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BEHAVIOUR OF THREADED CYLINDER TOOL IN THE FRICTION STIR WELDING OF AL-ZRB2 AND AL-SIC COMPOSITE

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International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET)
Volume 10, Issue 01, January 2019, pp. 1751-1761, Article ID: IJMET_10_01_174
Available online at http://www.iaeme.com/ijmet/issues.asp?JType=IJMET&VType=10&IType=01
ISSN Print: 0976-6340 and ISSN Online: 0976-6359
© IAEME Publication
Scopus Indexed
BEHAVIOUR OF THREADED CYLINDER TOOL
IN THE FRICTION STIR WELDING OF AL-ZRB2
AND AL-SIC COMPOSITE
P. Jayaseelan and T. V. Christy*.
Department of Mechanical Engineering, School of Engineering & Technology, Karunya
Institute of Technology and Sciences, Karunya Nagar, Coimbatore – 641114, India
*Corresponding author
ABSTRACT
Friction Stir welding is a solid state joining process of using without any filler
material. In this work, two base materials likely Al-MMC’s are used namely Silicon
Carbide and Zirconium di-Boride are used. Hardness Rockwell Value and Tensile
Strength Tests are evaluated to the various tool material respect to Al-ZrB2 and Al-SiC.
Threaded Cylinder Tool made of the materials likely OHNS, HCHCr, H13 are carried
out in the process with D/d Ratio are used. The process is carried out with three different
tool materials and two different base material mainly aluminium reinforced Zirconium
diboride (Al-ZrB2) and Silicon Carbide (Al-SiC). The Micrograph of each four zones for
the tool material and base material is shown. This paper mainly focusing on which the
tool material shows a maximum tensile and hardness value for two base materials.
Keywords: Friction Stir Welding; Threaded Cylinder; Tool Material; Al-ZrB2, Al-SiC
D/d Ratio.
Cite this Article: P. Jayaseelan and T. V. Christy, Behavior of Threaded Cylinder Tool in
the Friction Stir Welding of Al-Zrb2 and Al-Sic Composite, International Journal of
Mechanical Engineering and Technology, 10(01), 2019, pp.1751–1761
http://www.iaeme.com/IJMET/issues.asp?JType=IJMET&VType=10&Type=01
1. INTRODUCTION
Friction Stir Welding is initially developed by “The Welding Institute” (TWI) in December 1991.
Friction Stir Welding is a Solid state joining process that creates a frictional heat between the
plates or where the tool is plunged. The poor welds are caused by detrimental phases can be
avoided in this type of welding. Tool plays a major part in the non-consumable welding process.
By the rotational of the tool, plastic deformation occurs between the contact surfaces. Tool
geometry, tool profile, and tool material are plays an important role in completing the successful
welded joints. The four main process parameter includes speed of the rotation, traverse speed,
plunging depth and tilt angle. The length of the tool is slightly smaller than the thickness of the
plates. Especially, Friction stir welding is originally adapted for welding the Aluminium alloys.
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This welding process does not require any filler material. According to the macro view, the four
different zones are classified and considered. They are unaffected zone or Base metal (BM), HeatAffected zone (HAZ), Thermo-mechanically heat affected zone (TMAZ), and stirred zone (SZ)
or Nugget Zone (NZ). Basically Zones are divided by its microstructure and temperature
variations. Especially, the Weld Zone has higher amount of temperature compared to the Thermomechanically affected zone. Then, the thermos-mechanically affected zone has higher
temperature than over the other and so on. Each zones having the different microstructure
properties and strength. Here, this process is mainly focused on the Aluminium reinforced Silicon
Carbide and Zirconium diboride are mainly focused with three different threaded tool material
known as H13, OHNS, HCHCr. D/d ratios and process parameter are assessed and tabulated.
Comparing the strength between the Al-SiC and Al-ZrB2 are shown in the following tables.
2. EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE:
2.1. Friction Stir Welding Tool
Friction stir welding tool consists of round shoulder and pin was used. Basically pin will have the
factor of different profiles such as threaded, tapered, conical etc...So selecting the proper tool for
the base material is a play. Proper design and dimensions should be followed then the profile was
to be done accordingly. Proper selection of tool will provides a proper weld quality. Rotating
shoulder along with the pin is fixed into the CNC machine and operated numerically. Selection
of appropriate tool and tool design plays an important role in the FSW process. In this case, we
used the Threaded Cylindrical tool as shown in Figure 1.
2.2. Tool Material Used
FSW tool plays an important role and selection of tool material achieves proper weld quality and
long-durable purpose. For this study we discussed H13, OHNS, and HCHCr for the Al-ZrB2 and
Al-SiC. Selecting good material for the tool will have high durability than the other material.
