it was observed that a linear relationship between the
resistivity and yield strength was obtained .
The present work aimed to fabricated an aluminum metal matrix composites (AMMCs)
based on powder aluminum with 60 µm using powder metallurgy (P/M) route . The
microstructure , compressive strength , hardness (HV) , electrical resistivity and conductivity
testing were attempted to be made using different samples sizes of AMMCs hybrid ( Al2O3
15-20 nm and Fe2O3 30nm ) . The major objective of the current work is the preparation of
the composites containing ( 0 , 1.5 Fe2O3 + 2 Al2O3 , 2.5 Fe2O3 + 2 Al2O3 and 5 Fe2O3 + 2
Al2O3 ) wt% .
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2 - EXPERIMENTAL WORK
2.1. Materials and Composite sample fabrication
In the current work hybrid AMMCs fabricated based on powder aluminum reinforced by nano
materials ( Al2O3 and Fe2O3 ) with different wt% ( 1.5 , 2.5 , 5 ) % of Fe2O3 and (2 %) of
Al2O3 for the three levels of composites . The base material is powder aluminum with 60 µm
grain size and consisting of (99.6 % Al , 0.2 % Fe , 0.2 % Si ) . The nano material Al2O3 type
(α) with grain size 14-20 nm and purity 99.5 % . The nano material Fe2O3 (α) with grain size
30 nm and purity 99 % .
The aluminum powder was mixed with the nanoparticles to prepare composites with (1.5 ,
2.5 , and 5) wt.% of Fe2O3 and 2 wt.% of Al2O3 for each percent reinforcement . Alcohol was
mixed well with the mixture in two steps : First mixing by magnetic field for 5 min. Second
mixing by ( ultrasonic –cleaner ) for 20 min . In order to increase the homogeneity between
the particles of the material , the mixed powders were dried at 70 °C for 15 min , after that
the powders has been added 5 % of (pva) as a lubricant to reduce friction during compressive
. Then dry the mixture at room temperature . The powder mixtures were compressed at room
temperature under uniaxial press at 250 MPa . The samples were sintered at 600 °C under
argon gas. In two steps , first step at 300°C for ( 1 h ) and second step at 600 °C for ( 2 h ) .
The total weight per case was 25 g . The table below shows the percentage and weight
details:
Table 1 shows the percentage and weight details
Al (g)
Fe2O3 (g)
Al2O3 (g)
Total(g)
Fe2O3 wt.%
Al2O3 wt.%
25
0
0
25
0
0
24.125
0.375
0.5
25
1.5
2
23.875
0.625
0.5
25
2.5
2
23.25
1.25
0.5
25
5
2
2.2. Testing measurements
During microstructure analysis , proper preparation of the specimen surface requires of small
sample of the composite selected prepared and manufactured . Then polishing in addition to
coating samples with gold and palladium spray (for 135 seconds) , for reveal accurate content
and get the best accuracy. The specimen must be free from scratches and other imperfections
.After preparing the microstructure specimens , they were tested by Field Emission Scanning
Electron Microscope (FESEM ) , using test device type ( Cam Scan Mv 2300) .
The mechanical properties of the manufactured specimens were done by using
compression test machine model STM-50 according to standard ASTM E-4 with capacity
50KN . Cylindrical specimens of 14 mm height and 10 mm diameter with compression speed
of 0.5 mm/min at room temperature were tested . Fig. (1) shows the compression test machine
.
The hardness (HV) was done on the base metal and the composites containing different
weight percentage of Fe2O3 and Al2O3 particles . The hardness was measured on the polished
specimens of 7 mm height and 10 mm diameter using diamond cone indenter with 3 kg load
and the average of 10 readings taken at different positions was the value recorded . This test
was done by ( UNIVERSAL HARDNESS DIA-TESTOR 722 ) . Hardness tester device is
shown in figure (2) .
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Figure 1 the compression test machine
Figure 2 hardness tester device
Zero nano and composites samples were subjected to electrical tests using
(IVIUMSTAT.XR ) device at room temperature with voltage (1 V ) , average current (1 A )
and frequency range between 10 KHz to 10 MHz . The electrical tests includes Resistivity
(Rs) . The device of electrical tests shown in fig. (3) .
