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BRIEF LITERATURE REVIEW ON EMBLICA OFFICINALIS:Serial No
Content
Page No
1
ABSTRACT
2-3
2
INTRODUCTION
4
3
VERNACULAR NAME
4
4
CLASSIFICATION
5
5
SYNONYMS
5
6
MACROSCOPY
5
CHARACTER
7
CHEMICAL
5-6
CONSTITUENTS
8
BOTONICAL
6-7
DISCRIPTION
9
TRADITIONAL USE
7-8
10
PHARMACOLOGICAL
8-12
ACTIVITY
11
SEFTY
11
12
CONCLUTION
12
13-16
13
REFERENCE
1
 ABSTRACT
Medicinal plants are natural gift to human lives to promote disease free healthy life.
Phyllanthus emblica, commonly known as amla is widely distributed in tropical and
subtropical areas and has therapeutic potential against deleterious diseases. Earlier it becomes
a notable fruit for its rich amount of vitamin C, polyphenols such as tannins, gallic acid,
ellagic acid, flavonoids like quercetin and rutin.
 INTRODUCTION
Emblica officinalis enjoys a hallowed position in ayurveda an Indian indigenous system of
medicine .according to believe in ancient Indian mythology, it is the first tree to be created in
the universe. It belong to family euphorbiaceae. It is also named as amla, phyllanthus emblica
or Indian gooseberry.
The species is native to Indian and also grows in tropical and subtropical regions including
Pakistan, Uzbekista, srilanka , south east india , china and Malaysia .
The fruits of EO are widely used in the Aryuveda and are believed to increase defense against
diseases. It has its beneficial role in cancer, diabetis, liver treatment, heart trouble, ulcer,
anemia and various other diseases. Similarly, it has application as antioxidant,
immunomodulatory, antipyretic, analgesic, cytoprotective, antitussive and gastroprotective.
Additionally, it is useful in memory enhancing, ophthalmic disorders and lowering
cholesterol level. It is also helpful in neutralizing snake venom and as an antimicrobial. It is
often used in the form of Triphla which is an herbal formulation containing fruits of EO,
Terminalia chebula and Terminalia belerica in equal proportions.
Phyllanthus emblica (Family: Euphorbiaceae, Syn: Emblica officinalis), commonly known as
amla, is one of the foremost plants utilized from antiquity till to date. Amla is regarded as
“one of the best rejuvenating herbs” in the Ayurveda, an Indian traditional medicinal system.
It is distributed in tropical and subtropical areas of china, India, Indonesia and the Malay
Peninsula. It is highly regarded due to its magnificient vitamin C content[17]. Traditionally,
the fruit is useful as an astringent, cardiac tonic, diuretic,laxative emblicol[, liver tonic,
diuretic, refrigerant, stomachic, restorative, antipyretic, anti‐inflammatory, hair tonic and
digestive medicine]. The fruits of amla contain a wide variety of phenolic compounds, such
as tannins, phyllembelic acid, phyllemblin, rutin, curcuminoides and emblicol.
2
 VERNACULAR NAMES:
English
: Emblic myrobalan, Indian Goose berry
Sanskrit
: Aamalaki
Hindi
: Amla
Kannada
: Nelli Kayi
Marathi
: Amla
Gujarati
: Ambla
Malayalam : Nelli Kayi
Tamil
: Nelli
Telugu
: Usirikaya
Kashmir
: Aonla
 CLASSIFICATION:
Kingdom
: Plantae
Division
: Angiospermae
Class
: Dicotyledonae
Order
: Geraniales
Family
:Euphorbiaceae
Genus
: Emblica
Species
: officinalis Geartn.
 SYNONYMS : Phyllanthus emblica Linn.
 MACROSCOPIC CHARACTERS:
Colour & Appearance : The dried fruit is brown to blackish brown colour.
Odour
: Characteristic.
Taste
: Sour and astringent.
3
 PART USED : Dried fruit
 CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS :
