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HAIR CARE

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HAIR CARE
What is the technical term for the
study of hair, and it’s diseases and
care?
TRICHOLOGY
What is HAIR CARE?
HAIR CARE is an overall
term for parts of hygiene
and cosmetology involving
the hair on the human head.
A mature strand of hair is divided
into two parts:
1. HAIR ROOT
2. HAIR SHAFT
The Follicle – tube-like
pocket which protects the
root
Hair Root- the part located
below the surface of the
scalp.
Hair Shaft – the portion of
the hair that projects
above the skin.
The Hair Bulb – lowest
part of the hair strand. Fits
over the papilla
The Arrector Pili Muscle –
tiny, involuntary muscle.
Causes goose bumps.
Sebaceous Glands – oil glands of the skin, connected
to hair follicles. Produces oil called sebum which
lubricates the hair and skin
Epidermis – top layer of the skin.
Dermis – the layer of the skin under the epidermis
CHEMICAL COMPOSITION
OF HAIR
Composed of a protein called KERATIN
90% protein – made up of long chains of
amino acids which in turn are made of
elements
COHNS elements are the 5 elements that
make up human hair and are found in the
skin and nails
 CARBON, OXYGEN, NITROGEN,
SULFUR and HYDROGEN
STRUCTURE OF THE HAIR SHAFT
There are three main layers of the hair shaft:
Cuticle
Cortex
Medulla
CUTICLE




Outermost layer of the hair.
Consists of overlapping layer of cells that look
like shingles on a roof
Protects the cortex
Responsible for creating the shine and the
smooth, silky feel of healthy hair
CORTEX
Middle layer of the hair
Contains melanin pigment
90% of total weight comes from
the cortex
Elasticity and natural colour
located in the cortex
MEDULLA
Innermost layer
Quite common for very
fine and naturally
blonde hair to entirely
lack one
Medulla is not involved
in salon services
HAIR PIGMENT
All natural hair colour is the result of the
pigment located within the cortex called
MELANIN.
MELANIN are tiny grains of pigment that
gives natural colour to hair.
There are two different types of melanin:
Eumelanin and Pheomelanin
EUMELANIN
Provides
brown and
black colour
to hair.
PHEOMELANIN
Provides
colours ranging
from red and
ginger to
yellow/blonde
tones.
HAIR ANALYSIS
Different types of hair react
differently to the same service
Essential that a thorough analysis
be performed prior to all salon
services
The four most important factors to
consider in hair analysis are:
texture, porosity, elasticity and
density.
HAIR TEXTURE
Is the thickness or diameter of the
individual hair strand.
Can be classified as coarse, medium, or
fine.
It is not uncommon for hair from different
areas of the head to have different
textures.
HAIR DENSITY
Measures the number of
individual hair strands on 1
square inch of scalp.
Can be classified as thin,
medium or thick/dense.
Different from hair texture in
that individuals with the same
hair texture can have different
densities
HAIR ELASTICITY
Is ability of the hair to stretch and return to
its original length without breaking
Wet hair with normal elasticity will stretch
up to 50% of its original length and return
to that same length without breaking
Dry hair stretches about 20% of its length
Hair with low elasticity is brittle and breaks
easily.
HAIR POROSITY
Is the ability of the hair to
absorb moisture.
Healthy hair with a compact
cuticle layer is naturally
resistant.
Porous hair has a raised
cuticle layer that easily
absorbs moisture.
Combs
Combs are available in a
variety of sizes. Ideally combs
should be made of vulcanite
or plastic. They should not be
made of nylon or metal as this
type of comb can damage the
hair.
Wide toothed
comb
Wide spaced
teeth best used
for combing
through wet or
long hair
Afro rake/ comb
Very wide spaced
teeth used for
detangling curly
hair.
Natural bristle
Often has a wooden
handle and is made of
pig or hog bristle. This is
similar in composition to
human hair. They can
be used for brushing out
sets, smoothing hair or
radial brushes can be
used to induce curl and
movement for blow
drying.
21
Flat Back
Brush
These often have a
plastic handle and
bristles. They can
be used for
brushing out sets
Vent brush
These have a
plastic handle
and bristles.
22
Dressing out comb
Tail comb
Medium spaced
teeth for styling and
for dressing out sets.
Tightly spaced teeth
with a ‘sectioning
hair during tail’ at
one end. Used for
setting.
Brushing the Hair
Correct brushing stimulates the blood
circulation of the scalp; helps remove dust,
dirt, and hair-spray buildup; and gives
added shine.
HAIR
TREATMENTS
DRY HAIR AND SCALP
Should be treated with products
that contain moisturizers and
emollients.
Frequent shampooing should be
avoided, along with the use of
strong soaps or products with a
high alcohol content .
OILY HAIR AND SCALP
Can be treated by properly
washing with a normalizing
shampoo.
A well-balanced diet, exercise,
regular shampooing, and good
personal hygiene are essential
to controlling oily hair and scalp.
Scalp Care and Massage
 The two basic requirements for a
healthy scalp are cleanliness and
stimulation.
