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Modern public health assignment

: LAMU MPH 611
: Ms F. Mwenda
Student name
: Adrian B. Maingaila
Due date
: 26/03/2019
Computer number
: 1802009155
Assignment Question
1. Give an outline, with specific examples on how the concept of health has evolved
overtime (take into account public health, international health and global health)
2. “Health is a state of physical and social well-being and not merely the absence of
disease or infirmity”. How do the following dimensions fit into this definition
a) State of physical well-being
b) State of Mental well-being
Public health has early roots in antiquity. From the beginnings of human civilization, it was
recognized that polluted water and lack of proper waste disposal spread communicable diseases
(theory of miasma). Early religions attempted to regulate behaviour that specifically related to
health, from types of food eaten, to regulating certain indulgent behaviours, such as drinking
alcohol or sexual relations. Leaders were responsible for the health of their subjects to ensure
social stability, prosperity, and maintain order.
With the onset of the Industrial Revolution, living standards amongst the working population
began to worsen, with cramped and unsanitary urban conditions. In the first four decades of
the 19th century alone, London's population doubled and even greater growth rates were
recorded in the new industrial towns, such as Leeds and Manchester. This rapid urbanisation
exacerbated the spread of disease in the large conurbations that built up around the workhouses
and factories. These settlements were cramped and primitive with no organized sanitation.
Disease was inevitable and its incubation in these areas was encouraged by the poor lifestyle
of the inhabitants. Unavailable housing led to the rapid growth of slums and the per capita
death rate began to rise alarmingly, almost doubling in Birmingham and Liverpool. Thomas
Malthus warned of the dangers of overpopulation in 1798. His ideas, as well as those of Jeremy
Bentham, became very influential in government circles in the early years of the 19th century
Example, Immunization was just the beginning of the progress in store for public health in the
1900s. Another area of significant improvement was workplace safety. Nearly 200 steel
workers died in work-related fatalities in Allegheny County, Pennsylvania from July 1906 to
June 1907. In 1997, that number totalled just 17 nationwide. Improvements in workplace safety
are credited to labour and management efforts and to considerable education and regulation by
government agencies, like the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), which
was established in 1970, and the Mining Enforcement and Safety Administration, established
in 1973 and now called the Mine Safety and Health Administration.
International health evolved after introductions of public health with view to extend services
to neighbouring countries, is define as a field of health care, usually with a public health
emphasis, dealing with health across regional or national boundaries. One subset of
international medicine, travel medicine, prepares travellers with immunizations, prophylactic
medications, preventive techniques such as bed nets and residual pesticides, in-transit care, and
post-travel care for exotic illnesses. International health, however, more often refers to health
personnel or organizations from one area or nation providing direct health care, or health sector
development, in another area or nation. It is this sense of the term that is explained here. More
recently, public health experts have become interested in global processes that impact on
human health.
Global health is the health of populations in the global context, it has been defined as the area
of study, research and practice that places a priority on improving health and achieving equity
in health for all people worldwide, Problems that transcend national borders or have a global
political and economic impact are often emphasized. Thus, global health is about worldwide
health improvement (including mental health), reduction of disparities, and protection against
global threats that disregard national borders. Global health is not to be confused with
international health, which is defined as the branch of public health focusing on developing
nations and foreign aid efforts by industrialized countries. This field of global health came to
light after been encountered with many global health problems that has no boundaries, for
example HIV/AIDS. It aims is on the health the whole global in terms of prevention and
promotion of health for all.
A state of physical wellbeing relates to the functioning of the body and its systems; it includes
the physical capacity to perform daily activities or tasks. Physical wellbeing is supported by
factors such as regular physical activity, consuming a balanced diet, having appropriate rest or
sleep, maintaining an ideal body weight, and the absence of illness, disease or injury. Simply
‘not being sick’ is perhaps the most basic level of physical health and wellbeing, but there are
many other aspects of the physical dimension. A person may be free from disease and injury,
but may not have enough energy to complete the tasks they need to. They may be unfit or
overweight, all of which relate to physical health and wellbeing. It is only when the whole body
and its systems are functioning to the best of their ability that a person can be considered as
having optimal physical health and wellbeing. Therefore, the state of wellbeing fit into the
definition health in that for a person to be considered physically health needs to achieve the
physical element of health explained above.
Components of physical health can be addressed through lifestyle choices;
Physical Activity: Most health children and adults should be active on a daily basis. This should
be a mix of both leisure physical activity and structured exercise. Examples of leisurely
physical activity include hiking, biking, and walking. Examples of more structured forms
include strength training, running, and sports
Nutrition and Diet: A balanced diet should include carbohydrates, proteins, fats, vitamins, and
minerals. Any restriction of intake of the above should be done only with the advice of licenced
health professional. Fluids, in the form of clean water should be consumed regularly, to provide
hydration. Portions of consumed foods should be in adequate proportions that fully support
physical health.
Alcohol and Drugs: substances that are mood altering or are affect certain bodily processes
must be limited or avoided. Individuals with high risk of dependency should consider
abstinence or limitation.
Medical self-care: basics such as bandages, lozenges, over the counter pain killers should be
accessible from home. Long standing symptoms of fever, cough, and other ailments must be
addressed through primary care.
Rest and Sleep: while it is encouraged to exercise regularly, it is also important take a rest and
sleep. Sleeping or napping allows the body to rejuvenate. It must be emphasized that sleeping
should take place in a quiet and dark place.
A state of mental wellbeing is the current state of the mind or brain and it relates to the ability
to think and process information. A mentally healthy brain enables an individual to positively
form opinions, make decisions and use logic. A state of mental wellbeing is about the wellness
of the mind rather than illness. A state of mental wellbeing is associated with low levels of
stress and anxiety, positive self-esteem, as well as a sense of confidence and optimism. The
human mind is a complex thing, and it is what sets us apart from other animals. The way the
mind functions determines A state of mental wellbeing. When stress levels are low and a person
feels relaxed and positive about themselves and life.
A state of mental wellbeing can be said to be optimal. Conversely, if a person is stressed and
experiencing negative thought patterns about themselves, others, or the world in general, A
state of mental wellbeing may not be optimal, but the absence of these mental issues make an
individual to be in a state of mental wellbeing which contribute them to be health in terms of
mental health hence it fits into the definition of health as they are able to fulfil the element of
a state of mental wellbeing.
Components of a well function mental state must encompass the following attributes;
Feel relatively confident about yourself and have a positive self-esteem.
Feel and express a range of emotions.
Build and maintain good relationships with other people
Feel engaged with the world around you
Live and work productively
Being able to cope with the stresses of life
Adapt and manage in times of change and uncertainty.
A strategy for health care reform: toward a value-based system. Porter ME. N Engl J
Med. 2009;9:109–112. [PubMed]
Maruthappu M, Barnett-Vanes A, Shalhoub J, Finlayson A. Lancet. Vol. 383. Feb: 2014.
Redefining global health-care delivery; p. 694. [PubMed]
Obama's precision medicine initiative. Terry SF. Genet Test Mol Biomarkers.
2015;19:113–114. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
Porter ME. Ann Surg. Vol. 248. Oct: 2008. Value-based health care delivery; pp. 503–
509. [PubMed]
Setting value-based payment goals: HHS efforts to improve U.S. health care. Burwell SM.
N Engl J Med. 2015;372:897–899. [PubMed]
The strategy that will fix health care. Porter ME, Lee TH. https://hbr.org/2013/10/thestrategy-that-will-fix-health-care HBR. 2013;91:50–70.
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