Amla is one of the most extensively studied plants. Reports suggest that it contains tannins,
alkaloids and phenols.3 Fruits have 28% of the total tannins distributedin the whole plant.
The fruit contains two hydrolysable tannins Emblicanin A and B,21 which have antioxidant
properties; one on hydrolysis gives gallic acid, ellagic acid and glucose wherein the other
gives ellagic acid and glucose respectively. The fruit also contains Phyllemblin.22 Activity
directed fractionation revealed the presence of several phytochemicals like gallic acid,
corilagin, furosin and geraniin.23Flavonoids like quercetin, alkaloids like phyllantine and
phyllantidine are found. Along with these, it primarily contains amino acids, carbohydrates
and other compounds given in Table 1. Its fruit juice contains the highest concentration of
vitamin-C (478.56mg/100mL).
The compostion of fruit pulp of Emblica officianalis are given in figure 1.
4
Table 1: Amla fruit : Chemical constituents
Type
Chemical constituents
Hydrolysable
Emblicanin A and B
tannins
Chebulinic
acid
, purigluconin , pedunculagin
(Ellagitannin),Chebulagic
acid
(Benzopyran tannin), Corilagin (Ellagitannin), Geraniin
(Dehydroellagitannin).
Alkaloids
Phyllantine, Phyllembein, Phyllantidine
Phenolic
Gallic acid, Methyl gallate, Ellagic acid,
Trigallayl glucose
Amino acids
Glutamic acid, Proline, Aspartic acid, Alanine,
Cystine, Lysine
Carbohydrates
Pectin
Vitamin
Ascorbic acid
Flavonoids
Quercetin , kaempferol
Organic acid
Citric acid
Figure 1: Amla fruit pulp: Composition
5
 BOTANICAL DESCRIPTION:
A small to medium sized deciduous tree, 8-18 meters height with thin light grey bark
exfoliating in small thin irregular flakes, leaves are simple, subsessile, closely setalong the
branchlets, light green having the appearance of pinnate leaves; flowers are greenish yellow,
in axillary fascicles, unisexual, males numerous on short slender pedicels, females
few,subsessile, ovary 3-celled; fruits globose, fleshy, pale yellow with six obscure vertical
furrowsenclosing six trigonous seeds in 2-seeded 3 crustaceous cocci1.
The fruits of Emblica officinalis are rich in tannins. The fruits have 28% of the total tannins
distributed in the whole plant. The fruit contains two hydrolysable tannins Emblicanin A and
B, which have antioxidant properties, one on hydrolysis gives gallic acid, ellagic acid and
glucose wherein the other gives ellagic acid and glucose.
Fig. Amla plant
 TRADITIONAL USE:
The fruits are sour, astringent, bitter, acrid, sweet, cooling, anodyne, ophthalmic, carminative,
digestive, stomachic, laxative, alterant, aphrodisiac, rejuvenative, diuretic,antipyretic and
tonic. They are useful in vitiated conditions of tridosha, diabetes, cough, asthma,bronchitis,
cephalalgia,
ophthalmopathy,
dyspepsia,
colic,
flatulence,
hyperacidity,
peptic
ulcer,erysipelas, skin diseases, leprosy, haematogenesis, inflammations, anemia, emaciation,
hepatopathy,jaundice,
strangury,
diarrhoea,
dysentery,
hemorrhages,
leucorrhoea,
menorrhagia, cardiac disorders, intermittent fevers and greyness of hair.
They can also be used as As a Vermifuge , Appetizer ,Irritability of the bladder, In retention of urine, To the forehead
in cephalalgia , As a febrifuge and in diabetes , For hiccup and for painful respiration:
6
For hemorrhage, diarrhea and dysentery, For burning in the vagina, To stop nausea and
vomiting, For bleeding of the nose.
For diarrhea of children:

