Uploaded by IAEME PUBLICATION

AIR GASIFICATION OF CHAR DERIVED FROM PONGAMIA DE-OILED CAKE IN A FLUIDIZED BED REACTOR

advertisement
International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET)
Volume 10, Issue 01, January 2019, pp. 1571–1580, Article ID: IJMET_10_01_160
Available online at http://www.iaeme.com/ijmet/issues.asp?JType=IJMET&VType=10&IType=1
ISSN Print: 0976-6340 and ISSN Online: 0976-6359
© IAEME Publication
Scopus Indexed
AIR GASIFICATION OF CHAR DERIVED FROM
PONGAMIA DE-OILED CAKE IN A FLUIDIZED
BED REACTOR
Joseph John Marshal S
Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Karunya Institute of Technology and Sciences, Coimbatore, Tamilnadu, India
T. Michael N Kumar
Department of Mechanical Engineering
Bharathiyar college of Engineering and Technology, Karaikal, India
Z. Robert Kennedy
Department of Mechanical Engineering
EASA college of Engineering, Coimbatore, Tamilnadu. India
Kondru Gnana Sundari
Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Karunya Institute of Technology and Sciences, Coimbatore, Tamilnadu, India
ABSTRACT
This work presents the experimental results of gasification of char derived from
pyrolysis of Pongamia deoiled cake at maximum oil condition. Experiments are
conducted in fluidized bed reactor using air as the gasifying agent. The gasification
temperature and equivalence ratio (ER) were varied as per the designed experiment
using central composite design to study the influence on the composition of the
product gas. The lower heating value (LHV), Gas yield (GY), carbon conversion
efficiency (CCE) and cold gas efficiency (CGE) were calculated from the data of the
composition of the gas. The experiments were carried out in the temperature range of
600-800 °C, equivalence ratio of 0.26-0.36. Regression equations were proposed as a
function of temperature and ER for H2, CO, CH4 and CO2 in the range of
experimental conditions. The results showed that at a temperature of 800 °C and ER
of 0.35, maximum cold gas efficiency of 52.04% was achieved. The optimum input
parameters were identified for maximum gasification efficiency. The product gas with
highest LHV, 5 MJ/Nm3 was obtained at 600 °C temperature, 0.26 ER. The product
gas obtained through gasification of this kind of char can be used as fuel for syngas
engines, for power generation and process heat applications.
Keywords: Fluidized bed reactor, gasification, pongamia char, Central composite design
http://www.iaeme.com/IJMET/index.asp
1571
[email protected]
Joseph John Marshal S, T. Michael N Kumar, Z. Robert Kennedy, Kondru Gnana Sundari
Cite this Article: Joseph John Marshal S, T. Michael N Kumar, Z. Robert Kennedy,
Kondru Gnana Sundari, Air Gasification of Char Derived from Pongamia De-Oiled
Cake in a Fluidized Bed Reactor, International Journal of Mechanical Engineering
and Technology 10(1), 2019, pp. 1571–1580.
http://www.iaeme.com/IJMET/issues.asp?JType=IJMET&VType=10&IType=1
1. INTRODUCTION
Biomass has a unique potential for making a positive environmental impact, i.e., the CO2
emitted in processing the biomass would be absorbed by the fresh biomass. Raw biomass has
this advantage over fossil fuels though the energy content is less in the former than petroleum
and other products [1]. India, being one of the developing nations, is able to generate biomass
of about 500 million metric tons per year [2].Thermo chemical conversion processes are
preferred to produce fuel products from biomass, than direct combustion, which has been in
practice since ancient times [3]. Faster conversion rate and using all the components of
biomass which includes cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin are the main advantages of
thermo chemical conversion process over the biological conversion process. Energy
production through gasification conversion route is suitable as the processing of synfuels from
biomass will have lower energy cost, waste management improvement and reduction in
harmful emission [4]. Higher efficiency and high reaction rates obtained due to intensive
mixing in the bed made fluidized bed gasification technology more favorable for biomass
conversion [5]. Using air as a gasifying agent is economically beneficial comparing with other
gasifying agents [6]. Particle Size, gasification temperature and equivalence ratio are found to
be the most influential factors on the gasification performance [7]. The calorific value of the
gas was calculated to be above 4.7 MJ/Nm3 and found satisfactory for use in syngas engines
[8] Non-edible oil from Pongamia and Jatropha seeds had been selected as a major source for
production of biodiesel by the government of India through the massive plantation drive.
