world map plate boundaries.v3

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World Map of Plate Boundaries
“Where’s Waldo”-style geography
Mapping world plates helps students connect topography, earthquakes, volcanoes, and plates.
Introduction
Materials
The plate tectonics mapping activity allows students to
easily begin to identify basic tectonic processes on a global
scale. As students become aware of plate movements,
they begin to identify patterns that set the stage for
deeper understanding of a very complex topic. The
activity uses a simple “Where’s Waldo” approach to identify
tectonic symbols on a laminated World Plate Tectonic map.
•
•
•
•
Objectives
•
•
•
•
Learn where volcanoes and earthquakes occur
Understand geography
Use critical thinking to find plate boundaries
Answer relevant discussion questions on worksheet
Discussion Questions —Page 3
Student worksheets—SW-1 thru SW-3
Marking pens
Maps: The map at left, and in the student
worksheets, is offered in several formats* for
classroom use from SERC:
https://serc.carleton.edu/ANGLE/educational_
materials/activities/204690.html
* If you don’t have a large-format printer, the
poster is available in tabloid-size pages that can
be taped together.
* The maps are also offered without tectonic
boundaries to be used to see if students
recognize features in the landscape.
NGSS Science Standards
• Earth’s Place in the Universe: HS-ESS1-5
• Earth’s Systems: HS-ESS2-1, MS-ESS2-2,
HS-ESS2-2, MS-ESS2-3, HS-ESS2-3
PLATE BOUNDARIES
Divergent margin
Procedure
Convergent margin
Most of the world’s earthquakes and volcanoes are
found at or near the boundary between two tectonic
plates. Friction between the plates keeps them from
sliding. When the frictional strain is overcome, the
ground suddenly snaps along faults and fractures
releasing energy as earthquakes. Volcanoes occur at
divergent margins (where magma rises and erupts);
at convergent margins (where an oceanic plate
dives beneath another plate; magma forms in the
continental plate above the diving oceanic plate),
and less commonly as hot spots (where magma
melts through a plate, such as Hawai`i).
SYMBOLS
White arrows show plate motion direction
Volcanoes (generalized)
Hot spot (arrow = direction of plate motion)
Print the appropriate maps (see Materials) for use. Note
that the maps in this document need to printed on legalsize paper!!
Transform fault (arrows
show relative motion)
Supporting Resources
Video lectures:
Great earthquakes since 1900;
before 1900
Egg vs Earth www.iris.edu/hq/inclass/video/101
Tectonic Plates: www.iris.edu/hq/inclass/video/104
Asthenosphere: www.iris.edu/hq/inclass/video/102
Boundary types: www.iris.edu/hq/inclass/video/106
Students work in pairs or small groups of 3 or 4 students
using colored markers to circle tectonic features. This
hands-on activity captures the interest of all ability
levels. The process of exploring the map and drawing
with colored markers captures student interest and
creates curiosity to discover why particular features are
located where they are. As students work through simple
questions on the activity sheet, they are then able to
start the more challenging process of understanding
the patterns and process that make up the fundamental
principles of Plate Tectonics.
Discussion Questions are provided as a resource for
teachers to engage student’s growing understanding.
The questions have been used in small groups, whole
class discussion, research, as a writing assignment, and
for evaluation.
Animations:
3 Types of Plate Boundaries
www.iris.edu/hq/inclass/animation/492
History of Plate Tectonics:
www.iris.edu/hq/inclass/animation/564
What drives Plate Tectonics:
www.iris.edu/hq/inclass/animation/557
Interactive tectonic map; Dynamic Planet:
http://volcano.si.edu/learn_dynamicplanet.cfm
1
Divergent Boundaries & Spreading Zones
Spreading center—Fast
Divergent boundaries occur mostly
along spreading centers where the
magma rises forming new crust.
(Ex. East Pacific Rise, Mid Atlantic
Ridge.)