Using tool material, should withstand the peak temperature of the welding process, so that the
welding process can be done. The FSW process only done, if the tool withstand from thermal
properties. Comparing one tool material with other materials should be done, so that we came to
know that which material exhibits the high strength. The tool should be designed with all this
concern including its material, mechanical and thermal properties. In this case, we using the three
various tool profiles are Oil Hardened Normalized Steel (OHNS), High Carbon High Chromium
steel (HCHCr) and H13 Steel. According to K Palani, C Elanchezhian, Karanam Avinash, C
Karthik, Karra Chaitanya, Karthick Sivanur, K Yugandhar Reddy shows that, the nonconsumable FSW tool was designed based on the requirements with the dimensions of shoulder
diameter and prolonged pin diameter.
2.3. Choice of Tools
In this case, we used three different non-consumables tool materials was used to find out the
amount of deformation and at the end of the process, proper weld should be obtained only if the
grains are uniformly distributed. Here the three different tool materials used are i) High Speed
Steel (H13 steel), ii) Oil Hardened Normalized Steel (OHNS), iii) High Carbon High Chromium
steel (HCHCr) are tool materials carried out in the FSW process to find out which tool material
and profile possess in such a way of equally distributed grains in the microstructural
characterization. The tool is designed in such a way that followed by the shoulder diameter to the
prolonged pin diameter in terms of D/d ratio.The following Table 1.shows the tool profile, tool
material and corresponding D/d ratio are shown as below.
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Behavior of Threaded Cylinder Tool in the Friction Stir Welding of Al-Zrb2 and Al-Sic Composite
Table 1. Shows Tool Profile, Tool Material, D/d Ratio
Tool
no.
1
2
3
Tool Profile
Tool Material
D/d ratio
Threaded Cylinder
Threaded Cylinder
Threaded Cylinder
H13
OHNS
HCHCr
2
3
4
2.4. Process
In this process, the material used was Aluminium metal matrix composites (MMC’s) Al-10%
ZrB2 and SiC with the dimension of the plates are 100 mm x 50 mm x 6 mm manufactured by insitu stir casting process was employed as weldments for the Friction stir welding. The
enforcements such like Aluminium reinforced with Zirconium diboride and Silicon Carbide is
known for improved wear resistance and tensile strength but reduced corrosion resistance. As we
know that, FSW basically a welding technique for welding the Aluminium and MMC’s due to
withstand the high melting point, hardness and stability. The microstructure of Al-ZrB2 and AlSiC is shown in Figure 3 and 2. According to K Palani, C Elanchezhian, K H V Saiprakash, K
Sreekanth, Dayanand, Keshav Kumar, Deepak Kumar that the better microstructural results were
observed in friction stir processing joints relate to the friction stir welded joints and the addition
of nanoparticles improved the surface and joint properties and also they discussed Aluminium
alloys in addition to nanoparticle Al2O3 and SiC showed the sound defect free joints compared to
other joints. Proper selection of tool material is necessary so that we obtain a good quality of
welds.
Figure 1 – Threaded Cylinder 1 – H13, 2 – OHNS, 3 – HCHCr
Figure 2 – Optical Micrograph of Al-ZrB2
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2.5. Parameter Used
Welding parameters used in this case are shown in table 3. Parameter includes downforce or axial
load, rotational speed, tilt angle and traverse speed. Here 1000 rpm, 25 mm/min, 3.8-4.3 kN were
applied and used in this process. By the parameters used, H13 showed the superior results when
compared to the other two tools materials. In general, parameters plays an important role in defect
free joint, as the nominal parameters should use for obtain the good quality weld.
Figure 3 – Optical Micrograph of Al-SiC
Table 2 Shows Tool Configuration
Factor 1
Factor 2
Factor 3
Response 1
Run
A:Profile
B:Material
C:D/d
Selected Tool
1
3
2
1
1
2
2
2
2
2
3
1
2
3
3
Figure 4 – FSW Welded Al-ZrB2 and Al-SiC with corresponding tool Used
3. EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE:
3.1. Mechanical Characterization
Tests like Tensile strength and Hardness test are conducted to the friction stir welded specimens
are Al-SiC, Al-ZrB2 are prepared as per ASTM E08 standard. Tensile tests are conducted as per
the standard and concludes the results in MPa for both the specimen. Comparing the results with
other tool materials H13 has a maximum strength than the OHNS and HCHCr. The D/d ratios are
tabulated in the table 1. Table 4 and 5 represents the Tensile Strength for the both Specimens AlSiC and Al-ZrB2 are shown. Comparing the results, the higher strength obtained to the H13 tool
material as 150 and 117 MPa for the Al-SiC and Al-ZrB2. Thus, H13 proven that possess higher
strength to Al-SiC and Al-ZrB2 than the other two tool materials. Rockwell Hardness test was
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Behavior of Threaded Cylinder Tool in the Friction Stir Welding of Al-Zrb2 and Al-Sic Composite
evaluated for the specimens known to be Al-SiC and Al-ZrB2 respectively are conducted. The
welded specimens with three different tool materials are tabulated in the table 5. Comparing with
other tool material, H13 possess higher hardness value in terms with both the Al-SiC and AlZrB2. Rockwell Hardness value of tool material H13 for Al-SiC is 41 and Al-ZrB2 is 40. Other
tool materials possess lower hardness value than the H13. Hence, H13 provides higher hardness
value for both the base materials.
