Uploaded by Angelo Gabriel Yco


Solar energy is a clean and renewable energy sources. The Photovoltaic (PV) cells
made from silicon are attained to convert solar energy from the sunlight directly to
electrical energy. This energy can be utilized in many applications, like lighting, heating
and performing different electrical devices. The sun powered cell is containing
semiconductor physical which utilizing the photovoltaic impact. At the point when the
daylight is opposite to exterior of the PV sun powered board, can acquire higher efficient
system; therefore, maximum potential electrical energy can be established. Much
experimentation has been done to boost the efficiency of the solar cell.
Few decades ago, solar cell modules have been created and have been invented by
arranging in series to optimize the output voltage. In the late 1960s it was discovered that
illuminated organic dyes can generate electricity at oxide electrodes in electrochemical
cells. A Swiss engineer named Michael Grätzel, created the Grätzel cells, also called
‘nanocrystalline dye solar cells’ or ‘organic solar cells’. The Grätzel cells are dyesensitized solar cells which is a low-cost solar cells belonging to the group of thin film
solar cells. It is based on a semiconductor formed between photo-sensitized anodes,
an electrolyte, and photoelectrochemical system. These cells are made from organic
materials and not from silicon which makes them better for the environment.
In the near future, we would need to use renewable energy because of the carbon
dioxide deposit of burning oil into our atmosphere. Solar panels are made from cells that
could absorb sunlight and transform it into energy. These panels are usually made from
silicon. These silicon-based materials are not safe for the environment. In making these
silicon solar panels, it produces a ton of carbon footprints. Making organic solar panels
are easier and more environmental-friendly. Dye sensitive cells have a smaller amount of
maximum output but they could be used more efficient than the silicon-based solar panel.
(I) How can we make a dye sensitive solar panel that would generate maximum voltage
output? (II) How can we design these panels to be efficient and effective in absorbing
sunlight? (III) How should we position these panels to be less space -consuming and
absorb most of the sunlight? (IV) Will these panels actually help the environment? (V)
I have many objectives in why I am doing this study. I would like (I) to help the
nature by making eco-friendly solar panels, (II) to design a prototype for organic solar
panel, (III) to find an effective and efficient way to generate the most output voltage, (IV)
to record effective data of output voltage from solar panel.
The limitation of this study would be that these solar panels couldn’t produce as much
output voltage as the silicon panels. A single cell could only power as much as a
calculator. Though combining the cells to produce a panel could probably generate much
more voltage, it would take a lot of panels to actually have a manageable and usable
power source. These cells should be placed in a protective container made of glass or
plastic container. If not, the dye that these cells have would dry up and thus ruining the
cell itself.
This methodology would contain the materials in doing the product, instructions in
making the product, and the expected results. The product in this methodology is smaller
than the actual although the materials and direction on making it are the same. To produce
the product we would need to acquire all the materials. Two conductive glass, Titanium
dioxide powder, vinegar, ethanol, distilled water, clear glass rod, mortar and pestle,
berries of any variety, Iodide electrolyte solution and a multimeter for testing.
Using a mortar and pestle, mix 6 grams of titanium dioxide with a few tablespoon of
white vinegar. The solution should turn into a watery paint-like solution. If not, add more
vinegar. Add one drop of clear dish washing liquid to the solution. Note, do not mix the
dish washing liquid to the solution, if mixed the solution would turn soapy and bubbly.
Transfer the TiO2 solution to a small dropper bottle; leave the solution for at least 15
Clean the two conductive glasses with tissue and ethanol then dry. Check which side
of the glass is conductive by using the multimeter set to ohms. The conductive side
should be bluish and cloudy, while the non- conductive side should be clear and
Using a transparent tape, take one of the conductive glasses and tape it into a clean
flat surface. The conductive side should be facing upwards. The tape should only cover
1mm on the three sides and 4mm on one of the sides. Using an ethanol dampened tissue,
clean the glass slide to remove oil and fingerprints. Put a drop or two of the TiO2 solution
on the glass slide, quickly spread the solution evenly using a clear glass rod. Wait for the
solution to dry then carefully remove the tape.
Anneal the TiO2 coated glass by baking it for 30 minutes on 450°C. The TiO2 coat
should undergo color change; the coat would turn into purplish brown then back to white.
After annealing, store the glass slide in a warm and dry environment.
Extracting the anthocyanin dye; crush 10 – 25 petals (I would be using red rose and/or
red camellia flower.) on a mortar and pestle with 25mL distilled water at 50°C. Crush
until it turns into a watery paste. Then stir with a clean glass rod.
Submerge the TiO2 coated glass slide on the anthocyanin mixture for 10 minutes. The
TiO2 side should be facing downward. The white TiO2 coat should be stained into bright
purple after 10 minutes. If there are remaining white spots, submerge the glass for another
5 minutes. Use plastic tweezers to remove the slide from the anthocyanin mixture. First
clean the glass slide with distilled water to removed fibrous remains of the berries then
with ethanol to remove excess water. Dry the slide with tissue. Store the slide in distilled
white vinegar in a dark- colored container.
While waiting for the TiO2 slide, we need to carbon coat the other glass slide. Carbon
coats the conductive side of the glass slide by using metal tongs in a flame of a tea candle.