Therefore more seeds will be used for biodiesel production and for every ton of biodiesel
produced, about 3 tonnes of oil cake which has a gross energy value of approximately 19.3
MJ/Kg is generated as waste [9]. The best means is to utilize non-edible cakes as biomass
resources instead of dumping as waste so as to realize its energy, economic benefits as well as
environmental benefits [10]. Experimental studies on conversion of Pongamia de-oiled cake
using different process have been reported in the literature [11-15]. Significant amount of char
at maximum oil condition is reported (30-35%). The char obtained has higher carbon content
compared to parent material which gives high calorific value. Hence this could be exploited
through the gasification process. The formation of tar which is the main problem for the
development of gasification technology can be avoided by gasifying char instead of directly
gasifying the cake. This is due to the removal of volatile matter during pyrolysis. Gasification
of chars produced from jack pine [16], Acacia wood [17], rice husk [18,19], biomass [20],
bagasse char and commercial char [21], rapeseed, cotton refuse, olive refuse, pine cone and
sunflower shell[22], , petcoke, and chest nut and olive stones[23], of mallee wood[24], empty
fruit bunches[25], pine sawdust[26], wood [27], sewage sludge [28], olive tree [29], wood
pellet, sewage sludge, rapeseed and miscanthus[30] have been studied by various researchers
and presented the data in the literature. To the author’s knowledge, fluidized bed gasification
of char derived from Pongamia cake was not reported in the literature. In this study, air
gasification of char derived from pyrolysis of de-oiled Pongamia seed cake was done in a
bubbling fluidized bed gasifier to observe the effect of temperature and equivalence ratio on
syngas composition and low heating value, gas yield, carbon conversion efficiency and cold
gas efficiency. Parameters affecting the process were optimized using central composite
design and the optimum conditions were identified.
http://www.iaeme.com/IJMET/index.asp
1572
[email protected]
Air Gasification of Char Derived from Pongamia De-Oiled Cake in a Fluidized Bed Reactor
2. MATERIAL AND METHODS
2.1. Feed Materials
Char derived from pyrolysis of pongamia deoiled cake at maximum oil condition is
considered as feed for gasification. The elemental analysis results are presented in Table 1.
From the result of the ultimate analysis, the formula for the cake and char is calculated as
CH1.71O0.63 and CH0.78N0.22 respectively.
Table 1 Results of proximate and ultimate analysis of char comparing with cake
Parameters
Proximate analysis
Moisture
Ash
Volatile matter
Fixed carbon
Ultimate analysis
Carbon
Hydrogen
Nitrogen
Oxygen(calculated by
difference)
GCV (Kcal/kg)
Cake
Char
7.09% 3.54%
3.53% 14.15%
78.03% 14.28%
11.35% 68.03%
47.51%
6.78%
5.66%
72%
4.70%
1.88%
40.05% 21.42%
4622
6336
2.2. Experimental setup
The reactor tube made up of stainless steel of height 1000 mm and an internal diameter of 50
mm. six heaters were provided for supplying the required gasification temperature along the
height of the reactor and another heater over the pipeline carrying the volatiles from the
reactor to the condenser, to avoid condensation inside the pipeline. The rate of heat input was
controlled by variac and power input was measured using voltmeter and ammeter. Proper
insulation was provided around the reactor using glass wool. Air distributor was installed at
the bottom of the reactor for better distribution of air. The thickness of the distributor was 3
mm and contains 50 holes of 2 mm diameter each perforated uniformly on it. The Hopper
used for storing the feed was placed at the middle of the reactor from which the feed was
taken by a screw feeder powered by a varying speed electric motor. Water jackets were
provided at the screw feeder and reactor junction to ensure that the hopper section was at
ambient temperature. K-type thermocouples were uniformly placed along the axis to measure
the temperature at 6 different locations inside the reactor. The gasifier schematic diagram is
shown in Fig 1. Air was supplied by a compressor to the bottom of the reactor through a
calibrated rotameter which measures its flow rate. The cyclone separator was provided at the
end of the reactor to separate the solid particles in the product gas. A shell and tube heat
exchanger was connected to cool the hot gas. Further moisture and dust were removed by
passing the gas through silica gel and cotton filter arrangement before collecting it for
analysis.
