HAIR CARE What is the technical term for the study of hair, and it’s diseases and care? TRICHOLOGY What is HAIR CARE? HAIR CARE is an overall term for parts of hygiene and cosmetology involving the hair on the human head. A mature strand of hair is divided into two parts: 1. HAIR ROOT 2. HAIR SHAFT The Follicle – tube-like pocket which protects the root Hair Root- the part located below the surface of the scalp. Hair Shaft – the portion of the hair that projects above the skin. The Hair Bulb – lowest part of the hair strand. Fits over the papilla The Arrector Pili Muscle – tiny, involuntary muscle. Causes goose bumps. Sebaceous Glands – oil glands of the skin, connected to hair follicles. Produces oil called sebum which lubricates the hair and skin Epidermis – top layer of the skin. Dermis – the layer of the skin under the epidermis CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF HAIR Composed of a protein called KERATIN 90% protein – made up of long chains of amino acids which in turn are made of elements COHNS elements are the 5 elements that make up human hair and are found in the skin and nails CARBON, OXYGEN, NITROGEN, SULFUR and HYDROGEN STRUCTURE OF THE HAIR SHAFT There are three main layers of the hair shaft: Cuticle Cortex Medulla CUTICLE Outermost layer of the hair. Consists of overlapping layer of cells that look like shingles on a roof Protects the cortex Responsible for creating the shine and the smooth, silky feel of healthy hair CORTEX Middle layer of the hair Contains melanin pigment 90% of total weight comes from the cortex Elasticity and natural colour located in the cortex MEDULLA Innermost layer Quite common for very fine and naturally blonde hair to entirely lack one Medulla is not involved in salon services HAIR PIGMENT All natural hair colour is the result of the pigment located within the cortex called MELANIN. MELANIN are tiny grains of pigment that gives natural colour to hair. There are two different types of melanin: Eumelanin and Pheomelanin EUMELANIN Provides brown and black colour to hair. PHEOMELANIN Provides colours ranging from red and ginger to yellow/blonde tones. HAIR ANALYSIS Different types of hair react differently to the same service Essential that a thorough analysis be performed prior to all salon services The four most important factors to consider in hair analysis are: texture, porosity, elasticity and density. HAIR TEXTURE Is the thickness or diameter of the individual hair strand. Can be classified as coarse, medium, or fine. It is not uncommon for hair from different areas of the head to have different textures. HAIR DENSITY Measures the number of individual hair strands on 1 square inch of scalp. Can be classified as thin, medium or thick/dense. Different from hair texture in that individuals with the same hair texture can have different densities HAIR ELASTICITY Is ability of the hair to stretch and return to its original length without breaking Wet hair with normal elasticity will stretch up to 50% of its original length and return to that same length without breaking Dry hair stretches about 20% of its length Hair with low elasticity is brittle and breaks easily. HAIR POROSITY Is the ability of the hair to absorb moisture. Healthy hair with a compact cuticle layer is naturally resistant. Porous hair has a raised cuticle layer that easily absorbs moisture. Combs Combs are available in a variety of sizes. Ideally combs should be made of vulcanite or plastic. They should not be made of nylon or metal as this type of comb can damage the hair. Wide toothed comb Wide spaced teeth best used for combing through wet or long hair Afro rake/ comb Very wide spaced teeth used for detangling curly hair. Natural bristle Often has a wooden handle and is made of pig or hog bristle. This is similar in composition to human hair. They can be used for brushing out sets, smoothing hair or radial brushes can be used to induce curl and movement for blow drying. 21 Flat Back Brush These often have a plastic handle and bristles. They can be used for brushing out sets Vent brush These have a plastic handle and bristles. 22 Dressing out comb Tail comb Medium spaced teeth for styling and for dressing out sets. Tightly spaced teeth with a ‘sectioning hair during tail’ at one end. Used for setting. Brushing the Hair Correct brushing stimulates the blood circulation of the scalp; helps remove dust, dirt, and hair-spray buildup; and gives added shine. HAIR TREATMENTS DRY HAIR AND SCALP Should be treated with products that contain moisturizers and emollients. Frequent shampooing should be avoided, along with the use of strong soaps or products with a high alcohol content . OILY HAIR AND SCALP Can be treated by properly washing with a normalizing shampoo. A well-balanced diet, exercise, regular shampooing, and good personal hygiene are essential to controlling oily hair and scalp. Scalp Care and Massage The two basic requirements for a healthy