Figure 3 the device of electrical test
3. EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
3.1. Microstructure results
Fig. (4) shows the FESEM nanographs under 400 nm or 400000x magnification . These
nanographs show the microstructure of pure aluminum and composites containing ( 1.5 Fe2O3
+ 2 Al2O3 , 2.5 Fe2O3 + 2 Al2O3 and 5 Fe2O3 + 2 Al2O3 ) wt% revealing the presence of
Fe2O3 with Al2O3 and homogenous dispersion of the second phase in the Al. matrix . The
nanographs contain two phases Fe2O3 , Al2O3 concentrated at the grain boundaries of
aluminum particles with the gray light which represents the Al. matrix . Microstructure of
composites reveals uniform distribution of the hybrid nanomaterials and less porosity along
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the grain boundaries . The ceramic Al2O3 is shown as dark phase while the metal matrix is
white .
Zero
1.5 Fe2O3 + 2 Al2O3 wt%
2.5 Fe2O3 + 2 Al2O3 wt%
5 Fe2O3 + 2 Al2O3 wt%
Figure 4 shows the FESEM nanographs under 400 nm
3.2. Compression results
Fig. (5) shows the applied load against elongation while fig. (6) illustrates the compression
engineering stress – strain curves of zero nano and different weight percentage of Fe2O3 +
Al2O3 nanomaterials . It can be seen that the compression strength of the nanocomposite
containing ( 2 Al2O3 + 1.5 Fe2O3 wt% ) is significantly enhanced compared to as-cast and the
other nanocomposites . The ultimate compression strength of composite with (1.5 Fe2O3 + 2
Al2O3 wt% ) was improved by 30 % compared with the base metal this finding is consistent
with the results reported by other workers [2] [11] .
The experimental results of compression tests of the nanocomposites containing different
weight percentage are listed in table (2) which shows slightly enhanced of failure strain due to
addition the nanoreinforcements .
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16000
14000
12000
Force (N
10000
8000
Al ( 0% Fe2O3 & 0% Al2O3 )
6000
(1.5% Fe2O3 & 2% Al2O3 )
4000
(2.5% Fe2O3 & 2% Al2O3 )
2000
(5% Fe2O3 & 2% Al2O3 )
0
-2000
0
2
4
6
8
Extension (mm)
Figure 5 shows the applied load against elongation
180
160
140
(σ) Stress ( MPa )
120
100
80
Al ( 0% Fe2O3 & 0% Al2O3 )
60
(1.5% Fe2O3 & 2% Al2O3 )
40
(2.5% Fe2O3 & 2% Al2O3 )
20
(5% Fe2O3 & 2% Al2O3 )
0
-20
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
( Ԑ) Strain ( mm/mm)
Figure 6 shows the compression engineering stress – strain curves
For analysis the compression strength and failure strain 12 specimens were tested with 0.5
mm/min test speed and the average results of three samples for each percentage were recorded
as given in table (2) .
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Table 2 experimental compression testing at room temperature (RT) .
Composites
Ultimate compression strength (MPa)
Failure strain
As-cast ( zero nano )
117
0.3635
Al + (1.5 Fe2O3 + 2 Al2O3 ) wt%
152
0.6467
Al + (2.5 Fe2O3 + 2 Al2O3 ) wt%
125
0.5362
Al + (5 Fe2O3 + 2 Al2O3 ) wt%
90
0.4853
Fig.(6) and table (2) show that the compression strength (CS) and failure strain (FS) of the
composite improved with an increase in Fe2O3 + Al2O3 weight percentage . The CS was
obtained to be 117 MPa for zero nano and 152 MPa at ( 1.5% Fe2O3 + 2 % Al2O3 )
nanoreinforced materials with an improvement factor of 30 % compared to the zeronano
metal . The main reasons for above improvement may be due to the following factors :
1. The incorporation of harder Fe2O3 + Al2O3 particles for strengthening the composite
resulted in hard nature of composite . [13]
2. The proper interfacial bounding between the pure aluminum with the harder
nanoparticles . [14]
3. The homogenous and uniformly distributed of the nanoparticles into the base metal
[14] . Therefore , the CS and FS improve .