2.3. Gas Analysis
A gas chromatograph unit (GC-2014 SHIMADZU, Japan) was used to measure the syngas
composition. This unit is fitted with shin carbon ST, 100×120 mesh, 2 m length, 1 mm inner
diameter and 1.58 mm outer diameter column, to detect the percentage of H2, CO, CH4, CO2,
http://www.iaeme.com/IJMET/index.asp
1573
[email protected]
Joseph John Marshal S, T. Michael N Kumar, Z. Robert Kennedy, Kondru Gnana Sundari
C2H2, C2H4 and C2H6 in the syngas using N2 as a carrier gas. The flow rate of the carrier gas
was fixed at 10 ml/min, the injection temperature and TCD temperature was maintained at
110 °C and 250°C respectively. During the analysis, the column temperature ranges from 40
°C to 200 °C and kept on hold for 10 minutes for the analysis to complete. A standard mixture
of known composition was used for calibration before starting the analysis of the gas.
Figure 1. Schematic view of fluidized bed gasifier experimental setup.
2.4. Design of Experiments
Design of Experiments (DOE) is a modern approach to conduct experiments designed by the
software to optimize, evaluate and predict the output [31]. This helps to find the influential
parameters and their trends to determine and control the output. Gasification temperature and
Equivalence ratio were selected as process parameters for optimization of syngas composition
for maximum values of H2, CO, CH4. In the present study, Design expert v10 software was
used. Central composite design under the Response Surface Method (RSM) was employed to
evaluate the result. The distance between axial points from the factorial points (α) was given
as 1.68. The Process parameters and their range are given in Table 2.
Table 2 Process parameters and their values at various levels
Factors
Temperature(oC)
ER
-α
559
0.24
-1
600
0.26
0
700
0.31
1
800
0.36
+α
841
0.38
For this study, The Lower heating value (LHV) of the syngas, carbon conversion
efficiency (CCE) and cold gas efficiency (CGE) was calculated using the following equations.
∑
(1)
(2)
(3)
http://www.iaeme.com/IJMET/index.asp
1574
[email protected]
Air Gasification of Char Derived from Pongamia De-Oiled Cake in a Fluidized Bed Reactor
3. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
3.1. Effect of operating parameters on product gas composition
The experimental results of gasification of char derived from- Pongamia de-oiled cake are
given in Table 6.6. From the results, it is found that H2 (2.81-7.64%), CO (7.49-12.87%), CO2
(7.48-9%), CH4 (6.41-7.98%) are the main gases detected by gas chromatograph.