Table 3 shows Parameters used in the process
Sl.No
Tool Rotation (in rpm)
Traverse Speed
(mm/min)
Axial load Applied (kN)
Run
1000
25
3.8 – 4.3
Table 4 shows Tensile Strength of Al – ZrB2 and Al-SiC in MPa
Sl.No
1
2
3
Tool Profile
Threaded Cylinder
Threaded Cylinder
Threaded Cylinder
Tool Material
H13
OHNS
HCHCr
Al-SiC
150
121
93
Al-ZrB2
117
80
69
Table 5 shows Rockwell Hardness Value (HRA) of Al-ZrB2 and Al-SiC
Sl.No
1
2
3
Tool Profile
Threaded Cylinder
Threaded Cylinder
Threaded Cylinder
Tool Material
H13
OHNS
HCHCr
Al-SiC
41
31
24
Al-ZrB2
40
35
34
3.2. Metallurgical Characterization
According to Mohd Atif Wahid, Arshad Noor Siddiquee, Zahid A. Kahn, Nidhi showed that Due
to high heat experienced during the FSW, the degree of deformation of thermal softening of
materials gets increased leading to high level of plastic deformation as compared to UFSW and
CFSW. The Micrographs for the four different welded zone are shown in the figure 6 and 7 for
Al-SiC and Al-ZrB2 is shown. Here, four zones such as Parent Metal (PM) Zone, Heat Affected
zone (HAZ), thermos-mechanically affected zone (TMAZ) and weld nugget zone (WNZ) are
denoted for each micrographs termed as two different base material (Al-SiC and Al-ZrB2). The
term weld nugget zone is known to be welded zone which the temperature is more in this area.
The strength should be more than that of base material in the nugget zone and that fulfils the
condition of the Al-SiC and Al-ZrB2 only if the H13 tools was used.
The microstructure of the welded zone using H13 tool is shown in figure 6 and 7. In this case,
parent metal and weld nugget zone are satisfies the condition rather than OHNS and HCHCr. The
run in each cases used are 1000 rpm, 25 mm/min were used in both the cases. The presence of
finer grain particles were obtained without any defects only in the case of H13 tool material. The
non-uniform distribution of grain particles and insufficient breaking of the reinforcements are
obtained by using other tool materials.
Using the Al-SiC with H13 shows a superior prior results in the microstructure changes as
compared to Al-ZrB2. Evaluated results are shown and when comparing with H13 tool shows a
superior tensile strength and hardness value when compared to other two tools.
As we can see that the defect free joint is obtained using the H13 threaded cylindrical tool,
shows a superior tensile strength, and Hardness value in both the cases. The macrostructure and
values are compared as shown in figure 5.
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Figure 5 – Macrostructure of Welded Joints
Figure 6 - Micrographs of Al-ZrB2 composites welded using tool no.1 - H13, threaded cylinder pin
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Behavior of Threaded Cylinder Tool in the Friction Stir Welding of Al-Zrb2 and Al-Sic Composite
Figure 7 – Micrographs of
Al-SiC composites welded using tool no.1 - H13, threaded cylinder pin
Figure – 8 Micrographs of Al-ZrB2 composites welded using tool no 2 – OHNS, threaded cylinder pin
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Figure – 9 Micrographs of Al-SiC composites welded using tool no 2 – OHNS, threaded cylinder pin
Figure 10 Micrographs of Al-ZrB2 composites welded using tool no 3 – HCHCr, threaded cylinder pin
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Behavior of Threaded Cylinder Tool in the Friction Stir Welding of Al-Zrb2 and Al-Sic Composite
Figure 11 Micrographs of Al-SiC composites welded using tool no 3 – HCHCr, threaded cylinder pin
4. CONCLUSION
After completing of the welding process with three different tool materials and two different base
materials comparing with the values in terms of strength and hardness, the following results are
concluded.
Friction stir welded using H13 Threaded cylindrical tool possess higher Ultimate tensile
strength (UTS) of 150 and 117 MPa comparing with other two tools namely, OHNS threaded
cylinder and HCHCr threaded cylinder for in both cases of Al-SiC and Al-ZrB2 respectively
When examined with Rockwell Hardness test (HRA) welded with H13 Threaded cylindrical
tool which possess higher value of 41 and 40 comparatively with other two tools for both cases
in Al-SiC and Al-ZrB2 respectively.
Studying the Micrographs of Al-SiC and Al-ZrB2 showing that welded using threaded H13
tool cylinder pin showing quality welded joints.
For both the Al-SiC and Al-ZrB2 welded with H13 threaded cylinder showing the maximum
results in the case of tensile strength, hardness test and also micrographs.
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