International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET)
Volume 10, Issue 01, January 2019, pp. 847–857, Article ID: IJMET_10_01_088
Available online at http://www.iaeme.com/ijmet/issues.asp?JType=IJMET&VType=10&IType=01
ISSN Print: 0976-6340 and ISSN Online: 0976-6359
© IAEME Publication
Scopus Indexed
V. Thanigaivelan*
Assistant Professor, Department of Mechanical Engineering, SRM IST, Chennai.
M. Loganathan
Associate Professor, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Annamalai University,
*corresponding author
With augmented vehicle quantities during latest period have effected into immense
claim through vestige energy. These have lead with expansion of vehicle via substitute
energy that comprises gaseous energy, bio energy and vegetables oils as stimulate. Power
through hydrogen becomes the prime prospects which wrap the upcoming stipulate of
remnant energy scarcity. Hydrogen as a key substitute energy becomes a substitution
through usual energy. With notable possessions, alike elevated flare rapidity, elevated
calorific value stimulates usage of hydrogen energy like twin fuel manner in diesel engine.
Present study investigates the overall performance and emissions of diesel engine fuelled
through CNSL and hydrogen as dual fuel. The fuels have been tested under stationary,
one cylinder, water chilled diesel engine. Here the hydrogen is added with B20 (20%
CNSL and 80% diesel) fuel for different flow rate namely 4lpm, 8lpm and 12lpm. Engine
test results showed that exhaust emissions are reduced and performance are improved by
adding hydrogen fuel. The results showed that the addition of 8lpm H2 with B20 decreased
the HC and CO emission compared to B20 and neat diesel fuel. The BTE and NOx
increased for the above dual fuel mode. The NOx and exhaust gas temperature are
increased for 8lpm H2 addition with B20 fuel.
Keywords: Cashew nut Shell liquid, Hydrogen, Engine performance, Emissions
Cite this Article: V. Thanigaivelan and M. Loganathan, Performance and Emission
Characteristics Of Dual Fuel Di Diesel Engine Using Cashew Nut Shell Bio Diesel And
Hydrogen As Fuel, International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology,
10(01), 2019, pp.847–857
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V. Thanigaivelan and M. Loganathan
In the present and high-speed humankind, petroleum supported energy turn out to be significant
with every progress. Yields resultant as of crude lubricate sustained as chief and serious basis of
force that useful in energizing means of transportation throughout. Still, petroleum assets are
inadequate as well as non-renewable. Throughout years, utilization of substitute energy in diesel
engines established awareness. The vagueness of petroleum supported energy accessibility has
shaped necessitate on substitute energy [1]. Through several years investigation exertions
obligate to be dedicated mostly happening with enhanced engine strategy since the standpoint of
dropping impurities discharge deprived of forfeiting recital and fuel budget. Presently, a
prominence on dropping impurity discharges as of petroleum supported engines ensures striving
progress plus analysis about numerous substitute fuels. The key impurities as of diesel devices
be NOX, particulate matter and smoke [2]. Numerous fuels ought to be deliberated as
replacements in place of hydrocarbon-based energy. Substitute energy facilitates interchange
petroleum supported energies comprise additives, LPG, CNG, H2, vegetable oils, bio gas,
producer gas and LNG. Among all, H2 becomes durable sustainable and fewer contaminating
energy. Moreover, H2 be innocuous, unscented plus consequences while thorough burning [3].
H2 possibly will castoff like an energy for IC engines both untainted otherwise intermingled
through additional hydrocarbon fuels. Owing to these features, investigators stand converging
their responsiveness on hydrogen to be a substitute energy in internal combustion engines (ICEs)
plus with expansion of energy chamber power-driven automobiles. Hydrogen can be cast-off for
instance an exclusive fuel in spark ignition (SI) engine, both through carburation and straight
inoculation [4]. Hydrogen driven ICE automobiles fabricated by existing expertise remain
expensive through unreal fuel or methanol automobiles with coal ingestion or fuel charge [5].
The notion of consuming hydrogen like substitute fuel intended with diesel devices is topical.
