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OPTIMIZATION OF CO2 LASER CUTTING PARAMETERS ON AUSTENITE STAINLESS STEEL USING GREY RELATIONAL ANALYSIS

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International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET)
Volume 10, Issue 01, January 2019, pp. 984-992, Article ID: IJMET_10_01_101
Available online at http://www.iaeme.com/ijmet/issues.asp?JType=IJMET&VType=10&IType=1
ISSN Print: 0976-6340 and ISSN Online: 0976-6359
© IAEME Publication
Scopus Indexed
OPTIMIZATION OF CO2 LASER CUTTING
PARAMETERS ON AUSTENITE STAINLESS
STEEL USING GREY RELATIONAL ANALYSIS
A. Parthiban*
School of Engineering, Vels Institute of Science, Technology and Advanced Studies.
Chennai, India.
T. Sathish
Department of Mechanical Engineering, St. Peter’s Institute of Higher Education and
Research, Avadi, Chennai, India.
S. Siva Chandran
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Sri Sairam Engineering College, Chennai, India.
R. Venkatesh
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Kongunadu College of Engineering and Technology,
Thottiam, Trichy, India.
V. Vijayan
Department of Mechanical Engineering, K.Ramakrishnan College of Technology
Samayapuram, Trichy, Tamilnadu, India.
*Corresponding Author
ABSTRACT
The CO2 laser cutting is very popular for sheet metal fabrication industries
because of very accurately cutting of assembly components. So that this work
concentrate about to CO2 laser cutting of austenite type stainless steel material, the
Laser beam power, Cutting speed and gas pressure are very significant cutting
parameter for to cut quality surface. In this work to optimize the CO2 laser cutting
parameter for to cutting of Austenite stainless steel material for 3mm thickness the
responses are Top kerf width and bottom kerf width are considered, Grey relay
analysis method used in this work for to find out the optimized parameters for CO2
laser cutting. The output of the result laser beam power are predominate parameters
to affect the quality of cut
Keywords: Laser, CO2, GRA.
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A. Parthiban, T. Sathish, S. Siva Chandran, R. Venkatesh and V. Vijayan
Cite this Article: A. Parthiban, T. Sathish, S. Siva Chandran, R. Venkatesh and V.
Vijayan , Optimization of Co2 Laser Cutting Parameters on Austenite Stainless Steel
using Grey Relational Analysis, International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and
Technology, 10(01), 2019, pp. 984-992.
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1. INTRODUCTION
Laser cutting is very advanced cutting for complicated shapes, also high speed cutting. So that
the accuracy of cut edge are concentrate because of cutting quality are very essential [1]. The
cutting parameters are very important to consider for affect the quality of cut for all types of
material [2]. The various optimization technique are used to found the best cutting parameters,
Grey relay analysis is one of the best multi objective optimization techniques to found the
cutting parameters[3]. In that view many researchers are concentrating about to develop
mathematical models for predicting accurate experimental values [4, 5]. The laser power,
cutting speed and gas pressure to investigated with Taguchi methodology and as a result the
minimum of kerf dimensions was achieved with L27 orthogonal array [6, 7]. in this
experimental design to utilize maximum experimental run for making relationship with higher
costly, many researchers only develop the empirical models with other experimental designs
such as central composite and Box Behnken designs for reducing the experimental run and
cost. In laser cutting process consumes high cost for carrying out the production. In response
the design of experiment concepts were utilized by some of the researchers to reduce the
experimental run and cost and avoid the trial and error cost expenditure [8]. So this work tries
the Box-Behnken design for conducting the experiments and also grey relay analysis method
by using to found the optimized laser cutting parameters.
2. EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE
he experiments are conducted for AMADA make CO2 Laser cutting machine as shown in
figure.1 The work piece are considered for this work is AISI 316 L austenite type Stainless
steel 3mm thickness sheet the cutting profiles are shown in Figure.2 [8]. And also significant
parameters are considered for Laser beam power, cutting speed and gas pressure. The
experimental run for conducting the experiments the RSM Design was used and 29
experimental runs were carried out [9]. The ranges of input parameters are beam power (2700,
3450, 4200 Watts), Cutting Speed (3500, 4400, 5300 mm/min) and Gas pressure (0.7, 0.8 0.9
Mpa). The collected experimental data were given in table 1.
