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Module B – Speeches

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Module B – Speeches
Anwar Sadat – Speech to the Israeli Knesset
Context
 Delivered on the 20th of November 1977 at the Israeli Knesset by the President of Egypt, Anwar Sadat
 He went regardless of other’s not supporting him (an unprecedented statement by an enemy statesmen)
 At the time, 4 wars had already been fought over a 30 year period
 Sadat was the first Arab leader to formally recognise Israel as a country
 Translated from Hebrew
Purpose
 Humanity and Justice
 To convince people that peace was achievable
 To strive for “permanent peace based on justice”
 To seek for commonality as a way for peaceful resolution
 Religious inclusion
Audience and Response
 Addressed to the members of the Israeli Knesset (Legislative body of Israel)
 At the time of the speech, the audience was hostile to Sadat as war had waged on their nations years beforehand
 The speech eventually helped to lead to a peace agreement between the nations – The Camp David Accords to the Egypt-Israel
Peace Treaty
Central Ideas and Values
 Submission to God
 Permanent peace based of Justice
 Unification
Example(s)
“Permanent peace based on justice”
Technique(s)
Peace motif
Repetition
“Peace for us all on the Arab land…”
“We all..”
“The first fact…”
“The second fact…”
“The third fact…”
“Let us be frank with each other”
Inclusive language
“…we all - Muslims, Christians, Jews – worship
God”
Enumeration
Blunt and open tone
Anaphora
Inclusive language
“A barrier of suspicion. A barrier of rejection. A
barrier of fear of deception…”
Metaphor
Anaphora
“Any life lost in war is a human life”
Pathos
“When the bells of peace ring, there will be no
hands to beat the drums of war”
Metaphor
Auditory Imagery
Effect
Emphasises that there cannot be any lasting peace unless
they work together to give justice to both parties, arching
motif that represents the long term goals of the speech
Shows that there should be no separation between the two
countries.
Evokes a sense of trust
Establishes the speakers ethos as he shows that he is
giving facts and not just opinions
Evokes a sense of trust, speaking directly to the audience
Shows that peace is important in religion
Emphasises that there should be no barrier as all three
religions all follow one God
Shows how the physiological barriers prevent peace and
justice
Appeals to the pathos of the audience
Appeals to the emotion of the audience, urging them to
take action
Shows that war can end if peace arises
Utilises different sound to emphasise his point (bells=light,
drums=heavy)
Paul Keating – Redfern Speech
Context
 Delivered on the 10th of December 1992 at Redfern Park on by the Prime Minister of Australia, Paul Keating
 Keating was the first Prime Minister to acknowledge that European settlers were the reason for the troubles of the Indigenous
Australians
 Intended to launch Australia’s celebration of the 1993 “International Year of the World’s Indigenous people”
 Written by Don Watson
Purpose
 To launch Australia’s celebration of the 1993 “International Year of the World’s Indigenous people”
 For an urge for change
 To urge non-indigenous Australians to take responsibility for the past
 Unity of all Australians (reconciliation)
 Empower and encourage Indigenous Australian
Audience and Response
 The crowd was mostly made up of Indigenous Australians
 Very mixed responses
 1993 Native Title Act passed
Central Ideas and Values
 Reconciliation
 That the 1993 “International Year of the World’s Indigenous people” will be a starting point and a year of great significance for
the treatment of Indigenous Australians
 National identity and humanity
 Aboriginal rights
Example(s)
“I think”
“To me”
Technique(s)
Ethos
“We simply cannot sweep injustice aside”
“… Extending opportunity and care … to the
Indigenous people of Australia”
“So far we have failed”
“We brought the diseases. The alcohol. We
committed the murders. We took the children…”
Inclusive language
Extended metaphor
“If we open one door, others will follow”
Metaphor
“We failed to ask – How would I feel if this were
done to me?”
“They have shaped our identity … they have helped
build this nation”
“Building blocks of change”
Rhetorical Question
“Shut up”
Audience response
“Guilt is not a constructive emotion”
Opinionated
language
Anaphora
High modality
Emotive language
Irony
Metaphor
Effect
Added to the ethos of the speaker
Made him vulnerable to criticism
Showed his sincerity
Associates non-Indigenous Australians to past mistakes
Extended metaphor of a pass or fail test
Challenges audience  human nature to want to succeed
Stimulates a visual image of the brutality
Inflicts guilt
Adds to pathos
Suggests that national identity is burdened by the past
Relates to the ripple effect
Suggests possibility and opportunities
Causes a want for justice
Adds to pathos
Builds a sense of empathy and imagination
Ironic as non-Indigenous Australians broke their identity.