Spreading center—Slow
Mountains & valleys
O ce a n i c c r u s t
L ithosphere
Asthenosphere
Partial melt
Crust
Lithosphere
M a nt l e
Spreading zones (no graphic) on
continents create parallel mountains
and valleys as the crust pulls apart
(ex: Basin & Range, U.S. and the
Mantle
Asthenosphere
Partial melt
Great Rift Valley, Africa. )
Convergent Boundaries
Lithosphere
Lithosphere
Oceanic crust
an
Asthenosphere
ic
cr
us
L i t h o s p h e re
L i t h o s p h e re
L i t h o s p h e re
ce
Co nt i n e nt a l c r u s t
Co nt i n e nt a l c r u s t
Co nt i n e nt a l
c ru s t
. . . . .
.. .
. .
L i t h o s p h e re
Asthenosphere
O
High
Pl ate a u
Mo
u
R an t a i n
ng
e
Vo lc an ic
ar c
ch
en
Co n t i n e n t a l
crust
crust
Oceanic
Tr
Tr
en
ch
Is la nd
ar c
When two plates move toward each other, crust is destroyed as one plate dives (is subducted) beneath the
other. The location where sinking of a plate occurs is called a subduction zone.
.
As t h e n o s p h e re
.
.
O
As t h e n o s p h e re
.
. .
. ..
.
ld
o
ce
t
Ocean-Ocean—Ocean plate dives
beneath another ocean plate;
volcanic island chain forms above
the zone (ex:. The Marianas)
Ocean-Continent: Ocean plate dives
beneath a continental plate. Volcanic
mountain chain forms inland.
(ex:. Cascade Range, Sumatra, Japan)
an
ic
cr
Crust
Lithosphere
Asthenosphere
Strike slip faults result from
two plates moving horizontally
in opposite directions
(ex: San Andreas Fault, California).
Spreading
ridge
Tra n s fo r m f a u l t
Spreading
ridge
Lithosphere
Asthenosphere
Crus t
Partial melt
Transform faults are where two
plates are moving away from
a spreading ridge and fracture
zones develop (ex: ocean floor)
2
st
Continent-Continent: Two thick
continental plates collide and buckle
into high mountains.
(ex: Himalaya Mountain Range.)
Transform Boundaries
As surrounding plates
are driven by deep forces
to move apart or crunch
together, the in-between
areas are pushed around
on the surface. This forces
them to slide past each
other horizontally.
u
Name ______________________
PLATE TECTONICS MAPPING ACTIVITY
1. Draw the symbol for each tectonic feature in the chart below
Divergent margins and spreading centers (draw in black)
Convergent margins - subduction zone
(draw in blue)
Transform faults – strike-slip faults
(draw in green)
Hot Spot
(draw in red)
2. Use the correct color of washable marker to locate each tectonic feature on the map.
a. Circle the Divergent margins and spreading centers
in black.
Number found _______
b. Circle the Convergent margins in blue.
Number found _______
c. Circle the Transform faults in green.
Number found _______
d. Circle the Hot Spots in red.
Number found _______
3. What is the name of the small crustal plate off the Oregon coast that is subducting
under the North American plate? _______________________________
4. Where are most of the earthquakes and volcanoes located?
Check one: a. crustal plate margins _____
b. interior of a crustal plate _____
Answer the following questions about plate tectonic processes using diagrams from the map:
5. Divergent margins and continental spreading centers:
a. New crust forms at plate margins as ___________ rises creating ridges under
oceans such as the _____________________ and the ____________________.
__________________ in the US and the _______________________ in Africa.
SW-1
Name ______________________
6. Convergent margins – subduction zones:
Describe the land form (geomorphology) created at each type of Convergent Boundary
a. Ocean-Ocean _____________________________________________________
b. Ocean-Continent __________________________________________________
c. Continent-Continent ________________________________________________
7. Transform faults – strike slip faults
a. Sometimes tectonic plates shift past each other ____________ at their boundary.
b. One example of a strike slip fault near San Francisco is the _________________.
8. Earthquakes:
a. Most earthquakes occur near plate _____________.
b. _____________ keeps the plate edges from sliding smoothly past each other.
c. The longer the plates remain stuck, the more strain builds and the more violent
the snap and resulting _____________.