The measurement of grain size was carried out by means of image analyzer software with
the FESEM device . The grain size measurements of zero nano and doped Fe2O3 + Al2O3 are
shown in fig(7) . This figure illustrates four values of grain size for undoped and ( 1.5 Fe2O3
+ 2 Al2O3 , 2.5 Fe2O3 + 2 Al2O3 and 5 Fe2O3 + 2 Al2O3 ) wt% . The grains size for zero
nano sample are 210 µm while the other doped samples show small grains size and the
minimum values of grain size is observed in composite of 1.5% Fe2O3 + 2% Al2O3 giving
108 µm . The small grains show high strength while the large grains resulted in relatively low
strength .
The results of mean grain size measurement for different nano hybrid weight percentage
can be seen in table (3) .
Table 3 Image analyzer software grain size results obtained from FESEM divce
Composition
mean grain size (µm)
As-cast ( zero nano )
210
Al + (1.5 Fe2O3 + 2 Al2O3 ) wt%
108
Al + (2.5 Fe2O3 + 2 Al2O3 ) wt%
135
Al + (5 Fe2O3 + 2 Al2O3 ) wt%
166
Fig. (7) shows the variation of mean grain size versus Fe2O3 + Al2O3 content .
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Grain size (µm)
250
200
Grain 150
size
(µm) 100
50
0
0
(1.5 Fe2O3 + 2 (2.5 Fe2O3 + 2
Al2O3 ) wt%
Al2O3 ) wt%
(5 Fe2O3 + 2
Al2O3 ) wt%
Figure 7 mean grain size against Fe2O3 + Al2O3 content
It is concluded that , according to the above microstructure results , the selected
nanoparticles can be successfully introduced into the base metal and the powder metallurgy
method gave good dispersion of Fe2O3 + Al2O3 . It is believed that strong bounding between
the nanoreinforcement and the aluminum powder helps to distribute the nanoparticles more
uniformly in the liquid . [15]
3.3. Hardness results
The HV hardness results are given in table (4)
Table 4 HV hardness for zero nano and various hybrid nanocomposites
Composites
HV
As-cast ( zero nano )
39.83
Al + (1.5 Fe2O3 + 2 Al2O3 ) wt%
47.2
Al + (2.5 Fe2O3 + 2 Al2O3 ) wt%
42.9
Al + (5 Fe2O3 + 2 Al2O3 ) wt%
39.57
The improvement in HV hardness value is observed with increasing the Fe2O3 + Al2O3
content from 39.83 to 47.2 for (1.5 Fe2O3 + 2 Al2O3 ) wt% composites . The improvement
percentage is 18.5 % . The enhancement in hardness can be attributed to refining the grain and
raise the level of mismatch between the nanoparticles and the matrix. The improvement in HV
hardness of composites could be coming from the high mechanical and hardness properties of
Fe2O3 + Al2O3 themselves . Due to the true of that aluminum is a soft metal and the Fe2O3 +
Al2O3 particles are ceramics materials very hard . This property contributes positively to raise
the HV hardness of composites [16] . The hardness results of the hybrid composites and
zeronano can be plotted as shown in fig. (8)
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48
46
44
hardness (HV)
42
40
38
36
34
0%,0%
1.5 % , 2%
2.5 % , 2%
5%,2%
39.83
47.2
42.9
39.57
HV
Figure 8 shows the HV hardness results
Hardness examinations are substantially simpler than other tests due to not need
preparation of test specimens . It is clear that composite containing 1.5 % Fe2O3 + 2% Al2O3
showed best HV hardness in comparison with other samples .
3.4. Electrical results (Conductivity and resistivity )
Electrical properties of the pure aluminum and three composites were analyzed by carrying
out test on the computerized universal testing device type (IVIUMSTAT.XR) . Three samples
were used for each composite and the average values of electrical properties as given in table
(5) .
