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Exam 1 Study Guide Complete

Chapter 5 – Performance and Productivity
Integrated model of successful team performance: expertise, engagement, execution – high level
An integrated model of successful team performance serves two purposes:
- Description: the interpretation of events that assists with an accurate analysis of a situation
- Prescription: recommendations on ways to improve a problematic situation
Expertise: Ability
Engagement: Motivation
Execution: Strategy
Perspective norms: what should be done
Prospective norms: What should be avoided
Goal contagion: form of a norm setting in which people adopt a goal held by others
5 crucial KSA skills for team members:
1. Conflict resolution
2. Collaborative problem solving
3. Communication
4. Goal setting and performance management
5. Planning and task coordination
Choking under pressure: occurs when a person’s performance declines despite incentive for optimal
Social Facilitation- predictable enhancement in performance in the presence of others
Social inhibition- person becomes concerned with discrepancies between their performance and
standards of excellence.
FLOW: optimal performance- a psychological state in which a person is highly engaged in a task so
interested they lose track of time and the process of engaging the task is its own reinforcement.
** Engagement is critical for flow
Free Riding- people’s motivations often diminish in a team, especially the larger the team grows, the less
likely it is that any one person will work as hard as they can.
3 main causes of free riding:
1. Diffusion on responsibility
2. Reduced sense of self-efficacy
3. Sucker aversion
Team Performance Criteria
Performance criteria are the factors used to evaluate the success or failure of a team effort
Productivity: the productivity criterion asks whether the team’s output meets the standards of
those who have to use it – the end user.
Cohesion- the process that keep members of a team united
Learning- teams should represent growth and development opportunities for the individual
needs of the members.
Integration: important for teams to understand the organization’s goals to work effectively
towards them.
Team Performance Equation
AP (actual productivity) = PP (potential productivity) + S (synergy) – T (performance threats)
Potential productivity of a team depends on 3 sub factors
1. Task demands
2. The resources available to the team
3. Team process
Chapter 2 – Designing the Team
Task – Is the goal clearly defined?
The Task- teams that plan or develop performance strategies usually perform better
- Pre planning (planning b4 actually performing task)
- On-line planning (planning during task itself)
IS the goal clearly defined?
- Mission statement
- Common errors
- Team goals should be
o Clear and simple
o Specify ends but not means
- High performance orientation VS high learning orientation
Focus: Tactical teams, problem solving teams, creative teams
Tactical Teams: directive, highly focused tasks, role clarity, well defined operation, accuracy
Threat: Role ambiguity, lack of training standards, common barriers
Problem solving: focus on issues, separate people from problem, consider facts not opinions, conduct
thorough investigation, suspend judgement
Threat: failure to stick to facts, fixate on solutions, succumb to political pressures, confirmatory
information search
Creative: explore possibilities and alternatives
Threats: production blocking, uneven participation
Types of interdependence – pooled, sequential, reciprocal
Demonstrable vs nondemonstrable tasks
How big should the team be?
- Teams should be fewer than 10 in number
- Large teams can have a number of negative effects
- Advantages to smaller, even understaffed, teams
Effects of time pressure: capacity vs capability and AFM model
People - Skills – technical, task management, interpersonal
Diversity advantages and challenges
- Improved team performance
- Expanded talent pool
- Multiple viewpoints
- Decision making
- Competitive advantage
- Unconscious homogeneity
- Surface vs deep-level diversity
- Perceived vs actual diversity
- Faultiness
- How much diversity?
- Conflict
- Solos and tokens
Processes - Team norms
Team structure- how clearly the group’s processes are articulated by team leaders and how closely they
are adhered to by team members
Team norms:
- Norms are critical for team and organizational performance
- Norm development and enforcement
- Norm violation and consequences
- Changing norms
Types of coaching
Team coaching- there are 3 distinct figures involved in coaching
1. The functions that coaching serves for a team
2. The specific times in the task performance process when coaching is most likely to have
intended effects
3. The conditions under which coaching is likely to facilitate performance
Educational- focuses on ability, knowledge, and skill
Motivational- focuses on how to enhance involvement
Consultative- focuses on how to best integrate members’ strength and abilities
Chapter 4 – Team Identity Emotion and Development
Group entitativity
The degree to which people perceive themselves (and others) to be a unified, single team or collective
Group identity – fusion, multiple identities, common identity and common bonds
Group Identity- the extent to which people feel their group membership is an important part of who
they are. An analysis of group identity considers different situations:
Identity fusion – blurring of the self-other barrier
Multiple identities- membership to multiple groups
Common identity- group bond
Common bonds – member bond
Relational and collective identity
Group potency, collective efficacy
Group potency- the collective belief of group members that the group can be effective.