A compound powder of the amla seed, Chitrak root, chebulic myrobalan, pipli and
palelone is given in suitable doses,according to age, in warm water twice daily,
morning and at bed time.

Tender shoots given in butter-milk cure indigestion and diarrhea; green fresh leaves
combined with curds have a similar effect.

Leaves are used as infusion with fenugreek seeds in chronic dysentery and as a bitter
tonic.

Soak one tola of the seeds in a tinned vessel during the night. Grind it. Add cow's
milk and use. This is a good remedy for biliousness.
For anemia, jaundice and dyspepsia:

Use dried fruit with iron. A fermented liquor prepared from the root is used in
jaundice, dyspepsia, cough, etc.

Take 20 to 40 grains of Dhatri Leha for anemia, jaundice and dyspepsia.

Dhatri Arista is used for jaundice, dyspepsia, indigestion, and cough.
 PHARMACOLOGYICAL ACTIVITIES :
Phyllembin, isolated from the ethanolic extract of the fruitpulp has been found to potentiate
the action of adrenaline in vitro and in vivo. It showed a mild depressant action on Central
Nervous System and also had a spasmolytic activity. The drug alsorevealed mild stimulant
action on isolated frog heart, short and insignificant rise in cat’s bloodpressure, contraction of
the nictitating membrane, the reduction of outflow of the perfusate in thehind limb of the rat
and ear of rabbit, mild cerebral depressant action and anti-spasmodic activity.Of the indirect
actions, potentiation of the action of adrenaline on the blood pressure of cat, isolatedfrog
heart, and nictitating membrane of cat and the prolongation of the hypnosis were observed.
Further studies on the action of phyllemblin revealed that the drug antagonized the
spasmogenic effect of acetylcholine, bradykinin and serotonin on the guineapig ileum.
Clinical studies were conducted to investigate the effect of crude amla in gastritis syndrome.
The crude amla was given in 20 cases in a dose of 3 gms, 3 times a day for 7 days. The drug
was found effective in 85% of the cases. It was observed that the drug did not have any
7
significant beneficial effect in cases of hypochlorhydria. Only cases of hyperchloridia with
burning sensation in abdominal and cardiac regions and epigastric pain were benefited.
HEALTH ASSETS OF AMLA:-
AMLA POWDER
Treat cardiac disease
Cholesterol is an essential component in human body. Hypertension, diabetes and cholesterol
are the major factors which cause heart disease. Blood vessels involve the collection of
unused cholesterol that leads to high pressure, which increase the possibility of heart attacks.
To overcome these impediments, making the mixture of powdered dry amla powder with
sugar candy. One teaspoonful of this mixture is mixed with a glass of water and taken in
empty stomach may neutralize the blood cholesterol level. Vitamin C present in amla which
enlarge the blood vessels and reduce pressure[
8
Action on diabetes
Amla fruit powder enhances to control high blood pressure. Triphala comprises three herbs
namely amla, harada and bihara. The blood sugar level may be increased by the action of an
enzyme alanine transaminase which is present in liver. This enzyme can be normalized by
taken one teaspoonful of this mixture (equal quantities of amla, jamun and bitter gourd
powder) once or twice per day. Chromium, a mineral present in amla fruits responsible for
the anti-diabetic effect.
Eye tonic
Triphala powder (made by mixing over of Hirda, behde and amla powder) with honey makes
the vision of eye bright and keeps shining and also good for the digestive system[
Jaundice
Fresh amla fruits are soaking with 4 munnakkas, both are grind with amla juice after one
hour. This portion may gives relief in jaundice.
AMLA JUICE
Taken of amla juice mixed with honey every morning and evening expose number of
medicinal benefits, include cures weakness of the generative system, blood purification, act
on diabetes, act on cold and cough.
Gout
Gout is nothing but an inflammation of the big toe caused by defects in uric acid metabolism
resulting in acid deposit and its salts in the blood and joints. This problem is cured by taken
of amla juice with old ghee makes softening of joints and helps in curing gout and also
removing the spots caused by measles, chicken pox, small pox.
Piles
Drinking fresh amla juice with half teaspoon of ghee and 1 teaspoon of honey and 100 Gms
of milk after lunch cures chronic piles problem.
9
AMLA PASTE
Urinary problem
The paste made by 20gms of pulp of dried amla in 160 gms of water till 40 gms is left. This
was mixed with 20gms of Gur. Regular use of this portion may cure urinary problem.
Migraine
Migraine is a severe vascular headache in female rather than men. This is cures by applying
the paste made by dried amla powder with kumkum, neelkamal and rose water.
Therapy for diarrhea
Paste of amla leaves mixed with honey is an effective cure for diarrhea.
AS COSMETICS
Helps in hair growth
Consumption of green vegetable juice with 2-3 amla fruits can prevent from hair greying. It
has the potent astonishing effect on hair and skin. Amla stimulates the hair follicles and
improves the hair growth and gives the complete nourishes to hair roots.
Prevents skin damage
Various layers present in skin may be damaged due to UV radiation from sun is known as