scalp are cleanliness and stimulation. Treatments should be given with a continuous, even motion that stimulates scalp and relaxes client. Scalp Treatments Given before shampoo Given during shampoo Relaxation or treatment: only difference is which products used Contraindications: medical conditions that may prohibit the service Normal Hair and Scalp Treatment Purpose: to maintain scalp and hair in a clean and healthy condition Perform treatment only after full hair and scalp examination. Dry Hair and Scalp Treatment Used if natural oil is deficient Treatment products: contain moisturizing and emollient ingredients Avoid strong soaps, greasy preparations, lotions with high alcohol content. Use a scalp steamer. Oily Hair and Scalp Treatment Cause: overactive sebaceous glands Purpose: to flush out excess sebum through gentle pressing or squeezing A Great Shampoo Experience Massage for client preference. Adjust water temperature for client choice. Don’t wet client’s face. Double-check nape area. Do not drench towel around neck. Blot hair, not face. Give relaxation massage. Shampooing and Retailing Use the shampoo time to better establish your professional relationship with the client and promote quality products for at-home use. During the shampoo give clients information about what you are doing and why. Draping Client must be properly draped for each service. Shampoo (wet) draping: two terry towels used, one under cape and one over; replaced with neck strip and cape Chemical-service draping: two terry towels used, one under cape and one Procedure in Shampooing Brushing the Hair Draping for a Shampoo Draping for a Chemical Service Basic Shampoo and Conditioning Scalp Massage Hairstyling The hairstyle, hair do or hair cut of the head hair. - Up do - Braid Hair tinting The science and art of changing the color of the hair. Haircutting Is the process of thinning, tapering, and shortening the hair, using comb, scissors, thinning shears or razor, to mold the hair into becoming shape. Barbering Is the practice of shaving or trimming the beard, cutting the hair, and giving the facial and scalp massages with oils, creams, lotions, or other preparations. Anatomy of the Skull Reference points –Parietal ridge –Occipital bone Anatomy of the Skull Apex- The highest point on the top of the head. Located by placing a comb flat on the top of the head; the apex rests on that highest point. Four corners Areas of the Head Top Nape Front Back Sides Fringe Crown Lines and Angles Straight lines Angles Lines and Angles (continued) Straight Lines Horizontal Vertical Diagonal Elevation Elevation: angle at which hair is held from head Sections: uniform working areas Subsections: smaller partings Graduation: layers described in degrees Cutting Line Cutting line: angle at which fingers are held when cutting Guidelines Stationary guide (does not move) Traveling guide (moves as haircut progresses) Elevation Examples Blunt, onelength cut 90-degree elevation Elevation Examples (continued) 45-degree with 90-degree Overdirection Hair Analysis Hairlines and growth patterns Density (hairs per square inch) Texture (diameter of a hair strand) Wave pattern (amount of movement in the hair strand) Tools Haircutting shears- Used to cut blunt or straight lines as well as to perform other texturizing techniques • Straight razor- : Used when a softer effect is desired on hair ends. Clippers Trimmers Sectioning clips Wide-tooth comb Tail comb Barber comb Styling/cutting comb Tools (continued) Holding Shears Palming the Shears Posture and Body Position Position the client. Sitting straight Legs not crossed Center your weight. Knees slightly bent, not locked Bend one knee to lean slightly Stand in front of section being cut. Safety in Haircutting Palm shears. Do not cut past second knuckle. Take care around ears. Balance shears and place knuckles. Use razor guard. Dispose of blades carefully. Razor-Cutting Tips Avoid using on coarse, wiry, or damaged hair. Always use a guard. Always use a new blade. Keep hair wet. Hold razor at an angle; never force. Slide Cutting Used to cut or thin hair Blends shorter hair to longer Useful in texturizing Only on wet hair Scissors-Over-Comb Hair held in place with comb. Shear tips remove length. Method used to create short tapers. Works best on dry hair. Lift hair with comb; comb acts as guide. Texturizing with Shears Point-cutting and notching Texturizing with Shears (continued) Free-hand notching Slithering or effilating Slicing Carving Carving the ends Basic Haircuts Blunt haircut Weight line Stationary guide used Graduated haircut Visual buildup of weight Ends appear stacked Traveling guide used The Blunt Haircut Blunt haircut More Basic Haircuts Layered haircut Less weight than graduated cuts Creates movement and volume Long layered haircut Gives volume to styles Can be combined with other cuts Layers increase form; short to longer toward perimeter Men’s basic clipper cut Thank you!!!