Do this until the conductive side is coated with black carbon. Using a cotton swab, clean a
4mm strip of the glass. Be careful on handling the carbon coated glass because the carbon
coat could easily be rubbed off if touched.
Remove the TiO2 coated slide from the distilled white vinegar. Then clean the slide
with water and ethanol accordingly, and then dry with tissue.
Each slide should have a 4mm clean and uncoated strip. Put the two slides together,
each should be facing each other’s coated side. The 4mm strips should be opposite of
each other. Using binder clips, clip the two glasses together. Put a drop or two of the
Iodide electrolyte solution in one of the edges. In an alternating pattern, open and close
the binder clips to spread the solution between the slides. Be sure that the slides should be
stained with the Iodide electrolyte solution. Clean the excess solution from the edges
using a cotton swab that is dampened with ethanol.
Measure the electrical output by connecting it into a multimeter. Place the cell under
the sun and connect it into the multimeter. After testing, connect the cell into a solar
inverter that is connected to a battery. The DC power from the solar cell shall turn into
AC power by the solar inverter then it will be stored in the battery.
Figure 1: Labeled diagram of the solar cell
K. Wongcharee (2007). Dye-sensitized solar cell using natural dyes extracted from
rosella and blue pea flowers.
M. Ung, C. Sipaut, J. Dayou, K. Liow, J. Kulip, and R. Mansa (2017). Fruit based
Dye Sensitized Solar Cells
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Solar Cells
A. Khalizov, H. Xue, L. Wang, J. Zheng, and R. Zhang (2009). Enhanced Light
Absorption and Scattering by Carbon Soot
W. Krätschmer, L. Lamb, K. Fostiropoulos, and D. Huffman (1990). Solid C60: a
new form of carbon
B. O’Regan, and M. Gratzel (1991). Nature
G. Smith (2016). Solar Cells
J. Wu, S. Hao, Z. Lan, J. Lin, M. Huang, Y. Huang, P. Li, S. Yin, and T. Sato
(2008). An All-Solid-State Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell-Based Poly(N-alkyl-4-vinylpyridine iodide) Electrolyte with Efficiency of 5.64%
W. Kubo, K. Murakoshi, T. Kitamura, S. Yoshida, M. Haruki, K. Hanabusa, H.
Shirai, Y.Wada, and S. Yanagida (2001). Quasi-Solid-State Dye-Sensitized TiO2 Solar
Cells: Effective Charge Transport in Mesoporous Space Filled with Gel Electrolytes
Containing Iodide and Iodine
Dye- sensitized Solar Cells
Using Flower Petals
Angelo Gabriel D. Yco
10- Halley
Solar power is energy from the sun that is converted into thermal or electrical
energy. Solar energy is the cleanest and most abundant renewable energy source
available. While it is clean and abundant, its manufacturing and installation cost is quite
expensive and thus making it only available to those who are wealthy. The production of
solar cells is also associated with pollution. Transportation and installation of solar
systems have been associated with the emission of greenhouse gases. There are also some
toxic materials and hazardous products used during the manufacturing process of solar
photovoltaics, which can indirectly affect the environment. And thus my project, making
a dye sensitized solar cell which is cheap and eco-friendly.
Chapter 1: Introduction
The global energy consumption is increasing year by year. The yearly increase in
global energy consumption will result in the rise of demands towards natural resources
such as coal, petroleum and natural gas. These natural resources will take thousands of
years to form and it cannot be replaced as fast as they are being consumed. Therefore, it is
possible that problems may arrive where we will be facing the shortage of resources
which at the same time will caused in the rise of the harvesting expenses. As a result, the
reliability on the other sources of energy, which is renewable will also rise (Zulkifili et.
al, 2015).
Solar power is produced by collecting sunlight and converting it into electricity.
This is done by using solar panels, which are large flat panels made up of many
individual solar cells. It is most often used in remote locations, although it is becoming
more popular in urban areas as well.
The primary material used for solar cells today is silicone, which is derived from
quartz. In order to become usable forms of silicon, the quartz has to be mined and heated
in a furnace which emits sulfur dioxide and carbon dioxide into the atmosphere when
heated. One of the most toxic chemicals created as a byproduct of this process is silicon
tetrachloride. This chemical, if not handled and disposed of properly, can lead to burns on
your skin, harmful air pollutants that increase lung disease, and if exposed to water can
release hydrochloric acid, which is a corrosive substance bad for human and
environmental health (Thoubboron et. al, 2018).
With all of these issues and the countless concerns concerning our environment,
researchers found an alternative way on making solar cells which are cheap and ecofriendly.
Will the production of this invention be safer for the environment? Will it provide
a sustainable source of energy compare to its counterpart? Will it be cheap to construct to
make it more available to the society?
The researchers’ objective in this project is to construct a cheap and eco-friendly
dye-sensitized solar cell which could compete to its counterpart, silicone solar cells, in
providing solar energy.
Due to the liquid components of the dye-sensitized solar cell, it should be kept in a
controlled environment.
Table I: Comparison between silicone solar cell and dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC).
Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell
Silicone Solar Cell
Pro-environment (process & Average
Power generation cost
Power generation efficiency