9. Volcanoes:
a. Magma rises to the surface from inside the earth mainly at __________________
and _______________________.
b. Around the rim of the Pacific Ocean, the 40,000 km long ________ of ________
is especially active.
10. Hot Spots:
a. In a few places _________ melts through a tectonic plate.
b. Each hot spot likely marks the top of a plume of _____________ rock that rises
from deep in the earth.
SW-2
O
U
T
H
EN
CH
S
O
U
T
H
E A
S T
I
E A
S T
Transform fault (arrows show relative motion)
Divergent margin
I N D
I A N R I D G E
Convergent margin
PLATE BOUNDARIES
Spreading center—Fast
Partial melt
M a nt l e
Spreading zones (no graphic) on
continents create parallel mountains
and valleys as the crust pulls apart
(ex: Basin & Range, U.S. and the
Asthenosphere
Lithosphere
Crust
Mantle
Partial melt
Mountains & valleys
NAZCA
P L AT E
Oceanic
O
ce
an
ic
crust
cr
Co n t i n e n t a l
crust
u st
Asthenosphere
Lithosphere
Oceanic crust
Asthenosphere
L i t ho s p h e re
.
Co nt i nent a l
c rust
.
. . . . .
.. .
.
.
.
.
. .
. ..
.
L i t ho s p h e re
Co nt i n e nt a l c r u s t
As t h e n o s p h e re
L i t h o s p h e re
O
ld
oc
ea
n
ic
cr
u
st
L i t h o s p h e re
Co nt i n e nt a l c r u s t
Continent-Continent: Two thick
Ocean-Ocean—Ocean plate dives
Ocean-Continent: Ocean plate dives
continental plates collide and buckle
beneath another ocean plate;
beneath a continental plate. Volcanic
into high mountains.
volcanic island chain forms above
mountain chain forms inland.
(ex:dives
Himalaya
Range.)beneath
thetwo
zoneplates
(ex:. Themove
Marianas)
When
toward each other,
crust
is
destroyed
as
one
plate
(isMountain
subducted)
(ex:. Cascade Range, Sumatra, Japan)
Convergent Boundaries
Asthenosphere
Lithosphere
High
Pl ate a u
P L AT E
SCOTIA
P L AT E
SOUTH
AMERICAN
P L AT E
SOUTH
AMERICAN
P L AT E
PUERTO
RICO TRENCH
D
G
Ast he nosphere
L i thosphere
Partial melt
M a nt l e
O ce a n i c c r u s t
magma rises forming new crust.
(Ex. East Pacific Rise, Mid Atlantic
Ridge.)
Spreading center—Slow
Asthenosphere
Lithosphere
Crust
Mantle
Partial melt
Mountains & valleys
Asthenosphere
Lithosphere
Oceanic
O
ce
an
ic
crust
c ru
st
Asthenosphere
Lithosphere
Co n t i n e n t a l
crust
Asthenosphere
Lithosphere
Oceanic crust
.
Continental
crust
.
. . . . .
.. .
.
.
.
Lithosphere
.
. .
. ..
.
Background map courtesy of Scott Walker (Digital Cartography Specialist, Harvard College Library); graphics and tectonic & volccanic features by Jenda Johnson (Volcano Video & Graphics)
Isla nd
arc
Spreading center—Fast
Divergent boundaries occur mostly
PLATE BOUNDARIES
along spreading centers where the
Co nt i n e nt a l c r u s t
As t h e n o s p h e re
L i t h o s p h e re
E
O
ld
oc
ea
n
ic
cr
u
st
L i t h o s p h e re
Co nt i n e nt a l c r u s t
High
Pl ate a u
Most of the world’s earthquakes
and volcanoes are
the other. The location where sinking of a plate occurs is called a subduction zone.
found at or near the boundary between two tectonic
plates. Friction between the plates keeps them from
Divergent margin
Spreading zones (no graphic) on
sliding. When the frictional strain is overcome, the ground
continents create parallel mountains
and valleys as the crust pulls apart
suddenly snaps alongOcean-Ocean—Ocean
faults andplatefractures
releasing energy Continent-Continent: Two thick
dives
Ocean-Continent: Ocean plate dives
Convergent
(ex: Basinmargin
& Range, U.S. and the
continental plates collide and buckle
beneath another ocean plate;
beneath a continental plate. Volcanic
Great Rift Valley, Africa. )
into high mountains.
volcanic islandoccur
chain forms at
abovedivergent
as earthquakes. Volcanoes
margins
mountain chain
forms inland.
