Question 8: What is the trade-offs that occur when a process layout is used? What is the trade-offs that occur when a product layout is used? Answer: The trade-offs between product layout and process layout includes the following: a. Process layout has more equipment flexibility. b. Process layout generally has higher skilled workers. c. Product layout involves higher volume manufacturing. d. Process layout benefits from high flexibility to be able to produce a variety of products, while product layout benefits from large volume manufacturing at low cost. e. The major goal of process layout is to minimize the transportation and material handling costs while the primary objective of the product layout is to minimize idle time and maximize efficiency of the process. f. The utilization of process layout generally results in higher levels of work-in-process inventory than the product layout. g. For a product layout, the flow of work is straight, while for process layout, the flow of work is mixed depending on the product produced. h. There is more dependency between workstations for product layout than for a process layout. i. The preventive maintenance and machine reliability are more important in a product layout than process layout because equipment breakdown may involve shutting down a work station which may in turn result in shutting down downstream work stations. j. Routing and scheduling is much less complicated for processes with product layout than processes with process layout. Question 10: . Briefly describe the two main layout types. Answer: Product layouts: are generally characterized by specialized labor and equipment designed for continuous processing. The layout is often arranged on the basis of processing sequence. Process layouts are more general in nature, in terms of labor, processing equipment and material handling equipment. Process layouts: often feature machine groups or departments. Items processed in process layouts tend to follow differing paths through the system. Fixed position layouts: are used to facilitate processing of a single job which is usually large , such as: construction of a large building or a hydro-electric power plant. Labor, equipment and materials are typically brought to the job site (product) rather than the other way around. Fixed position layouts are commonly found in farming, road building, home remodeling and minin Question 15: . Compare equipment maintenance strategies in product and process layouts. Answer: With a product layout, equipment breakdown has serious implications because the separate pieces of equipment are closely tied together. If one piece of equipment fails, the line will quickly come to a halt. Consequently, preventive maintenance to reduce the failure rate is advisable. In contrast, a process layout often contains duplicative equipment so that if one particular piece of equipment fails, the work can usually be shifted to another piece of equipment. Consequently, there is less need for preventive maintenance and less need for repair of equipment when it does break down. Moreover, process layouts utilize more skilled workers who tend to take better care of the equipment than their lower skilled counterparts in a product layout system.