Table 3 Coefficients table-ANOVA results
H2
p-values
CO
p-values
CH4
p-values
CO2
p-values
LHV
p-values
GY
p-values
CGE
p-values
CCE
p-values
Intercept
6.5694
10.9856
7.238
8.15723
4.56708
2.69846
50.3492
58.8636
A
1.2753
0.0007
0.503328
0.0437
-0.462169
< 0.0001
-0.298742
0.0004
-0.0696968
0.0138
0.0100888
0.6077
-0.552708
0.0952
-1.379
0.1203
B
-0.49141
0.0635
-1.2114
0.0006
-0.178529
0.0207
0.367435
< 0.0001
-0.353728
< 0.0001
0.299742
< 0.0001
1.5639
0.0009
1.10484
0.1995
AB
0.4365
0.2090
1.3275
0.0025
A²
-0.115325
0.6445
0.464512
0.0723
B²
-1.09082
0.0026
-0.614237
0.0267
0.0998268
0.0131
0.0402414
0.1225
-0.103315
0.0028
1.74866
0.0035
6.43294
0.0006
0.934505
0.0188
1.15877
0.2084
-2.09252
0.0003
-4.25482
0.0014
A-Temperature; B- ER
According to the ANOVA results (Table 3) temperature is the most influential factor
(p<0.05) on H2, CO, CH4 and CO2 gases present in the product gas. The perturbation plots
represent the variation of a factor on either side of the central design point (700 °C, 0.31 ER).
From Figure 2 it is observed that the concentrations of H2 and CO increased with the rise in
temperature. These gases are involved in the gasification reactions both as products and as
reactants and the rise in temperature supports their formation [32]. The opposite trend is
observed for CH4 and CO2 with the rise in temperature. The reduction in CO2 indicates the
significance of Boudouard reaction and water gas reaction at high temperatures which favors
the production of CO and H2. The concentrations of hydrocarbons reduced with the rise in
temperature since high temperature favors thermal cracking and reforming reactions [1]. ER is
also found to be the most influential factor in the production of CO, CH4 and CO2 and to a
lesser extent (between 600-700 °C) on the production of H2. Similar trend was observed by
Lalaguna et al. (2014) [28] during the gasification of char derived from sewage sludge.
http://www.iaeme.com/IJMET/index.asp
1575
[email protected]
Joseph John Marshal S, T. Michael N Kumar, Z. Robert Kennedy, Kondru Gnana Sundari
a)
b)
c)
d)
Figure 2 Perturbation plots. a) H2 yield b) CO yield c) CH4 yield d) CO2 yield. Effect of Temperature
(A) and ER (B)
Higher values of ER reduce the formation of H2 and CO and increases CO2 formation.
Increasing the ER indicates more oxygen to the gasifier which supports the combustion
reaction. This results in an increase of CO2 with the rise of ER. The water gas shift reaction
and combustion reaction are significant between 600 °C and 700 °C which results in the rise
of H2 and CO2 and a decrease in the content of CO in that temperature range. The
concentration of CH4 is found to decrease with ER. It is found that an increase in the ER did
not favor the production of CH4. The decrease in the concentrations of CO and CH4 with the
increase of ER was also observed by Lv et al. (2004) [1] during the fluidized bed gasification
of pine sawdust. The significant increase and negligible increase in the concentrations of CH4
with an increase of steam to biomass ratio, when steam was used as the gasifying agent was
reported in the literature[26,27]. The regression equations obtained for the output variables
are given in Table 4.
http://www.iaeme.com/IJMET/index.asp
1576
[email protected]
Air Gasification of Char Derived from Pongamia De-Oiled Cake in a Fluidized Bed Reactor
Table 4 Regression equations for response variables during the gasification of char
Res.