(ex: Himalaya Mountain Range.)
the zone (ex:. The Marianas)
(ex:. Cascade Range, Sumatra, Japan)
(where magma rises and erupts); at convergent margins
Background map courtesy
of Scott Walker (Digital
Cartography
Specialist, Harvard College Library); graphics and tectonic & volccanic features by Jenda Johnson (Volcano Video & Graphics)
Transform
fault
(arrows
(where an oceanic plate dives beneath another plate;
show relative motion)
magma forms in the continental plate above the diving
oceanic plate), and less commonly as hot spots (where
magma melts through a plate, such as Hawai`i).
Divergent Boundaries & Spreading Zones
Great Rift Valley, Africa. )
Ast h eno sp h ere
Divergent boundaries occur mostly
along spreading centers where the
magma rises forming new crust.
(Ex. East Pacific Rise, Mid Atlantic
Ridge.)
A N T A R C T I CSpreading
P center—Slow
L A T E
Transform fault (arrows show
relative motion) O ce a n i c c r u s t
L i thos ph e re
Convergent margin
Divergent margin
AM
E
EN RICA
CH
AM
E
EN RICA
CH
PUERTO
RICO TRENCH
CARIBBEAN
P L AT E
D
Convergent
Most of the world’s
earthquakesBoundaries
and volcanoes are found at or near the boundary between two
When two plates move toward each other, crust is destroyed as one plate dives (is subducted) beneath
tectonic plates. Friction
between the plates keeps them from sliding. When the frictional strain is
the other. The location where sinking of a plate occurs is called a subduction zone.
overcome, the ground suddenly snaps along faults and fractures releasing energy as earthquakes.
Volcanoes occur at 1) divergent margins (mid ocean ridges where magma rises and erupts); and 2) at
convergent margins (magma forms in the continental plate above the diving oceanic plate ), and less
commonly as hot spots (where magma melts through a plate, such as Hawai`i).
C
T I
R C
A N T A
TR
DLE
TR
DLE
NAZCA
P L AT E
MID
MID
CARIBBEAN
P L AT E
ID
Most of the world’s earthquakes and volcanoes are found at or near the boundary between two
tectonic plates. Friction between the plates keeps them from sliding. When the frictional strain is
overcome, the ground suddenly snaps along faults and fractures releasing energy as earthquakes.
Volcanoes occur at 1) divergent margins (mid ocean ridges where magma rises and erupts); and 2) at
I D G E margins (magma forms in the continental plate above the diving oceanic plate ), and less
Rconvergent
commonly as hot spots (where magma melts through a plate, such as Hawai`i).
SCOTIA
C
T I
R C
A N T A
P L A T E
I F I C
P A C
D G E
R I
PAC I F I C P L AT E
P A C I F I C CPO LC O
A ST E
COCOS
P L AT E
Basin & Range
Basin & Range
P L AT E
JUAN dE F U C A
PL AT E
C H
E N
T R
JUA N dE FUC A
P L AT E
C H
E N
T R
A L E
U T I A N
I F I C
P A C
A N T A R C T I C
R I D G E
N N
I N D O – A U S T R AN DLI IA A
P L AT E
TR
CH
MA
R
T
MA
R
T
PLATE BOUNDARIES
Divergent Boundaries & Spreading Zones
S
A
EN
IL
H
C
U T I A N
TR
A RLI L E
KU
INDO–AUSTRALIAN
P L AT E
TR
PH
I
PL LIPP
AT I N
E
E
A
R
KU
TR
H
EN
RI
N ANA
C H
E
I
M
C
P
H
I
PL LIPP
AT I N
E
E
RI
N ANA
C H
E
R I S E
I F
IC
I
M
ID
R
R
A
T L
A N I C
T
T L
A N I C
T
A
EN
H
NC
TRE
GA
H
NC
TRE
GA
TON
R PI ASC E
PA
C I
E A FS I
TC
E A S
T
Isla nd
arc
G
E
AM
A
AN
ID
IC R
GE
S
T
AFRICAN
E
N
IA
W
E
R
S
T
H
U T
S O of
Hot spot (arrow shows direction
plate motion)
Volcanoes (generalized)
P L AT E
White arrows show plate motion direction
SYMBOLS
W
D
I N
D
N
IA
Spreading
ridge
As surrounding plates
are driven by deep forces
to move apart or crunch
together, the in-between
areas are pushed around
on the surface. This forces
them to slide past each
other horizontally.