Figure.1. CO2 laser cutting machine
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Figure.2. Cutting Profile
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Optimization of CO2 laser cutting parameters on Austenite stainless steel using grey relational
analysis
Table 1 Experimental Result
S.No
Beam
Power
(Watts)
Cutting
Speed
(mm/min)
Gas
pressure
(Mpa)
Top kerf
width (mm)
Bottom Kerf
Width (mm)
1
2700
3500
0.8
0.4299
0.3601
2
2700
5300
0.8
0.4429
0.3681
3
4200
5300
0.8
0.4509
0.3801
4
3450
4400
0.8
0.4599
0.3901
5
3450
3500
0.8
0.4999
0.4301
6
4200
4400
0.8
0.3539
0.3181
7
3450
4400
0.8
0.4599
0.3821
8
3450
5300
0.8
0.3619
0.3211
9
3450
4400
0.8
0.4279
0.4001
10
3450
3500
0.7
0.4599
0.3881
11
3450
4400
0.8
0.4499
0.3781
12
3450
3500
0.8
0.3819
0.3781
13
3450
5300
0.9
0.4399
0.3641
14
3450
4400
0.7
0.3719
0.3301
15
2700
4400
0.8
0.4979
0.4201
16
3450
4400
0.7
0.4719
0.3971
17
3450
4400
0.9
0.5099
0.4311
18
3450
3500
0.9
0.4539
0.3941
19
2700
4400
0.9
0.4499
0.3821
20
3450
4400
0.9
0.3919
0.3421
21
2700
4400
0.8
0.4059
0.3521
22
4200
4400
0.8
0.4919
0.4181
23
4200
4400
0.9
0.4609
0.3911
24
3450
5300
0.8
0.4799
0.4101
25
4200
4400
0.7
0.4199
0.3701
26
4200
3500
0.8
0.4409
0.3821
27
2700
4400
0.7
0.4429
0.3721
28
3450
4400
0.8
0.4539
0.3741
29
3450
5300
0.7
0.4649
0.3971
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3. RESULT AND DISCUSSION
3.1. Effect of Top kerf width and Bottom Kerf Width
The figure.3 shows the top kerf width is low (range from 0.420 to 0.440 mm) at entry level of
the Beam power (2300-2500 watts) while high level of Cutting speed (5000-5500 mm/min).
Top kerf width is gradually increased with respect to increase the Beam power and cutting
speed. The top kerf width is maximum (0.455 mm) at the high level of beam power (35004200 watts).
And initially the top kerf width is low range from (0.450 to 0.475 mm) at mid-level of the
Beam power (4000-4200 watts) while low level of gas pressure (0.70-0.75 Mpa). top kerf
width is gradually increased with respect to increase the Beam power and Gas pressure. Top
kerf width is maximum (0.475 mm) at the high level of beam power (4000-4200 watts).and
also suggests, at constant Cutting speed of 5000 mm/min for increasing gas pressure
the bottom kerf width increases towards the mid-point and then starts decreases
towards the end point. At constant gas pressure of 0.9 Mpa for increasing cutting speed
the bottom kerf width increases. At maximum cutting speed and gas pressure the
bottom kerf width is minimum. At maximum cutting speed and gas pressure the
bottom kerf width is minimum
Figure.3. response surface graph for Top and Bottom Kerf width
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Optimization of CO2 laser cutting parameters on Austenite stainless steel using grey relational
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3.2. Procedures for Grey relay analysis
The grey relay analysis for CO2 laser cutting of AISI 316L stainless steel sheet procedures are
follows the equations standardization equations 1 and 2 are used for to find out the values
[10].
xi (k ) =
xi (k ) − min xi (k )
max xi (k ) − min xi (k )
(1).
The first standardized formula is suitable for the benefit – type factor.
xi (k ) =
max xi (k ) − xi (k )
max xi (k ) − min xi (k )
(2).
The grey relation grade is to be calculated by using this following equations 3,4,and 5
[11].
∆xi ( k ) = x0 ( k ) − xi ( k )
x i (k ) =
(3),
∆ min + p∆ max
∆xi (k ) + p∆ max
(4),
ri = ∑ [w( k )ξ ( k )]
(5).
In equation (5), ξ is the Grey relational coefficient, w (k) is the proportion of the number
k influence factor to the total influence indicators. The sum of w (k) is 100%. The result can
be obtained when using the table.2 shows the grey relay analysis procedures can be applied to
measure the quality of the CO2 laser cutting of Austenite materials for AISI 316[12].
