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Gandhinagar Institute of Technology
Computer Networks ()
Active Learning Assignment
Unit & Topic : Addressing in TCP/IP
Prepared By: Tejas Chavda
Guided By: Prof. Mohit
Branch & Division: CE C3
Contents
• TCP/IP Introduction
• TCP/IP Addressing
-Physical Address
-Logical Address
A) Classful Addressing
1) Classes
2) Masking
3) Subnetting
-Port Address
-Special address
Introduction
• TCP/IP Stands for Transmission Control Protocol/Internetworking
Protocol.
• Developed and founded by ARPA (Advanced Research Project Agency)
• Nowadays it is the backbone of the internetwork named as INTERNET
these days.
• It mainly has 5 layers of service.
TCP/IP Layers associated with addresses
TCP/IP Layer
Addressing Used
Application layer
Specific address
Transport layer
Port address
Network or Internet Layer
Logical address
Data link layer/Physical
layer
Physical address
Types of Addressing
Physical Address (MAC Address)
• A media access control address (MAC address) of a device is a unique
identifier assigned to a network interface controller (NIC) for
communications at the data link layer of a network segment.
• MAC addresses are most often assigned by the manufacturer of a NIC
and are stored in its hardware, such as the card's ROM.
• Normally it is 48 bit long.
• Eg: 00:0a:95:9d:68:16.
• MAC addresses are used as a network address for most IEEE
802 network technologies, including Ethernet, Wi-Fi and Bluetooth.
Logical Address (IP Address)
• The logical address is also called as the IP (Internet Protocol) address.
• At the network level ,the hosts and routers are recognised by their IP
Addresses. IP address is an internetwork address.
• Currently IPV 4 –IPV 6 are running in current market.
• Every protocol involved in internetwork requires IP address. The
logical address is 32-bit address.
• It defines three fields :- –Class Type
–Net id
–Host id
The 32 bits are divided into four octets as in
the following:
TCP/IP supports 5 classes of Internet
addresses:
Classes
•Class A
•Class B
•Class C
•Class D
•Class E
Ip Ranges
0.0.0.0 – 127.255.255.255
128.0.0.0 – 191.255.255.255
192.0.0.0 - 223.255.255.255
224.0.0.0 - 239.255.255.255
240.0.0.0 - 255.255.255.255
Masking
• It helps in knowing which portion of given IP address identifies
network and which identifies host.
Default mask for : A -> 255.0.0.0
B -> 255.255.0.0
C-> 255.255.255.0
Eg
Determine Net and Host ID of the IP address 12.20.9.1
Step 1 : Find Class, Default mask
Step2 : write both in binary
00001100.00010100.00001001.0000000
111111111.00000000.00000000.00000000
So,
NET ID: 12 , HOST ID 20.9.1
Port Address:
• The IP address and the physical address are necessary for a quantity of data
to travel from a source to the destination host.But in today’s modern
computers, we may require to run multiple process on it simultaneously.
• Let suppose computer A can communicate with computer C by
using TELNET. At the same time, computer A communicates with computer
B by using the File Transfer Protocol (FTP) thereby working simultaneously.
• The main objective of internet is the process to process communications.
For this purpose it is necessary to label or name the process.
• Thus the process need addresses. The label assigned to a process is called
as a port address.It is a 16 bit address.
• The physical addresses change for each trip a packet takes, but the logical
and port addresses usually remain the same.
Specific Addresses
• Some applications have user friendly address. The examples of
specific address are the e-mail addresses or the University Resource
Locators(URL).
• Examples include the e-mail address (for example,
[email protected]) and the Universal Resource Locator
(URL) (for example, www.gmail.com).
• These addresses are designed for a specific address.These addresses,
however get changed to the corresponding port and logical addresses
by the sending computer.
Thank-you
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