afro highlight en

advertisement
2012
REPORT
A
AFRIC HIGH S
LIGHT
UN-Water Global Analysis and Assessment
of Sanitation and Drinking-Water
TH E CH AL L EN GE OF EX TEN DIN G AND
SUSTAIN IN G SER VICES
The UN-Water Global Analysis and Assessment of Sanitation
and Drinking-water (GLAAS) monitors the efforts and
approaches to extend and sustain water, sanitation and
hygiene (WASH) systems and services. Between 1990
and 2010, over 321 million in Africa people gained access
to improved water sources and 189 million people gained
access to improved sanitation.
In Africa financing is insufficient and the institutional capacity
to absorb what is available is limited. The danger of slippage
against the MDG target is real.
Percentage of population obtaining drinkingwater from an improved source (2010)
Percentage of population using
improved sanitation facilities (2010)
Percentage of deaths attributable to
inadequate WASH
POLITICAL WILL AND ACCOUNTABILITY: There is growing political will for WASH implementation,
as expressed in new efforts to be more accountable and to plan and coordinate more effectively.
African countries report strong progress in adopting
and publishing WASH sector policies
Despite the global financial crisis, external support to
Africa for WASH increased from 2008 to 2010
3.0
Drinking-water
2009
Sanitation
2.5
2011
$US billion
2009
2011
2008
2010
2.7
2.4
2.0
1.5
0.8
1.0
0.5
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
0.0
% of countries with agreed and published sector policy
Over 80% of African countries recognize the right to
water, and nearly 60% the right to sanitation
100%
0%
In 2011, countries reported substantive political commitments
to WASH, increasing funding allocations, and leadership and
coordination among implementing agencies. The majority of
countries have established transparent WASH service provision
targets and have put in place supporting policies, and many
monitor against these targets. Countries also confirm that
the rights to water and sanitation are increasingly adopted in
laws or policies. Accountability can be improved, as most
countries do not include consumers in planning and only half
have established regular review processes. The total amount of
ODA
non-concessional lending
Despite progress on setting targets and establishing
policies, output is insufficient to meet national targets
% of countries
reporting attainment
Is the right to water explicitly
recognized in policy or law?
0.2
Sub-Saharan Africa
Rest of the world
94% 92%
73%
68%
39%
35%