Before 1900
Great earthquakes since 1900;
Tra nsfor m fa
Transform faults are w
plates are moving awa
a spreading ridge and f
zones develop (ex: oce
Asthenos phe re
Li tho sp he re
Transform faults are where two
plates are moving away from
a spreading ridge and fracture
zones develop (ex: oceanSpreading
floor)
ridge
Partial melt
Crust
Spreading
ridge
Tra nsfo r m fau lt
Hot spot (arrow = direction of plate motion)
two plates moving horizontally
in opposite directions
(ex: San Andreas Fault, California).
Volcanoes (generalized)
Strike slip faults result from
Asthenosphere
Lithosphere
Crust
SYMBOLS
Transform Boundaries
Strike slip faults result from
two plates moving horizontally
in opposite directions
(ex: San Andreas Fault, California).
Asthenosphere
Lithosphere
Crust
R
to move apart or crunch
the in-between
Hot spot (arrow together,
shows direction
of plate motion)
Li thosphere
areas are pushed around
on the surface. This forces
Asthenosphere
Great earthquakes
since 1900;
before 1900
them to slide past each
other horizontally.
are driven by deep forces
Volcanoes (generalized)
As surrounding plates
Transform
Boundaries
White
arrows show plate motion direction
AN
before 1900
E R I C Great earthquakes since 1900;
AM
GE
RID
CTIC
R
A
SYMBOLS
NT
RCT
ERIC
T H
S O U
I N
AR ABI AN
P L AT E
White arrows show plate motion direction
A N TA
P L AT E
AFRICAN
PL ATE
H E L L E N I C AR AB IAN
TRENCH
TRENCH
AFRICAN
P L AT E
AFRICAN
P L AT E
HELLENIC
P L AT E
EURASIAN
P L A TE EU R A S I A N
East Af
rican
Rift Sy
stem
E U R A S I A N P L AT E
ch
en
Tr
ch
en
Tr
R
A T L A N
T I C
M I D
East A
frican
Rift Sy
stem
E U R A S I A N P L AT E
ch
en
Tr
ch
en
Tr
TON
C H
E N
C H
R
E N
T
R
T
E
E
C H I L P E R U
C H I L
P E R
U
Volc anic
arc
Vol can ic
arc
E
Map ofTectonic
Major Tectonic
Select
GreatEarthquakes
Earthquakes and
Map of Major
PlatesPlates
and and
Select
Great
andVolcanoes.
Volcanoes.
M
SW-3
ou
n ta
R an
in
ge
N D IA N R I D G E
AL I
Mo
u
R an ta in
ng
e
R
A T L A N
T I C
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M I D
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I D
D IA N R I D E
L IN
G
G
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V
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I D
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JA
Teacher Answer Key
PLATE TECTONICS MAPPING ACTIVITY
1. Draw the symbol for each tectonic feature in the chart below
Divergent margins and spreading centers (draw in black)
Convergent margins - subduction zone
Transform faults – strike-slip faults
Hot Spot
(draw in blue)
(draw in green)
(draw in red)
2. Use the correct color of washable marker to locate each tectonic feature on the map.
a. Circle the name of the Divergent boundary systems
in black. (Ridges and Rises)
Number found __7_____
b. Circle the Convergent margins in blue.
(students may circle individual trenches) c. Circle the Transform fault symbols (and their
faults) in green.
Number found __16 +__
Number found __10____
d. Circle the Hot Spots in red.