Gives power to the Indigenous Australians
Shows how there is a process
Shows how little actions can make a big difference
Adds to context
Shows the hostile set of mind towards the topic at the time
Should never be guilt-tripped into action (Pearson), it
should be from the heart (open heart, open mind - Sadat)
Margaret Atwood – Spotty-Handed Villainesses
Context
 Delivered, in various versions, in 1994 by Margaret Atwood
 Some regard Atwood as a key feminist author (during third-wave feminism)
 She rejects the idea that she is a “feminist author”
 Poet, raised issues on the role of women through the perspective of the portrayal of women in literature
Purpose
 To consider the impact of the feminist movement on the writing of novels, especially on female villains
 To persuade and entertain
 Establish the idea that it was acceptable to portray some women as evil in literature
Audience and Response
 Mostly literate individuals
 Possibly a high percentage were females who had an interest in the impact of the women’s movement on literature
 The speech has lost very little, if any, of its relevance and wit
Central Ideas and Values
 Women and feminism in literature
 That women are capable of evil
 Evil characters make up the essence of literature
 Literature should reflect the diversity of life and its moral complexity
 Role of women in society & literature’s reflection on reality
Example(s)
“… When she was good, she was very, very good,
And when she was bad, she was horrid!”
Technique(s)
Intertextual
references
“No doubt this is a remnant of the angel/whore
split…”
Dichotomy
Effect
Emphasises the stereotypical mindset regarding females,
other references allude to the differing examples of female
characters and its relation to reality
Represents that at the time, women were only given two
extreme options, to be angel like or to be devil like
“Breakfast”, eternal breakfast
Extended metaphor
Anecdote
“if you write a novel, everyone assumes it’s about
real people … but if you write an autobiography,
everyone assumes you’re lying…”
“God started with chaos - dark, without form and
void - and so does the novelist.”
Irony
“But critics start on Day seven”
Religious allusion
Comparison
Simile
“But female bad characters can also act as keys to
doors we need to open…”
“…Flogging a few dead horses…”
“women who wore high heels… those in overalls
were acceptable”
Religious allusions
Colloquialism
Hyperbole
Paradox
Highlights that there is a world of possibilities other than
just stereo types
Emphasises that you have to have more than breakfast
Establishes herself as a trustworthy speaker
Emphasises the distrust that are put on authors at times,
To draw comparison between the messages conveyed in
the speech, and a well-known figure that is highly
considered by many individuals.
Shows how writing is a process that is not fully planned
out as it happens
Novelists are essentially people who make stories out of
nothing
Highlights the differences between critics and novelists.
Draws out the need to venture out more in writing and
how stereotypes should not be the only writing style
Allows the audience to connect more and understand the
speech
The issue has been argued so much that it is becoming
‘overkill’ or overdone
Women were instantly judged by their one dimensional
appearances, with the influence of the feminist movement
– a divide persists
Noel Pearson – An Australian History For Us All
Context
 Delivered on the 20th of November 1996 at UWS by Noel Pearson
 Pearson is a high-profile, Indigenous Australian lawyer and activist in Australian politics
 1990’s were a time of heated debates concerning land right issues (Mabo, Wik and Native Title)
Purpose
 Addresses controversial contextual issues
 Rational argument against those who resent the idea of contemporary Australians taking responsibility for the actions of our
ancestors
 To show the true history of the matter
 To show the perspectives of the Indigenous Australians
Audience and Response
 The audience would have been made up of middle-class, well-educated and informed individuals, who did not consider
themselves as conservative in their attitudes
Central Ideas and Values
 The truth regarding Indigenous Australians treatment and history should be told, regardless of any guilt that may be felt
 That there was a danger that John Howard may undo the Mabo decision
 Ideas and truth is more important than politics
Example(s)
“Our nation”
“We”
Technique(s)
Inclusive language
“Should get over it, it’s all in the past, we had
nothing to do with it, we are not guilty, help
yourselves.”
“Not necessary for the truth to be distorted”
Colloquial language
“Black armband view of history”
“You have taken from us not just our land and not
just all of the icons of Indigenous Australia, but
some of our ways of approaching things have
become an inescapable part of Australia’s national
mythology.”
“Guilt is not a very constructive emotion. I think
what we need to do is open our hearts a bit”
“How do we explain the past to our children?”
“Revise we historians must… the conquistador
brings the Cross and the Sword, the red man
shrinks back…” – Robert Hughes
Colloquial terms
Accumulation
Irony
Intertextual
reference
Rhetorical Question
Intertextual
referencing
Effect
Shows how all Australians have to work together in order
to achieve justice and reconciliation.
used to highlight the action needed to resolve the social,
political, legal and religious conflict caused from the
Australian Government in the past.
Describing ‘most ordinary Australians’ view and attitudes
to history.