The personal detonation temperature of H2 is 858 K, thus hydrogen might not cast-off
unswervingly with CI device deprived of trigger socket else spark socket [6]. Hydrogen enhanced
devices yield roughly the identical brake control and greater thermal competence compared with
diesel engines above the complete scope of process [7, 8]. Through a reduced experimental
measure of diesel, hydrogen enhanced devices contribute advanced brake thermal competence
through flatter burning at par with diesel engine [9]. H2 incineration unveils advanced chilling
damages incineration space wall compared with hydrocarbon burning par with greater blazing
rapidity with squatter slaking distance [10]. Numerous investigators ought to been focused in the
direction of the advance of substitute fuels to attain this objective. Amidst the numerous possible
substitute fuels, H2 initiates as utmost auspicious for complete burning and enhanced incineration
possessions. Though the great nature ignition temperature of hydrogen bounds usage with CI
engines subsequently the cylinder temperature upsurge with compression alone actually
inadequate for incineration; therefore a blastoff cause is essential. Additionally also resolved as
ideal H2 enhancement through diesel remained 35% [11-14]. H2 is castoff by twin fuel method
through diesel then presented utmost brake thermal competence of 35% with compression
proportion of 24.5:1 [15, 16]. Recital of twin inoculation hydrogen powered engine through
solenoid in-cylinder inoculation with exterior fuel inoculation procedure too premeditated. An
upsurge in thermal competence via nearby 22% remained renowned on behalf of twin shot at
squat heaps and 5% by abundant heaps associated to thru inoculation [17]. Although
electrochemically retorting hydrogen in energy cells is deliberated as freshest and utmost
effective resources of consuming hydrogen, that assumed by numerous like expertise of the
upcoming prospect [18]. Primary hurdles that overwhelmed the effective consumption of
hydrogen as an energy in an ICE being pre eruption [19]. The ignition extent stood abridged
owing to greater blaze rapidity of hydrogen. Furthermore, a developed premixed combustion
level be there detected through hydrogen introduction [20].The hydrogen engine is a conceivable
resolution to refining the device recital at indolent and slender circumstances. Subsequently the
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Performance And Emission Characteristics Of Dual Fuel Di Diesel Engine Using Cashew Nut Shell Bio
Diesel And Hydrogen As Fuel
blaze rapidity of H2 is about 5 spells compared with gasoline, hydrogen devices might acquire
enormously endless capacity burning that not simply profits the engine thermal competence
however too decreases the engine recurring discrepancy. Moreover, well-ordered diesel also too
combusted to match with the H2/diesel assortment. Outcomes from trials obligate to be related
thru statistics from prior statistical investigation through diverse code [21]. In addition, the squat
detonation drive of hydrogen too licenses hydrogen-air blend to be effortlessly burned beneath
slender circumstances and assistances engines increase a flat initial procedure. In this effort H2
has been instated amid air with inlet manifold by several degree stream charge specifically 4lpm,
6lpm and 8lpm.
2.1. Production of hydrogen
Hydrogen (H2) is solitary primary conceivable substitute fuels ought to be resultant as of normal
resources [2]. H2 can be profitably manufactured as of electrolysis of water as well as through
coal gasification. Numerous additional approaches like thermo chemical disintegration of water
and solar photo electrolysis are existing, however at this time castoff at workroom level
reasonably than for marketable procedure. Though, by the progress of applied and extremely
effectual final converters of H2 like fuel cells, nearby as an intense rate decrease plus
enhancement about efficacy of H2 making, harmless and suitable on sustenance storing.
2.2. Incineration and Properties of Hydrogen
Hydrogen while scorching yields merely water. H2 being harmless, fragrance less plus too
consequences with thorough incineration. H2 with great nature detonation temperature (858ºK);
becomes hard while exploding hydrogen by merely compression. With this, hydrogen might not
castoff through diesel engine arrangement deprived of an explosion cause. In order to flinch
incineration roughly blastoff cause is mandatory through the compression knock. Earlier to TDC
minor blame of diesel energy being introduced over predictable inoculation arrangement actually
deeds like detonation basis. Incineration of hydrogen will vitally diverse as of the incineration of
hydrocarbon energy. Hydrogen obligates broader flammability bounds with 5–76% with capacity
in air associated by diesel energy which is 0.8–5% by capacity. The boundary of H2 flammability
diverges with a correspondence proportion amid 0.1 to 7.1. Hydrogen during Normal temperature
and pressure become slight Gas having thickness as merely 1/14th and 1/9th compared with air as
well natural gas respectively. Through tremendous chilling through 253 degrees atmospheric
pressure, then abridged to liquefy about 0.07 in specific gravity. Combination of hydrogen and
air or flammable above an remarkably extensive choice of configurations the flammability
bounds at regular temperatures encompass as of 5 to 75% via hydrogen capacity thru air. The
table.1 provides several possessions about hydrogen at 25ºC and 1 atm.
