Uploaded by Anas Bataineh

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Yarmouk University
Civil Engineering Department
sanitary laboratory
CE 453
Name: ANAS KHALED BATAINEH
ID: 2014888057
Experiment: Beer’s law and Spectrophotometric analysis
Group: 3
Eng: saja al theeb
Introduction:
In this experiment, we will determine the total solids, total suspended solid
and volatile suspended solid in wastewater that have chosen by the laboratory.
The term solid is used when referring to any material suspended or dissolved
in water or wastewater that can be physically isolated either through filtration
or evaporation. Solid can be classified as either filterable or non-filterable.
Filterable solid may either be settleable or non-settleable. Solids can also be
classified as inorganic and organic.
Total solid is the term applied to the material residue left in the vessel after
evaporation of a sample and its suspended drying in an oven at a defined
temperature. Measurement of solids can be made in different water samples
and is defined as residue upon evaporating of free water. Thus total solids are
nothing but summation of total dissolved solids and total suspended solids.
The term total dissolved solids refer to materials that are completely dissolved
in water. Those solids are filterable in nature and defined as residue upon
evaporating of non-filterable sample on a filter paper.
Volatile suspended solids are a water quality measure obtained from the loss
on ignition of total suspended solids.
Objectives :
To determine the Total Solids(TS), Total Suspended Solid(TSS), and Volatile
Suspended Solid (VSS) in a water sample.
Apparatus & Material:









porcelain crucible.
drying oven.
filter paper.
measuring cylinder.
Buchner flask and funnel.
analytical balance.
glass fiber filter disk.
muffle furnace.
Vacuum pump.
Data :
 Part 1 (Total, Volatile, & Fixed Solids)
Description
Sample #1
Sample #2
Sample #3
Initial weight of crucible
(W1) g
Weight of crucible @103-105 Co
(W2) g
Weight of crucible @550 Co
(W3) g
Volume of sample
(V) ml
15.5251
15.848
17.28
17.32
17.61
19.33
16.24
16.76
18.091
25
25
25
 Sample Calculations
Total Solid (TS) (mg/mL) =
 Sample #3 =
19.33−17.28
25
𝑊2 −𝑊1
𝑉
∗ 1000=82 mg/mL
Total Volatile Solid (TVS) (organic matter) (mg/mL) =
 Sample #3=
19.33−18.091
25
18.091−17.28
25
𝑉
∗ 1000=49.56 mg/mL
Total Fixed Solid (TFS) (inorganic matter) (mg/mL) =
 Sample #3 =
𝑊2 −𝑊3
𝑊3 −𝑊1
𝑉
∗ 1000=32.44 mg/mL
 Part #2 (Total Suspended & Total Dissolved Solids)
Description
Sample #1
Sample #2
Sample #3
Initial weight of evaporating
dish
(W1) g
Final weight of evaporating
dish @103-105 Co
(W2) g
Initial weight of filter paper
(W1) g
Final weight of filter paper
@103-105 Co
(W2) g
Volume of sample
(V) ml
36.888
28.33
30.12
38.21
30.7
33.91
0.3199
0.3189
0.31
0.325
0.321
0.323
25
25
25
Sample Calculations
Total Suspended Solid (TSS) (filter paper) (mg/mL) =

0.323−0.31
Sample #3 =
25
𝑊2 −𝑊1
𝑉
∗ 1000=0.52 mg/mL
Total Dissolved Solid (TDS) (mg/mL) (evaporating dish) =

33.91−30.12
Sample #3 =
25
𝑊2 −𝑊1
𝑉
∗ 1000=151.6 mg/ml
Discussions & conclusions :
1. What is the meaning of solids in water and wastewater? (Main classifications of
solids)
solids(referred to as Total Solids TS ): is the matter that remains as residue upon vaporation
at 103-105 C.
Total solids include the Total Suspended Solids (TSS) and total dissolved solids (TDS)
Total Suspended Solids (TSS): are the amount of filterable solids in a water sample;
usually the suspended solids contain, silt, stirred bottom sediment and organic matter
Total Dissolved Solids (TDS): are those solids that pass through the filter with a pore
filterable and includes mainly size of 2 Mm or smaller,
Total fixed solids (TFS):the inorganic matter that’s remains in dish after ignition the water
sample at 550 c for 15-20 min
Total Volatile solids(TVS): the organic matter that’s volatiles in the ignition proses
2. What are typical TS, TSS and TDS values of water and wastewater in Jordan?
Compare these values with your results in experiment?
For waste water
TS: (350-1200) mg/L
TSS: (600-1500) mg/L
TDS: (800-1300) mg/L
For water
The typical values of TSS is (0.6-1.5) mg/mL
in the experiment we got TTS values (0.72
, 0.4571 , 0.305)
mg/mL so the avg = 0.52
mg/mL → accepted
The max value of TDS 1000 mg/L = 1 mg/ml
in the experiment we got DTS values (1.29
, 0.47 , 0.305
) mg/mL so the avg =0.688
mg/ml → accepted
3. What are the main sources of TS, TSS and TDS in surface water, ground water
and wastewater?
Primary sources for TS in receiving waters are agricultural and residential runoff, leaching
of soil
contamination and point
treatment plants
source pollution discharge
from
industrial
or sewage
4. Explain the significance of determination of total solids in sanitary engineering?
Its very important to determine the TS values used in the design of water treatment plant
and design pipelines. for example :
TTS: used to evaluate the degree of pollution of water
TDS: used to evaluate the suitability of water and its using
5. Water can be classified by the amount of TDS into three types, mention them?
TDS<500 mg/L → Fresh water
30000> TDS >500 → Brackish water
40000> TDS >30000→Saline water
TDS >40000→Hyper Saline wate
6. Explain that " ground water usually has higher total dissolved solids and surface
water has higher suspended solids"?
higher TDS in ground water according to passing through earth layers and the geological
formation, during passing the element and solids dissolved in it like Ca and Mg
higher suspended solids in surface water due to moving and carrying the solids through its
runoff
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