Table (5) gives the resistivity (Ω-m) and conductivity ( Ω. m )−1 for three composites with
the pure aluminum . It is merit mentioning the results of electrical tests have been measured in
laboratory conditions (27 ̊ C and humidity 43% ) .
Table (5) Results of conductivity and resistivity of composites
Sample
Conductivity ( 𝛀. 𝐦 )−𝟏
Resistivity (𝛀. 𝐦)
Pure aluminum
1170
0.063
1.5 Fe2O3 + 2 Al2O3
69521
0.00106
2.5 Fe2O3 + 2 Al2O3
5082
0.0145
5 Fe2O3 + 2 Al2O3
29956
0.00246
Frreira et al. [17] tested pure aluminum and composites Al/ Fe2O3 to measure the
electrical properties (conductivity and resistivity ) under the same condition of laboratory
temperature and humidity for the present work . A comparison is made between the present
work and the above Ref. given in table (6) .
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Table 6 comparison of current electrical properties with Ref. [17]
Ref. [ ]
Conductivity
Resistivity
Present work
Conductivity
Resistivity
Pure Al.
11997
0.000192
Pure Al.
1170
0.063
AF-10A
4996
0.000281
1.5 Fe2O3 + 2 Al2O3
69521
0.00106
AF-20A
1042
0.001028
2.5 Fe2O3 + 2 Al2O3
5082
0.0145
AF-30A
1157
0.001036
5 Fe2O3 + 2 Al2O3
29956
0.00246
It is observed that table (6) , the maximum improvement in conductivity and resistivity
occurred at (1.5 Fe2O3 + 2 Al2O3 ) wt% composite given 69521 ( Ω. m )−1 conductivity and
0.00106 (Ω. m) resistivity .While Ref.[17] showed the better improvement was occurred in
the pure aluminum . This improvement may be coming from the enhancement in
microstructure, mechanical and electrical properties.
The net electrical conductivity against the frequency can be illustrated in fig(9) which
gives the relation between log conductivity ( Ω. m )−1 against log frequency (Hz) for zero
nano and the composites at room temperature (RT) .
5
4.5
4
Log (Conductivity)
3.5
3
2.5
Pure Aluminum
2
1.5%Fe2O3 & 2%Al2O3
1.5
2.5%Fe2O3 & 2%Al2O3
1
5%Fe2O3 & 2%Al2O3
0.5
0
-0.5
3.5
4
4.5
5
5.5
6
6.5
7
7.5
Log (Freq.) Hz
Figure 9 conductivity versus frequency of zero nano and the nanocomposites
It is clear from fig. (9) that the conductivity increases with the increase of frequency .
4. CONCLUSIONS
1. Fe2O3 + Al2O3 particles reinforced pure aluminum composites are successfully
fabricated by powder metallurgy method .
2. The experimental results showed that ( Fe2O3 + Al2O3 ) Al composites can potentially
be a useful material for automotive and aeronautic applications , which can be
fabricated without difficulty using powder technology route .
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3. It can be observed from microstructure that the hybrid nanomaterials ( Fe2O3 + Al2O3
) could be uniformly distributed in pure aluminum and showing less porosity . This
factor leads to significant enhancement in mechanical and electrical properties .
4.
Adding Fe2O3 and Al2O3 nanoparticles to the composites significantly improved their
mechanical properties . The best improvement are observed in ultimate compression
strength and hardness which are 30 % and 18.5 % respectively at (1.5 Fe2O3 + 2
Al2O3 ) wt% .
5. Adding Fe2O3 and Al2O3 nanoparticles to the composites significantly improved their
electrical properties . The maximum electrical conductivity increased was observed
with the addition of (1.5 Fe2O3 + 2 Al2O3 ) wt% from 1170 to 69521 ( Ω. m )−1 .
While the resistivity reduced from 0.063 to 0.00106 (Ω. m) .
6. 6 - The variation of electrical conductivity with frequency for zero nano and
composites shows that electrical conductivity increase with increase frequency .
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
The authors express their gratitude to the university of technology and electromechnical
engineering department and sincere thanks to head of electromechanical Eng. Dep. Asst.
Prof. Husham Sleem for his excellent encouragement and this challenging task .
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