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V. Thanigaivelan and M. Loganathan
Table-1: Properties of Hydrogen
The representation along with pictorial view of the investigational arrangement is exposed in Fig.
1 and fig.2 correspondingly.
Figure.1. Representation of investigational arrangement
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Performance And Emission Characteristics Of Dual Fuel Di Diesel Engine Using Cashew Nut Shell Bio
Diesel And Hydrogen As Fuel
Figure 2. Pictorial outlook of investigational arrangement
Trials remained accompanied along with sole cylinder, 4 stroke, water-cooled, diesel engine
(Make: Kirloskar AV-1). The engine remained united with eddy current dynamometer. The
engine stood functioned with continual rapidity about 1500 rpm. The engine stipulation be
specified in Table 2.
Table -2 Specification of the engine
A crank viewpoint encoder stood tailored to crank shaft to record crank angle. The chamber
pressure stayed restrained by a piezoelectric pressure transducer (Make: Kistler, Type 6056A)
riding on the cylinder head. The pressure gesture was directed to statistics attainment arrangement
and incineration data like cylinder pressure and heat release rate (HRR) were attained. The oxides
of nitrogen (NOx), carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrocarbon (HC) releases were restrained
through non-dispersive infrared analyzers (NDIR) (Make: HORIBA-Japan). The gas analyzers
stayed attuned by typical gases formerly to assessment. Primarily, the engine was functioned thru
well-ordered diesel energy. Additionally, the engine remained verified by twin fuel, accumulation
of hydrogen through inlet air in count to pilot B20 energy inoculation. The hydrogen gas as
instated in the inlet manifold in diverse course rate viz. 4lpm, 8lpm and 12 lpm correspondingly.
The hydrogen stream line entails of hydrogen cylinder, pressure controller, flame arrester, flow
meter and flow regulator valve which are exposed in figure.3.
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V. Thanigaivelan and M. Loganathan
Figure. 3. Hydrogen flow line
The hydrogen is kept in a high-pressure storing tank at 250 bar and this pressure was abridged
to a pressure 2 bar via a pressure controller. Hydrogen further conceded over a flame arrestor and
flame set-up which capture any backfire as of the engine. It as well performances equally a nonreturnable controller. The hydrogen stream amount is restrained by the digital gas flow meter.
The recital and discharge features were assessed for diverse hydrogen stream proportion and
associated through well-ordered diesel fuel process.
4.1 Performance analysis
4.1.1. Brake Thermal Efficiency
Fig. 4 shows the brake thermal efficiency discrepancy through diverse stream charges of
hydrogen. The 8 lpm hydrogen accumulation occasioned the maximum brake thermal
competence of 37.5% associated to diesel and B20 at full capacity. The upsurge in brake thermal
efficiency is owing to hydrogen’s advanced calorific rate and enhanced intercourse thru air in
accumulation to its quicker flame rapidity features [22]. It stood experiential that the hydrogen
accumulation thru inlet air exhibited the upgraded recital by related to usual neat diesel procedure.
Figure.4. comparison of BTE
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Performance And Emission Characteristics Of Dual Fuel Di Diesel Engine Using Cashew Nut Shell Bio
Diesel And Hydrogen As Fuel
4.1.2. Brake Specific Fuel Consumption
Fig. 5 shows the disparity of brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) by brake influence for
diverse stream charges of hydrogen. The BSFC diminutions through an upsurge in hydrogen
accumulation degree. The lowermost BSFC is attained for 8lpm hydrogen accumulation at full
capacity related to diesel. This is owing to the premixing of hydrogen fuel through air owed to
its great diffusivity and unvarying intercourse thru air subsequent in enhanced incineration. The
proportion of decrease of BSFC remained experimental 12% at full capacity among diesel and
8lpm hydrogen stream frequency.