-Predicted powers related to team performance
Collective efficacy- an individual’s belief that a team can perform successfully
-Characteristics of groups with a high sense of collective efficacy:
- Set more challenging goals
- Persist in the face of difficulty
-High likelihood of success
Emotions – emotional contagion, vicarious affect, behavioral entrainment
Group emotion- affective state that arises from bottom-up and top-down components
- Emotional contagion – catch people’s emotions
- Vicarious affect – strength of emotion is a function of source likeability
- Behavioral entrainment – synchronizing movement
Group cohesion – definition and ways to build
Group Cohesion – defined as the emotional attraction among group members
Ways to build:
- Help team build identity
- Make it easy for the team to be close together
- Focus on similarities among team members
- Put a positive spin on the team’s performance
- Challenge the team
Types of Trust
Status – real vs pseudostatus
Status- Within moments of forming, members of team size one another up and intuitively take note of
one another’s personal qualities that they think are indicative of ability or prestige
Real status characteristics: intelligence, background, education
Pseudostatus characteristics: sex, age, race, demeanor, size, facial expression
Perception of status – most people overestimate group status
Status competition – some compete, some opt for lower status
5 Stages of Group/Team Development
Chapter 6 – Communication and Collective Intelligence
Communication biases
- Communication among team members is subject to biases that afflict even those with the
best of intensions
Absorptive capacity
- A person’s ability to transform new knowledge into useable knowledge
o Knowledge becomes a strategic resource when leaders engage in:
Proactive scanning – mindful and rich search efforts
Knowledge adaption – clever improvisational solutions to problems
Knowledge augmentation – challenging, changing, and expanding
Information dependence problem
- The term describing the fact that team members are dependent on one another for
- The common information effect : refers to the main determinant of how much a given fact
influences a group decision is not the fact itself, but how many people happen to be aware
of this fact prior to a group discussion
Hidden Profiles
- A hidden profile is defined as a superior decision alternative, but the superiority of the
choice is hidden from group members because each individual member only has a portion of
the information supporting the superior alternative choice
- Information known to only one, or a few members will often be omitted from group
Strategies for overcoming the common information effect
Strategies that DO NOT work:
Strategies that DO work:
Chapter 7 – Team Decision Making
Framing, overconfidence, and confirmation biases, decision fatigue
Group decision making rules – high level
Making choices from 2 or more alternatives
1. Define the problem
2. Identify the decision criteria
3. Allocate weights to the criteria
4. Generate alternatives
5. Rate each alternative on each criterion
6. Compute the optimal decision
Decision making pitfalls – 1 (Groupthink), 2 (Escalation of Commitment), 3 (Abilene Paradox), and 4
(Group Polarization)
Group think: occurs when team members place decision consensus above all other decision priorities
- Overestimation of the group
- Closed-mindedness
- Pressures toward uniformity
Escalation of commitment: under some conditions, teams, will persist with a losing course of action,
even in the face of clear evidence to the contrary.
The Abilene paradox: is a form of pluralistic ignorance in which group members adopt a position
because they feel other members desire it; team members don’t challenge one another because they
want to avoid conflict or achieve consensus
Group polarization: is the tendency for group discussion to intensify group opinion, thus producing
more extreme judgements that might be obtained by pooling individual’s views separately
Ethical Decision Making (pitfall 5) – self interest, conflicts of interest
Chapter 9 – Creativity
Creative realism- The production of novel and useful ideas – the ability to form new concepts using
existing knowledge
- Innovation
- Structural connectedness: ideas that work with existing products or services
Measuring creativity – One common way of evaluative the creativity of a person’s (or team’s) ideas is via
3 indices:
- Fluency – how many ideas a person can generate
- Flexibility – how many types of ideas a person generates
- Originality – the ability to generate unusual solutions and unique answers to problems
Threats to team creativity
Enhancing team creativity
Nominal group, Delphi, stepladder techniques, etc.
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