Targets in place

Policies adopted
9%

20%
Perceived
Annual progress
adequate finance >75% or more
to meet target
development aid for sanitation and water for Africa increased
from 2008 to 2010 to US$ 2.7 billion, along with a notable
increase in non-concessional lending for sanitation and water.
Despite these efforts, most countries are falling short on
meeting their own national WASH commitments, with over 80%
of countries reportedly falling significantly behind the trends
required to meet their defined national access targets for
sanitation and drinking-water.
– Africa Highlights
DOMESTIC FINANCING: There is insufficient domestic financing for WASH overall, with particularly
serious shortfalls for sanitation. This is exacerbated by difficulties in spending the limited funds that
are received.
In Africa sanitation funding remains inadequate
Sanitation, adequacy of financing, 2011
Average absorption rates of central African government
capital commitments are low
Sanitation, absorption of committed domestic funds, 2011
Are financial flows sufficient to meet MDG targets?
What is the percentage of domestic capital
commitments utilized?
SUSTAINABILITY: There is a risk of slippage on progress made unless sufficient financial and
human resource support is given to sustain operation and maintenance.
Governments in Africa report that 39% of WASH
funding is allocated to support operation and
maintenance of services
39%
36%
Capital expenditure
61%
Global data suggest that less than 10% of external aid
is directed towards maintenance of existing services.
New services
57%
Operation and maintenance
expenditure
Maintain/replace existing services
Increase service or treatment levels
7%
Number of African countries
Most countries in Africa report insufficient
staff to operate and maintain urban and rural
drinking-water systems
28
30
25
20
15
10
5
21
Two-fifths of African countries indicate that
revenues cover less than 80% of operating costs
for urban utilities.
Urban drinking-water
Rural drinking-water
14
20%
Operating ratio greater than 1.2
40%
5
3
1
0
Yes, sufficient to meet
needs
Yes, but insufficient to
meet needs
No
Is there sufficient staff to operate and maintain
urban and rural drinking-water systems?
Operating ratio between 0.8 and 1.2
Operating ratio less than 0.8
40%
– Africa Highlights
TARGETING OF FINANCIAL RESOURCES
Domestic WASH funding can be made more equitable
Drinking-water continues to absorb the majority of WASH
funding, even in countries with relatively high drinking-water
supply coverage and relatively low sanitation coverage.
Countries also indicate that expenditures are largely targeted
for extending services in urban areas, even in countries
where urban areas are relatively well served and rural areas
are off-track.
Funds are largely targeted for extending services
in urban areas
Drinking-water continues to receive the majority
of WASH funding
35%
Urban
42%
58%
Rural
Sanitation
Drinking-water
65%
Targeting of external support for WASH can be further improved to assist those most in need
35% of sanitation and drinking-water aid is targeted to Africa
2%
Northern Africa
Sub-Saharan Africa
3%
8%
Latin America and
Caribbean
Eastern Asia
3%
12% 15%
27%
9%
12%
Southern Asia
2%
South-eastern Asia
Western Asia
Oceania
Caucasus and Central Asia
Developed countries
Not applicable
France
World Bank (IDA)
EU Institutions
Japan
African Development Bank
Germany
United States
United Kingdom
Netherlands
AFESD
Denmark
Belgium
WASH aid to Africa
WASH aid to other parts of the world
0
500
1000
1500
2000
2500
Top twelve average annual commitments to sanitation and
drinking-water, 2008–2010(US$ millions, constant 2009 $US)
NOTE: An additional 7% of global sanitation and water ODA
is targeted to regional programmes
Aid commitment (US$ millions, constant 2009 $US)
Aid for basic sanitation and drinking-water services increased from 16% to 26% of overall sanitation and water
aid commitments between 2008 and 2010
3 500
3 000
2 500
Hygiene education
Water resources, rivers, waste management
Policy and administration
Large systems
Basic systems
Morocco
Mozambique
Tanzania
Egypt
Ethiopia
Burkina Faso
Kenya
Tunisia
Congo, Dem. Rep.
Senegal
Mali
Uganda
2 000
1 500
1 000
500
0
2000 2001
Grants
Loans
0
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
50
100
150
200
250
300
Average annual commitments to sanitation and
drinking-water, 2008–2010 (US$ millions, constant 2009 $US)
– Africa Highlights
MONITORING AND EVALUATION: Improved monitoring is required to generate the information for
evidence-based decision making.
The use of periodic reviews to monitor and evaluate the
performance of sanitation and drinking-water uptake and
services is increasingly used by countries as a basis for
planning. However, the lack of robust data is a potentially
major constraint to progress.
• Half the countries did not report on access to adequate
sanitation in schools or health-care facilities, suggesting a
lack of monitoring systems and capacity.
Periodic sector reviews in Africa are being
increasingly used in sanitation planning.
• Despite clear country responses indicating insufficient staff
in water and sanitation services, only half of countries were
able to provide data for staff in place and one third could
anticipate staffing needs.
• To strengthen the collection of WASH financial information, a
harmonized method of data monitoring is needed.
African countries report that only 38% of urban/rural
sanitation and drinking-water sectors are informed by
reliable information monitoring systems
Number of countries
Annual or biennial review, 2011
50
38
40
Sanitation
Drinking-water
40
24
30
20
19
20%
Yes and used
Under development
No
38%
14
12
10
42%
0
Review and used for
planning
Review, but not used for
planning
No review
Is there a national information system
used to inform decision-making?
Is there an annual or biennial review on sanitation?
Review and used in planning, both urban and rural
No reviews performed
Review and used in planning, urban or rural
Not a survey participant
Review, but not used in planning
Data not available
Review, but not used in planning for urban or rural
Not applicable
Nearly two-thirds of African countries could not report on
improved drinking-water coverage in health-care centres
Half of respondent African countries fail to monitor
against established targets for school sanitation
25
Number of countries
Trend from 2009 to 2011 (38 countries)
2011
2009
Drinking-water
2011
2009
Sanitation
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
% of countries using annual or biennial review for planning
90
100
20
20
17
15
Urban Sanitation
Rural Sanitation
15
12
10
6
5
5
0
Targets included and
monitored
Targets, but not monitored
No targets or strategy
for schools
The 2012 UN-Water GLAAS report presents data received from 75 developing countries, covering all the Millennium Development Goal (MDG)
regions, of which 38 from Northern and Sub-Saharan Africa, and from 24 external support agencies (ESAs), representing approximately 90% of
official development assistance (ODA) for sanitation and drinking-water.
The 2012 report draws on the latest information, including data from the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD)
Creditor Reporting System (CRS), and data gathered through two sets of questionnaires: one for low- and middle-income countries and one for
ESAs. These questionnaires have allowed countries and donors to score their progress and WASH inputs according to objective criteria. While
the responses are based on consensus from multiple national stakeholders and are subject to validation, it is acknowledged that the accuracy of
responses will show variability. Thus, to some extent, the responses should be interpreted as a self-assessment of country and donor priorities.
For further information: www.who.int/water_sanitation_health/glaas or [email protected]
The designations employed and the presentation of the material in this publication do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part
of the World Health Organization concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of
its frontiers or boundaries. Dotted and dashed lines on maps represent approximate border lines for which there may not yet be full agreement.
Download
Random flashcards

Arab people

– Cards

Radiobiology

– Cards

Radioactivity

– Cards

Nomads

– Cards

Emergency medicine

– Cards

Create flashcards