Regression equations
(-27.9491) +( 0.00183553 × T) + (199.586 × ER) + (0.0873 × T × ER) + (-1.15325e-05 × T2) + (436.33 × ER2)
71.7363 + (-0.142303 × T) + (-57.7472 × ER) + (0.2655 × T × ER) + (4.64513e-05 × T2 ) + (-245.695
× ER2)
H2
CO
CH4
11.5801 + (-0.00462169 × T) + (-3.57058 × ER)
N2
53.6399 + (-0.00370465 × T) + (36.7389 × ER)
CO2
7.97032 + (-0.00298742 × T) + (7.34871 × ER)
GY
0.769437 + (0.000100888 × T) + (5.99485 × ER)
LHV
CCE
CGE
9.58096 + (-0.01252 × T) + (4.57179 × ER) + (0.0199654 × T × ER) + (4.02414e-06 × T2 ) + (41.326 × ER2)
234.081 + (-0.57486 × T) + (176.68 × ER) + (1.28659 × T × ER) + (0.000115877 × T 2) + (-1701.93 ×
ER2)
85.7681 + (-0.244774 × T) + (305.41 × ER) + (0.349731 × T × ER) + (9.34505e-05 × T2 ) + (837.006 × ER2)
Res.-Response (%); T-Temperature; ER-Equivalence ratio
3.2. Effect of operating parameters on GY, LHV, CCE and CGE
a)
b)
c)
d)
Figure 3 Perturbation plots. a) GY b) LHV c) CCE d) CGE. Effect of Temperature (A) and ER (B)
http://www.iaeme.com/IJMET/index.asp
1577
[email protected]
Joseph John Marshal S, T. Michael N Kumar, Z. Robert Kennedy, Kondru Gnana Sundari
The effect of temperature and ER on GY, LHV, CCE and CGE are given in Figure 3. The
ANOVA results for these four product gas quality index parameters are also mentioned in
Table3. From these results, it is found that ER (B) is the most influential factor than the
temperature. The interaction term (AB) and the quadratic term of ER (B2) are significant
model terms in all the four cases mentioned here. The regression equations based on
experimental data for all the quality index parameters are also given in Table 4. From Figure 3
it is found that GY, LHV CCE and CGE ranged between 2.2 and 3.06 Nm3/kg, 3.92 and 5
MJ/Nm3, 47.37% and 64.94% and 43.63% and 53.41% respectively. The GY increased and
LHV of the product gas decreased with the rise in ER.The higher value of ER contributes
more oxygen to the reactor and favors the reactions for forming the noncondensable gases.
The decrease in the concentrations of H2, CO and mainly CH4 with the increase of ER results
in the decrease of LHV of the product gas. The CCE and CGE increased between 0.26 and
0.31 and then reduced up to 0.36. According to the studies in the literature [27,32], water gas
shift reaction is dominant in the temperature range of 600-700°C when ER is varied from 0.26
to 0.31. Thus H2 yield, CCE and CGE increased initially and then further increase of ER
reduced the CCE and CGE. No significant effect of temperature is observed on the GY,
LHV, CCE and CGE.
3.3. Optimized model
In order to find the optimal conditions or the parameters that give the extremes of the selected
objective functions in the boundary of the defined conditions optimization is employed.
Limited literature is available that focused on the optimization of the gasification process. The
objective considered here for optimization is maximum cold gas efficiency. The model was
validated by conducting experiments at optimum conditions found the results to be below
15% error.
4. CONCLUSIONS
Synthesis gas was produced via air gasification of char derived from Pongamia de-oiled cake.
The gas yield and Composition of synthesis gas was found. The CCE, CGE and LHV were
calculated from the data obtained. The central composite design was used to conduct the
experiments and results were analyzed using ANOVA.

Temperature and ER were found to be the most influential factors on the gas composition and
LHV.

ER was found to be an influential factor for on GY, CGE and CCE.

The maximum yield of H2 was at a temperature of 800 °C, 0.3 ER and maximum yield of CO
and CH4 were obtained at 600 °C, 0.26 ER.

The gas yield, LHV, CCE and CGE at optimum conditions were found to be 2.94 Nm3/kg,
4.27 MJ/Nm3, 61.94% and 52.04% respectively.

The maximum LHV of the gas was 5 MJ/Nm3 is obtained at 610 °C and 0.26 ER, which is
higher than the 4.7 MJ/Nm3, hence the gas obtained from gasification of char derived from
Pongamia cake through this process can be used for syngas engine applications.
REFERENCES
[1]
Lv PM, Xiong ZH, Chang J, Wu CZ, Chen Y, Zhu JX. An experimental study on biomass
air-steam gasification in a fluidized bed. Bioresource technology,95, 2004, pp.95-101.