Number found __5____
3. What is the name of the small crustal plate off the Oregon coast that is subducting
under the North American plate? __Juan de Fuca_________
4. Where are most of the earthquakes and volcanoes located?
Check one: a. crustal plate margins __X__
b. interior of a crustal plate _____
Answer the following questions about plate tectonicp processes using the diagrams from the map.
5. Divergent margins and continental spreading centers:
a. New crust forms at plate margins as _magma___ rises creating ridges under
oceans such as the _Mid-Atlantic Ridge__ and the __East Pacific Rise__.
AK-1
Teacher Answer Key
b. Continental spreading centers include the
_Basin and Range__ in the US and the _East African Rift System in Africa.
6. Convergent margins – subduction zones:
Identify the land form (geomorphology) created at each type of Convergent Boundary
and provide an example.
a. Ocean-Ocean _____Volcanic Island Chain (Mariana trench)________
b. Ocean-Continent ___Volcanic Mountain Ranges (Cascade Mountain Range)__
c. Continent-Continent _Folded Mountain Ranges_( Himalaya Mountain Range) __
7. Transform faults – strike slip faults
a. Sometimes tectonic plates shift past each other horizontally in __ opposite_____
directions at their boundary.
b. One example of a strike slip fault near San Francisco is the _San Andreas Fault_.
8. Earthquakes:
a. Most earthquakes occur near plate _boundaries__.
b. __Friction___ keeps the plate edges from sliding smoothly past each other.
c. The longer the plates remain stuck, the more strain builds and the more violent
the snap and resulting _ground movement__.
9. Volcanoes:
a. Magma rises to the surface from inside the earth mainly at _spreading centers_.
and __hot spots______.
b. Around the rim of the Pacific Ocean, the 40,000 km long _Ring__ of _Fire__
is especially active.
10. Hot Spots:
a. In a few places _magma___ melts through a tectonic plate.
b. Each hot spot likely marks the top of a plume of __molten_____ rock that rises
from deep in the earth.
AK-2
S
O
U
H
EN
CH
I N D
I A N
L
TR
P L A T E
C
T I
R C
A N TA
Basin & Range
I F I C
P A C
COCOS
P L AT E
Basin & Range
D G E
R I
PAC I F I C P L AT E
JUAN dE FUC A
PL ATE
Convergent margin
(Subduction or collision zones)
A N T A R C T I C
R I D G E
Spreading ridge
(Divergent margin)
E A
S T
INDO–AUSTRALIAN
P L AT E
TR
PH
I
PL LIPP
AT I N
E
E
TR
DLE
AM
E
EN RICA
CH
SCOTIA
P L AT E
SOUTH
AMERICAN
P L AT E
A N TA
AM
RCT
HELLENIC
AN
GE
T H
S O U
This simplified map generalizes the zones of deformation surrounding the different boundaries.
W
TRENCH
E
S
T
I N
D
N
I A
R
A R A BI A N
PL AT E
Hot spot volcanoes
P L AT E
AFRICAN
AFRICAN
P L AT E
ID
IC R
ERIC
Transform faults (major segments with arrows)
(Strike-slip zones)
NAZCA
P L AT E
MID
PUERTO
RICO TRENCH
CARIBBEAN
P L AT E
D
NOTE: The Basin & Range and East African Rift System are spreading centers that are not yet divergent margins, but are noted here with divergent arrows.
T
A
MA
R
T
RI
RI
N ANA
C H
E
I
M
ID
R
T L
A N I C
T
A
C H
E N
T R
E
East A
frican
Rift Sy
stem
KU
A L E
U T I A N
G
E
H
C
EN
NCH
A T
RE
NG
TO
R
A T L A N
T I C
R I S E
PA
C I
F I
C
E A S
T
C H
E N
R
T
E
C H I L
P E R
U
N DI A N R I D G E
AL I
M I D
AK-3
TR
G
E U R A S I A N P L AT E
E
N
CE
V
I D
I D
G
JA
East A
frican
Rift Sy
stem
Answer sheet for
Student Questions
page one.
EURASIAN
P L AT E
Teacher Answer Key
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