photo-aging which is a complex biological process. Amla reduce this problem due to its free
radical assuaging nature. It improves skin elasticity by taken of dried amla powder mixed
with water.
Act against pimples
Pimples on face caused by impure blood and can be removed by taken of amla combined
with neem.
As natural mouth freshner
Zeatin, a cytokine like substances is also present in amla leaves. It helps in refining the
mouth, strengthens teeth and bones.
10
Immune system enhancer
Amla is considered as a versatile and powerful antioxidant that protects the body against all
types of cancer and helps to reduce the blood pressure[24].
Anti-venom activity Phyllanthus emblica has been shown to possess anti-venom activity.
The plant extracts which neutralized the defibrinogenating and inflammatory activity of
Vipera russellii snake venom.
Amla oil
Applying amla oil before going to bed removes mental weakness.
Ameliorates eyesight
Diseases like reddening, itching and watering of eyes are counteracted by amla, which shows
fine consequences in cataracts.
Hinders gallbladder disorders
A person who develops gallbladder disorders due to low vitamin C levels. Taking amla saves
one from gallbladder infections.
Good for reproductive health
Amla can increase sperm count and it act as an aphrodisiac. White discharge in women is the
major problems which can be reduced by taking of dried amla seeds mixed with honey.
 SAFETY:
The drug is not reported to have any side effects even after prolonged use.
11
 ACTIVE PRINCIPLE: Tannins and Gallic acid.
COOH
OH
OH
OH
C7H6O5
Mol.wt. 170.10
 CONCLUSION :
Emblica officinalis (Amla) has an important position in Ayurveda- an Indian indigenous
system of medicine. Amla due to its strong antioxidant and biological properties prevent
innumerable health disorders as it contains essential nutrients and highest amount of vitamin
C. It can be used as a possible food additive or in nutraceuticals and biopharmaceutical
industries. Several researchers revealed that various extracts and herbal formulations of amla
showed potential therapeutic benefits against various diseases and the results are similar to
standard drugs.
12
 REFERENCE :
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Pharmacognosy, 3(2), 2012, 141-51.
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in
fruits
of
Tibetan
medicine
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LR, Amla (Emblica officinalisGaertn.) Attenuates Age- Related Renal
Dysfunction by Oxidative Stress, Journal of Agricultural and Food
Chemistry,55, 2007, 7744-52.
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(Emblica officinalis Gaertn.): An Ayurvedic preparation, Physiology
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6. Madhuri S, Studies on estrogen induced uterine and ovarian carcinogenesis
and effect of ProImmu in rat, PhD thesis, Jabalpur, MP, RDVV, 2008.
7. Krishnaveni M, Mirunalini S, Chemopreventive efficacy of Phyllanthus
emblica L. (amla) fruit extract on 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene induced
oral carcinogenesis – A dose response study, Environmental Toxicology and
Pharmacology, 34(3), 2012, 801-10.
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Effect of Emblica officinalis (fruit) against UVB-induced photoaging in
human skin fibroblasts, Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 2010, 109-14.
13
9. Zhang YJ, Tanaka T, Iwamoto Y, Yang CR, Kouno I. Phyllaemblic acid, a
novel highly oxygenated norbisabolane from the roots of Phyllanthus emblica.
Tetrahedron Letters 2000;41 :1781–1784.
10. Kapoor LD. Handbook of Ayurvedic Medicinal Plants. CRC Press, Boca
Raton. 1990.
11. Bhattacharya A, Chatterjee A, Ghosal S, Bhattacharya SK. Antioxidant
activity of active tannoid principles of Emblica officinalis (Amla). Indian
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14. Asmawi MZ, Kankaanranta H, Moilanen E, Vapaataslo H. Antiinflammatory
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and R.K. Johri, 2005.
14
18. Khorana ML, Rao MRR and Siddiqui HH. Antibacterial and antifungal
activity of Phyllanthus emblica Linn. Indian J Pharm.
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rasayana on biologic system.
20. Singh BN and Sharma PV. Effect of Amalaki on amalapitta. J Res Ind Med.
21. Patil SG, Deshmukh AA, Padol AR, Kale DB, In vitro antibacterial activity of
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of Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology, 2012, 49-51.
22. Kamal R, Yadav S, Mathur M,Katariya P, Antiradical efficiency of 20
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15
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2012, 765-71.
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Emblica officinalis Gaertn. leaves extract in streptozotocin-induced type-2
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29. Suryanarayana P, Saraswat M, Petrash JM, Reddy GB, Emblica officinalis
and its enriched tannoids delay streptozotocin induced diabetic cataract in rats,
Molecular Vision, 13, 2007, 1291-7.
30. Usharani P, Fatima N, Muralidhar N, Effects of Phyllanthus emblica extract
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16
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