[2]
Ministry of New and Renewable energy, India.www.mnre.gov.in.
http://www.iaeme.com/IJMET/index.asp
1578
[email protected]
Air Gasification of Char Derived from Pongamia De-Oiled Cake in a Fluidized Bed Reactor
[3]
Sensoz S, Angin D. Pyrolysis of safflower seed press cake in a fixed-bed reactor.
Bioresource Technology, 99,2008, pp. 5498-5504.
[4]
Thiagarajan J, Srividhya PK, Rajasakeran E. A Review of Thermo-chemical Energy
Conversion Process of Non-edible Seed Cakes. Journal of Energy Bioscience, 4, 2013,
pp.7-15.
[5]
Moghadam RA, Yusup S, Azlina W, Nehzati S, Tavasoli A. Investigation on syngas
production via biomass conversion through the integration of pyrolysis and air-steam
gasification processes. Energy Conversion and Management, 87, 2014, pp.670-675.
[6]
Schuster G, Loffler G, Weigl K, Hofbauer H. Biomass steam gasification – an extensive
parametric modeling study. Bioresource Technology, 77, 2001, pp.71-79.
[7]
Subbaiah BS, Murugan DK, Deenadayalan DB, Dhamodharan MI. Gasification of
biomass using fluidized bed. Journal of Innovative Research, 3-2, 2014, pp. 8995-9002.
[8]
Kim YD, Yang CW, Kim BJ, Kim KS, Lee JW, Moon JH, Yang W, Yu TU, Lee UD. Airblown gasification of woody biomass in a bubbling fluidized bed gasifier. Applied Energy.
112, 2013, pp.414-420.
[9]
Achten WMJ, Verchot L, Franken YJ, Singh VP, Aerts R, Muys B. Jatropha biodiesel
production and use. Biomass and Bioenergy, 32, 2008, pp.1063-1084.
[10]
Gottipati R, Mishra S. A kinetic study on pyrolysis and combustion characteristics of oil
cakes: Effect of cellulose and lignin content. Journal of fuel chemistry and technology, 39,
2011, pp. 265-270.
[11]
Barik D, Murugan S. Assesment of sustainable biogas production from de-oiled seed cake
Karanja-an organic industrial waste from biodiesel industries. Fuel, 148, 2015, pp.25-31.
[12]
Kumar D, Pant KK. Production and characterization of biocrude and biochars obtained
from non-edible de-oiled seed cakes hydrothermal conversion. Journal of Analytical and
Applied Pyrolysis, 15, 2015; pp.77-86.
[13]
Chutia RS, Kataki R, Bhaskar T. Characterization of liquid and solid product from
pyrolysis of Pongamia glabra deoiled cake. Bioresource technology, 165, 2014, pp.336342.
[14]
Marshal JJS, Kumar TMN. Fixed bed pyrolysis of Pongamia nonedible oil seed cake:
Characterization of char, oil and gas obtained at a low heating rate, IJAER 11(8), 2016,
pp.5826-5833.
[15]
Antony RS, Robinson SDS, Pillai BC, Lindon LRC. Paramateric studies on Pyrolysis of
pungam oil cake in electrically heated fluidized bed research reactor, chem science, 1,
2011, pp.70-80.
[16]
Ross. R. A. and Fikis. D.V. Gasification Reactions of Chars and Modified Chars Produced
from Jack Pine Bark. The Canadian Journal of Chemical Engineering, 58, 1980, pp.230234.
[17]
Kumar. M., Gupta. R. C. and Sharma. T. Influence of carbonisation temperature on the
gasification of Acacia wood chars by carbon dioxide. Fuel Processing Technology 32,
1992, pp. 69-76.
[18]
Bhat .A., Bheemarasetti. J. V. R. and Rao. T. R. Kinetics of rice husk char gasification.
Energy Conversion and Management, 42, 2001, pp.2061-2069.