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Table 2 Grey Relational Grade and Grey Relational Rank
S.No
Normal TK
Normal BK
DS Top Kerf
Width
DS Bottom
Kerf Width
GRC Top
Kerf width
GRC Bottom
Kerf width
Grey grade
Rank
1
0.5128
0.6283
0.4872
0.3717
0.5065
0.5736
0.5400
7
2
0.4295
0.5575
0.5705
0.4425
0.4671
0.5305
0.4988
10
3
0.3782
0.4513
0.6218
0.5487
0.4457
0.4768
0.4613
15
4
0.3205
0.3628
0.6795
0.6372
0.4239
0.4397
0.4318
21
5
0.0641
0.0088
0.9359
0.9912
0.3482
0.3353
0.3418
28
6
1.0000
1.0000
0.0000
0.0000
1.0000
1.0000
1.0000
1
7
0.3205
0.4336
0.6795
0.5664
0.4239
0.4689
0.4464
18
8
0.9487
0.9735
0.0513
0.0265
0.9070
0.9496
0.9283
2
9
0.5256
0.2743
0.4744
0.7257
0.5132
0.4079
0.4606
16
10
0.3205
0.3805
0.6795
0.6195
0.4239
0.4466
0.4353
19
11
0.3846
0.4690
0.6154
0.5310
0.4483
0.4850
0.4666
14
12
0.8205
0.4690
0.1795
0.5310
0.7358
0.4850
0.6104
6
13
0.4487
0.5929
0.5513
0.4071
0.4756
0.5512
0.5134
9
14
0.8846
0.8938
0.1154
0.1062
0.8125
0.8248
0.8187
3
15
0.0769
0.0973
0.9231
0.9027
0.3514
0.3565
0.3539
27
16
0.2436
0.3009
0.7564
0.6991
0.3980
0.4170
0.4075
24
17
0.0000
0.0000
1.0000
1.0000
0.3333
0.3333
0.3333
29
18
0.3590
0.3274
0.6410
0.6726
0.4382
0.4264
0.4323
20
19
0.3846
0.4336
0.6154
0.5664
0.4483
0.4689
0.4586
17
20
0.7564
0.7876
0.2436
0.2124
0.6724
0.7019
0.6871
4
21
0.6667
0.6991
0.3333
0.3009
0.6000
0.6243
0.6122
5
22
0.1154
0.1150
0.8846
0.8850
0.3611
0.3610
0.3611
26
23
0.3141
0.3540
0.6859
0.6460
0.4216
0.4363
0.4290
22
24
0.1923
0.1858
0.8077
0.8142
0.3824
0.3805
0.3814
25
25
0.5769
0.5398
0.4231
0.4602
0.5417
0.5207
0.5312
8
26
0.4423
0.4336
0.5577
0.5664
0.4727
0.4689
0.4708
12
27
0.4295
0.5221
0.5705
0.4779
0.4671
0.5113
0.4892
11
28
0.3590
0.5044
0.6410
0.4956
0.4382
0.5022
0.4702
13
29
0.2885
0.3009
0.7115
0.6991
0.4127
0.4170
0.4148
23
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Optimization of CO2 laser cutting parameters on Austenite stainless steel using grey relational
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Table 3 ANOVA Table for Grey relational grade
Source
Sum of Squares
df
Mean
Square
F Value
Prob > F
Model
0.0278
6
0.0046
0.1417
0.9889
A
0.0035
1
0.0035
0.1068
0.7469
B
0.0061
1
0.0061
0.1864
0.6702
C
0.0075
1
0.0075
0.2283
0.6375
AB
0.0003
1
0.0003
0.0077
0.9309
AC
0.0013
1
0.0013
0.0392
0.8448
BC
0.0026
1
0.0026
0.0788
0.7815
Residual
0.7193
22
0.0327
Lack of Fit
0.1481
12
0.0123
0.2161
0.9926
Pure Error
0.5712
10
0.0571
Cor Total
0.7471
28
The table 3. "Model F-value" of 0.14 implies the model is not significant relative to the
noise. There 98.89 % chance that a "Model F-value" this large could occur due to
noise.Values of "Prob > F" less than 0.0500 indicate model terms are significant.In this case
there are no significant model terms.Values greater than 0.1000 indicate the model terms are
not significant.
The optimal condition for CO2 laser cutting parameters are laser power 4200 watts,
Cutting speed 4400 mm/min and 0.8 Mpa. From the surface roughness graph of the GRG .it
can be seen that when laser power decrease from and there is a decrease in the top and
bottom kerf width.
CONCLUSION
In this work stainless steel sheet AISI 304 as specimen with CO2 laser cutting processes are
considered. The following conclusions were made based on the experimental and theoretical
work.
The experimental design developed using the box-behnken method. The Top kerf width
and bottom kerf width have been found to be mainly affected by gas pressure and cutting
speed. From the response plot it has been observed laser power, gas pressure has been less
effect of top kerf width and bottom kerf width as compared to cutting speed. For achieving
smaller value of top and bottom kerf width a moderate value of cutting speed is required. The
grey relay analysis method are found the best laser cutting parameters are the laser beam
power are 4200 watts, Cutting speed 4400 mm/min and gas pressure are 0.8 Mpa.
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