 Treatments should be given with
a continuous, even motion that
stimulates scalp and relaxes
client.
Scalp Treatments
Given before shampoo
Given during shampoo
Relaxation or treatment: only
difference is which products used
Contraindications: medical conditions
that may prohibit the service
Normal Hair and Scalp
Treatment
Purpose: to maintain scalp and
hair in a clean and healthy
condition
Perform treatment only after full
hair and scalp examination.
Dry Hair and Scalp Treatment
Used if natural oil is deficient
Treatment products: contain moisturizing
and emollient ingredients
Avoid strong soaps, greasy preparations,
lotions with high alcohol content. Use a
scalp steamer.
Oily Hair and Scalp
Treatment
Cause: overactive sebaceous
glands
Purpose: to flush out excess
sebum through gentle pressing or
squeezing
A Great Shampoo Experience
Massage for client preference.
Adjust water temperature for client
choice.
Don’t wet client’s face.
Double-check nape area.
Do not drench towel around neck.
Blot hair, not face.
Give relaxation massage.
Shampooing and Retailing
Use the shampoo time to better
establish your professional relationship
with the client and promote quality
products for at-home use.
During the shampoo give clients
information about what you are doing
and why.
Draping
Client must be properly draped for
each service.
Shampoo (wet) draping: two terry
towels used, one under cape and one
over; replaced with neck strip and
cape
Chemical-service draping: two terry
towels used, one under cape and one
Procedure in Shampooing
Brushing the Hair
Draping for a Shampoo
Draping for a Chemical
Service
Basic Shampoo and
Conditioning
Scalp Massage
Hairstyling
The hairstyle, hair do
or hair cut of the head
hair.
- Up do
- Braid
Hair tinting
The science and art
of changing the
color of the hair.
Haircutting
Is the process of thinning,
tapering, and shortening
the hair, using comb,
scissors, thinning shears
or razor, to mold the hair
into becoming shape.
Barbering
Is the practice of shaving or
trimming the beard, cutting
the hair, and giving the
facial and scalp massages
with oils, creams, lotions, or
other preparations.
Anatomy of the Skull
Reference
points
–Parietal ridge
–Occipital
bone
Anatomy of the Skull
Apex- The highest
point on the top of the
head. Located by
placing a comb flat on
the top of the head;
the apex rests on that
highest point.
Four corners
Areas of the Head
Top
Nape
Front
Back
Sides Fringe
Crown
Lines and Angles
Straight
lines
Angles
Lines and Angles (continued)
Straight
Lines
Horizontal
Vertical
Diagonal
Elevation
Elevation: angle at which
hair is held from head
Sections: uniform working
areas
Subsections: smaller
partings
Graduation: layers
described
in degrees
Cutting Line
Cutting line: angle at which fingers are
held when cutting
Guidelines
Stationary guide (does not move)
Traveling guide (moves as haircut progresses)
Elevation Examples
Blunt, onelength cut
90-degree
elevation
Elevation Examples (continued)
45-degree with
90-degree
Overdirection
Hair Analysis
Hairlines and growth patterns
Density (hairs per square inch)
Texture (diameter of a hair strand)
Wave pattern (amount of movement in
the hair strand)
Tools
Haircutting shears- Used to cut
blunt or straight lines as well as to
perform other texturizing techniques
• Straight razor- : Used
when a softer effect is
desired on hair ends.
Clippers
Trimmers
Sectioning clips
Wide-tooth
comb
Tail comb
Barber comb
Styling/cutting
comb
Tools (continued)
Holding Shears
Palming the Shears
Posture and Body Position
Position the client.
Sitting straight
Legs not crossed
Center your weight.
Knees slightly bent, not locked
Bend one knee to lean slightly
Stand in front of section being cut.
Safety in Haircutting
Palm shears.
Do not cut past second knuckle.
Take care around ears.
Balance shears and place knuckles.
Use razor guard.
Dispose of blades carefully.
Razor-Cutting Tips
Avoid using on coarse, wiry, or damaged
hair.
Always use a guard.
Always use a new blade.
Keep hair wet.
Hold razor at an angle; never force.
Slide Cutting
Used to cut or thin hair
Blends shorter hair to longer
Useful in texturizing
Only on wet hair
Scissors-Over-Comb
Hair held in place with comb.
Shear tips remove length.
Method used to create short
tapers.
Works best on dry hair.
Lift hair with comb; comb acts
as guide.
Texturizing with Shears
Point-cutting and notching
Texturizing with Shears (continued)
 Free-hand notching
 Slithering or effilating
 Slicing
 Carving
 Carving the ends
Basic Haircuts
 Blunt haircut
 Weight line
 Stationary guide used
 Graduated haircut
 Visual buildup of weight
 Ends appear stacked
 Traveling guide used
The Blunt Haircut
 Blunt haircut
More Basic Haircuts
 Layered haircut
 Less weight than graduated cuts
 Creates movement and volume
 Long layered haircut
 Gives volume to styles
 Can be combined with other cuts
 Layers increase form; short to longer toward perimeter
 Men’s basic clipper cut
Thank you!!!
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