[19]
Zhai. M., Zhang. Y., Dong. P. and Liu.P. Characteristics of rice husk char gasification
with steam. Fuel, 158, 2015, pp.42-49.
[20]
Chaudhari. S. T., Beg. S. K., Bakhshi. N. N. and Dalai. A. K. Steam Gasification of
Biomass-Derived Char for the Production of Carbon Monoxide-Rich Synthesis Gas.
Energy & Fuels, 15, 2001, pp.736-742.
http://www.iaeme.com/IJMET/index.asp
1579
[email protected]
Joseph John Marshal S, T. Michael N Kumar, Z. Robert Kennedy, Kondru Gnana Sundari
[21]
Chaudhari. S. T., Dalai. A. K. and Bakhshi. N. N. Production of Hydrogen and/or Syngas
(H2 + CO) via Steam Gasification of Biomass-Derived Chars. Energy & Fuels, 17, 2003,
pp.1062-1067.
[22]
Haykiri-Acma. H., Yaman. S. and Kucukbayrak. S. Gasification of biomass chars in
steam-nitrogen mixture. Energy Conversion and Management,47, 2006, pp.1004-1013.
[23]
Fermoso. J., Arias. B., Pevida. C., Plaza. M. G., Rubiera. F. and Pis. J. J. Kinetic models
comparison for steam gasification of different nature fuel chars. Journal of Thermal
Analysis and Calorimetry, 91, 2008, pp.779-786.
[24]
Abdullah. H. and Wu. H. Biochar as a fuel: 1. Properties and grindability of biochars
produced from pyrolysis of mallee wood under slow-heating conditions. Energy and
Fuels, 23, 2009, pp.4174-4181.
[25]
Salleh. M. A. M., Kisiki. N. H., Yusuf. H. M. and Ghani. W. A. W. A. K. Gasification of
biochar from empty fruit bunch in a fluidized bed reactor. Energies 3, 2010, pp. 13441352.
[26]
Yan. F., Luo. S., Hu. Z., Xiao. B. and Cheng. G. Hydrogen-rich gas production by steam
gasification of char from biomass fast pyrolysis in a fixed-bed reactor: Influence of
temperature and steam on hydrogen yield and syngas composition. Bioresource
Technology 101, 2010, pp.5633-5637.
[27]
He. P., Luo. S., Cheng. G., Xiao. B., Cai. L. and Wang. J. Gasification of biomass char
with air-steam in a cyclone furnace. Renewable Energy 37, 2012, pp.398-402.
[28]
Gil-Lalaguna. N., Sanchez. J. L., Murillo. M. B., Ruiz. V. and Gea. G. Air-steam
gasification of char derived from sewage sludge pyrolysis. Comparison with the
gasification of sewage sludge. Fuel 129, 2014, pp.147-155.
[29]
Nilsson. S., Gomez-Barea. A., Fuentes-Cano. D. and Campoy. M. Gasification kinetics of
char from olive tree pruning in fluidized bed. Fuel, 125, 2014, pp.192-199.
[30]
Sattar. A., Leeke. G. A., Hornung. A. and Wood. J. Steam gasification of rapeseed, wood,
sewage sludge and miscanthus biochars for the production of a hydrogen-rich syngas.
Biomass and Bioenergy, 69, 2014, pp.276-286.
[31]
Raj RE, Kennedy ZR, Pillai BC. Optimization of process parameters in flash Pyrolysis of
waste tyres to liquid and gaseous fuel in a fluidized bed reactor. Energy conversion and
Management, 67, 2013, pp.145-151.
[32]
Franco. C., Pinto. F., Gulyurtlu. I., Carbita. I. The study of reactions influencing the
biomass steam gasification process. Fuel 82, 2003, pp. 835-842.
http://www.iaeme.com/IJMET/index.asp
1580
[email protected]
Download
Random flashcards
Radiobiology

39 Cards

Ethnology

14 Cards

Create flashcards