Highlights how there needs to be a change in this attitude
Shows how non-Indigenous Australians warp the truth in
order to feel less guilty
Highlights the need for change
Allows Pearson to connect with his audience
Highlights the injustices of the past
Allows Pearson to emphasise the Indigenous point of view
Shows how small actions can make a big difference
Draws the audiences attention to the speech
Historian for American colonization, drawing parallels
with Aus’ history with Indigenous people
Sir William Deane – It is Still Winter at Home
Context
 Delivered on the 5th of August 1999 in an ecumenical service for the victims of the canyoning tragedy by the Governor General of
the Commonwealth of Australia, Sir William Deane
 Regarding the deaths of the 21 young people, including 14 Australians, in the canyoning accident on the 27th of July 1999, near
Interlaken in Switzerland
Purpose
 To make a very public speech on the occasion of the deaths of the 14 young Australians
 To commemorate the deaths in a way that was moving but not excessive
Audience and Response
 The audience was made up of the family and friends of the victims and the Swiss representatives
 Due to media attention, also the wider world
Central Ideas and Values
 That the deaths of the young people is always a tragic event
 That the canyoning accident was a matter of national significance
 That the accident has brought Australia and Switzerland closer together, and all other nations involved
Example(s)
Length of Speech
Technique(s)
Structure
Australian Wattle
Symbolism/
Extended metaphor
Effect
Emphasis of the tragic nature of the speech.
Ensures that it is appropriate for the event.
His point gets across in an emotional manner.
The wattle symbolises Australia, by bringing it to
Switzerland, it unifies the two countries by bringing them
together.
It is a physical manifestation of the bond.
Shows how negative situations can bring about positive
consequences.
“We pray with them for their loved ones who have
died”
“We are gathered in great sadness”
Inclusive language
“And we also pray that in the words of our Lord
(Matthew 5 : 4), they will truly be comforted”
“May they all rest with God”
“We felt like it was bringing a little of Australia to
them”
“The young people – certainly the young
Australians – who have been killed … the delight of
youth.”
“It is still winter at home. But the golden wattles
are coming into bloom. Just as these young men
and women were in the flower of their youth.”
Biblical
Allusion/References
“Yes my wife and I … people who came from our
homeland…”
“As John Donne wrote, ‘No man is an island’.
Anyone’s ‘death diminishes’ us all because we are
all ‘involved in mankind’”
Informal language
Repetition
Accumulation
Symbolism
Emotive Language
Metaphor
Truncated sentences
Personal pronouns
Intertextual
references
Unification
Engaging
Shows that everyone it together to support the families
suffering from loss.
Adds a personal level to the loss.
Helps to establish the bond between two countries, as they
are both predominantly Christian countries.
Appropriate for the event (ecumenical)
Creates a sense of community between the two countries
as it shows closeness and comfort.
The use of hyphens
Emphasises the tragic event of the loss of young lives
Symbolises the loss of life and the future
Reflects the structure of the speech  short and to the
point but has emotional aspects throughout.
Emphasises the tragedy, as the youth who had died were
yet to ‘bloom’ in their lives.
Adds a personal level to the loss.
Adds to unification.
Shows that he mourns for the loss of the youth as well
Involves everyone, regardless of nationality
Shows that it is not just him that believes in what he is
saying
Unification of mankind
Doris Lessing – On Not Winning the Nobel Prize
Context
 Was delivered on the 7th of December 2007 at the Nobel Lecture upon Lessing’s awarding for her 2007 Nobel prize in literature
 Her publisher read the speech in her place as she could not travel to Sweden
 At 88, she was the oldest person to ever win a Nobel Prize
Purpose
 To make the audience realise that there is still inequality in the world
 To make the audience appreciate the desire for books and education in Africa
 To conjure the beauty and fierceness in Zimbabwe in language
 To explain that there is a story teller in all of us
Audience and Response
 The media and the world (she was interviewed in front of her house in London)
 Speech was then published and the proceeds went to HIV/AIDS sufferers
Central Ideas and Values
 There is still much inequality in the world
 Everyone should have access to education and books
 There is a craving for education in the world
 There is a storyteller in all of us
Example(s)
“I am standing in a doorway looking through
clouds of blowing dust”
“Everyone begs for books”
“The library is only half-read”
Technique(s)
Anecdote
Mise-en-scene
Visual Image
Juxtaposition
Effect
Places the visual image of a rural village in the minds of
the audience
Allows her to effectively share her concerns
Confronts the audience
Inflicts either guilt or gratification as it shows how
education is taken for granted in first-world countries
Appeals to audience as education is one of the world’s top
“Not think many of the pupils … will get prizes”
“Some will one day win prizes”
Comparison
“Scratching the letters in the dirt with a stick”
Motif (of Dust)
“Do we think that we are better – we, stuffed full of
food, our cupboards full of clothes”
Rhetorical Question
“Writers, do not come out of houses without books.