Figure.5. comparison of BSFC
4.2. Emission analysis
4.2.1. Nitrogen Oxides (NOx)
Fig. 6 shows the disparity of nitrogen oxides through brake power. NOX procedures at topmost
incineration temperature and higher oxygen absorptions [23, 24]. NOX establishment is advanced
per 8 lpm associated to straight diesel, B20 and further stream degree of hydrogen. As the
hydrogen proportion upsurges, the flame speed and henceforth incineration competence
augmented [25]. The proportion of upsurge of NOX is 34% at complete capacity once associated
straight diesel.
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V. Thanigaivelan and M. Loganathan
Figure.6. Comparison of NOx
4.2.2. Hydrocarbon (HC)
Figure.7. Comparison of HC
The disparity of HC discharges for diverse standards of hydrogen enhancement is exposed in
fig 7. The Unburned hydrocarbon diminutions expressively since hydrogen fuel does not
comprise carbon. It is perceived that the HC release values of 4lpm, 8lpm and 12lpm hydrogen
stream frequency through diesel fuel process are 210 ppm, 199 ppm and 203 ppm
correspondingly at full capacity. The lowermost HC release remained attained 199 ppm thru 8
lpm hydrogen stream percentage related to 215 ppm for diesel. The decrease in HC is owing to
the advanced scorching rapidity of hydrogen, which augments the diesel burning. The lack of
carbon in hydrogen fuel moreover decreases the HC releases to a better scope [25, 26].
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Performance And Emission Characteristics Of Dual Fuel Di Diesel Engine Using Cashew Nut Shell Bio
Diesel And Hydrogen As Fuel
4.2.3 Carbon monoxide
The disparity of CO discharge with engine brake power and diverse percentage of hydrogen
enhancement is shown fig 8.The lowest CO discharge was attained as 0.05% with 8 lpm while
associated to 0.11% for diesel. Thru 8 lpm the CO discharge is inferior to extra hydrogen stream
charges and straight diesel process. The decrease CO in 8 lpm hydrogen-operated dual fuel engine
is owing to the lack of carbon in hydrogen fuel. At no load as the engine is functioned at slender
correspondence proportion, a decrease in CO is perceived for hydrogen twin fuel process.
However the oxygen deliberation decreases suggestively and in accumulation owing to slighter
response interval it outcomes in a noteworthy upsurge in CO foundation degree, which sorts the
whole CO deliberation to upsurge at full capacity associated to diesel.
Figure.8. Comparison of CO
4.2.4 Exhaust gas temperature
Figure.9. comparison of EGT
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The exhaust gas temperature disparity for diverse magnitudes of hydrogen enhancement is
exposed in Fig 9. It is experiential that the exhaust gas temperate charge of 4 lpm, 8lpm and
12lpm hydrogen and diesel energy procedure augmented typically associated to diesel at, full
capacity correspondingly. The uppermost drain temperature was attained 378 °C thru 8 lpm
hydrogen accumulation related to 346 °C for diesel. This is owing to improved intercourse of
hydrogen through air ensuing in thorough incineration of fuel by upsurge in temperature nearby
the combustion compartment. [28].
Based on the experimentations accompanied on a hydrogen augmented bio diesel (dual fuel)
engine scheme, the subsequent inferences are drawn:
The Brake thermal efficiency of the hydrogen and biodiesel fuel procedure stood rather
greater compared to the diesel fuel procedure. In 8 lpm hydrogen stream proportion, the brake
thermal competence is augmented.
Brake Specific fuel consumption diminutions through upsurge in hydrogen proportion above
the complete sort of maneuver.
NOx release augmented over 8lpm of hydrogen stream point, associated to B20 and diesel
The carbon monoxide discharge augmented in full capacity state. The deepest CO release
stayed attained through 8lpm hydrogen accumulation, related to diesel and B20 fuels.
The HC discharge for 8lpm flow rate of hydrogen decreased associated near diesel at full
capacity. The exhaust gas temperature augmented in lieu of 8lpm adding hydrogen stream charges
commonly associated to diesel at complete capacity.
For the most part the aforementioned stood resolved that hydrogen enhanced biodiesel
engines accomplish thriving and release fewer effluence associated to well-ordered diesel fuel.
Henceforth, hydrogen enhancement in a CI engine can be observed equally an eco-friendly
substitute fuel to diesel.
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