There is a gap. There is difficulty…”
Truncated sentences
“Bigger than the supermarket, a big building and it ‘b’ alliteration
is full of books”  referring to a young woman who
had been able to imagine this as she had read a
small paragraph from ‘Anna Karenina’
“Throats are full of dust…”
Pathos
Anna Karenina anecdote
Anecdote &
Intertextual
referencing
values
Contrasts different levels of opportunity
Inflicts a sense of pity
Highlights inequality
Represents the thirst for knowledge in rural areas
Inflicts a sense of remorse
Adds to pathos due to the realisation that others do not
have equal opportunities
Confronts audience
Challenges them to take action and to not take things for
granted
Emphasises her message
Encourages audience to imagine the difficulty in emerging
as a writer without the proper resources to do so
Evokes a sense of urgency
Demonstrates the transformative power of literature as
she was able to imagine this despite her hardship
Creates a plosive sound of energy
Emotionally symbolises the parched, stifled voices that
helplessly await the nourishment of education
Creates an emotional response
Richness of her stories, illustrates the greatest hardships a
mother faces in the pursuit of water, yet finds time to read
and improve herself – priority of education and pride in
learning
Geraldine Brooks – A Home in Fiction
Context
 Delivered on the 11th of December 2011 as one of the Boyer Lectures by Geraldine Brooks
 She had four lectures on “The Idea of Home”, this was her fourth lecture
Purpose
 To show that mathematicians and authors have a role to play in national dialogue and society
 Show that mathematics is poetry
 Reflects on the lessons she learnt in journalism and fiction
 Explain the action of writing and to explain her technique of finding a story to write
Audience and Response
 Listeners of the ABC national radio
 Lovers of fiction
 Intellectuals
Central Ideas and Values
 Fiction has its basis in fact
 Fiction is powerful and valuable
 That both mathematicians and fiction authors are on the same quest for truth
 Concepts of home
 The creative writing process
 The significance to her ability to hear the voices of the characters from the past
Example(s)
“This is like poetry”
Technique(s)
Simile
“It’s a beautiful world, but I cannot live there”
Metaphor
Effect
Shows how there are similarities between mathematics
and poetry
Implies that both mathematics and fiction are their own
worlds
Shows how despite the need to branch out, your roots are
“Build a wood shed”
“Materials”
“Useful and durable tools”
“I learned a respect for factual details which is
essential to fiction”
Motif
Extended metaphor
“There can be no day without lifting stones”
Extended metaphor
“The youth gets together his materials to build a
bridge to the moon … a middle-ages man
concludes to build a wooden shed with them”
Extended metaphor
Literary Allusion
“Every generation has its once upon a time”
Cliché
Repetition
Paradox
still important
Shows how fiction gave her a chance to make a change
She was able to build a life around writing
Shows how what she learnt from journalism has helped
her become a novelist
Progression of gaining knowledge
Shows how spate world must become one to become
effective
Stones represent hard work
Adds to the building metaphor
Shows how nothing can be built with out hard work
Henry David Thoreau
Shows how things may not always go as you originally
plan, for Brooks, she aimed for the shed but got the bridge
to the moon.
Shows how everyone has their own path to take
Shows that stories are continuous
Gives voices to the people of the past
Linking Ideas Between the Speeches
Unification
 Anwar Sadat – Speech to the Israeli Knesset
 Paul Keating – Redfern Speech
 Margaret Atwood – Spotty-handed Villainesses
 Noel Pearson – An Australian History for us all
 Sir William Deane – It is Still Winter at Home
 Doris Lessing – On Not Winning the Nobel Prize
 Geraldine Brooks – A Home in Fiction (unification of different worlds, e.g. Fiction, journalism and math)
Fiction
 Margaret Atwood – Spotty-handed Villainesses
 Geraldine Brooks – A Home in Fiction
 Doris Lessing – On Not Winning the Nobel Prize
Youth/Future
 Anwar Sadat – Speech to the Israeli Knesset
 Paul Keating – Redfern Speech
 Noel Pearson – An Australian History for us all
 Sir William Deane – It is Still Winter at Home
Indigenous Rights
 Paul Keating – Redfern Speech
 Noel Pearson – An Australian History for us all
Justice
 Anwar Sadat – Speech to the Israeli Knesset
 Paul Keating – Redfern Speech
 Margaret Atwood – Spotty-handed Villainesses
 Noel Pearson – An Australian History for us all
 Doris Lessing – On Not Winning the Nobel Prize