Jumairah Jasmine M. Macalabo Grade 9 – Sodium assignment 01172019 Physical Education 3 V O L L E Y B A L L Volleyball, game played by two teams, usually of six players on a side, in which the players use their hands to bat a ball back and forth over a high net, trying to make the ball touch the court within the opponents’ playing area before it can be returned. To prevent this a player on the opposing team bats the ball up and toward a teammate before it touches the court surface—that teammate may then volley it back across the net or bat it to a third teammate who volleys it across the net. A team is allowed only three touches of the ball before it must be returned over the net. BRIEF HISTORY The game of volleyball, originally called “mintonette,” was invented in 1895 by William G. Morgan after the invention of basketball only four years before. Morgan, a graduate of the Springfield College of the YMCA, designed the game to be a combination of basketball, baseball, tennis, and handball. The first volleyball net, borrowed from tennis, was only 6’6″ high (though you need to remember that the average American was shorter in the nineteenth century). The offensive style of setting and spiking was first demonstrated in the Philippines in 1916. Over the years that followed, it became clear that standard rules were needed for tournament play, and thus the USVBA (United States Volleyball Association) was formed in 1928. COURT DIMENSIONS The overall measurement for a Volleyball court is 60 feet by 30 feet. Each side of the court is therefore 30 feet by 30 feet in size. Jumairah Jasmine M. Macalabo Grade 9 – Sodium assignment 01172019 Boundary lines mark the perimeter of the court. The end lines mark the length or the court, and the sidelines to mark the width of the court. Center Line A center line is marked at the center of the court dividing it equally into 30 feet squares. Attack Line The attack line is marked 10 feet on each side of the center line of the court. Some rules show the attack line at 9′ 10″ however that includes the width of the line itself (2″). The Attack line is the line that separates the front court (the area near the net) and the back court (the area between the attack line and end line). Service Line A service line is marked 10 feet inside the right sideline on each back line. This is the area from which the server may serve the volleyball. The Service area is the area beyond the service line where players serve the ball. The Net The net is hung directly above the center line at 7 feet 4 inches for women and 8 feet for men. Standards Volleyball standards should be set at 36 feet apart, 3 feet on either side of the sidelines. Ceiling Height The minimum ceiling height should be 23 feet. Preferably the ceilings should be higher. EQUIPMENTS The Ball The type of ball required in volleyball depends on the type and level of volleyball you play. Beach volleyballs and indoor volleyballs vary in size, weight and composition. Beach volleyball is played with two players on a smaller sand court with a larger, lighter ball, while indoor volleyball is played with six players on a larger court, with a heavier, faster ball made of leather. Net & Poles The net divides the volleyball court into two halves. The height of the net varies based on the age of the players and the surface being played on. An indoor net is 7 feet 11 5/8 inches in height for men and 7 feet 4 1/8 inches for women. Beach volleyball nets are hung at the same height. In addition to the nets, and the poles from which they are hung, protective padding is required to surround these structures to ensure player safety in case of collision. Knee Pads Indoor volleyball is tough on the knees. Most courts are on wooden gymnasium floors, making knee protection a must. Knee pads come in two traditional styles. Small, flatter knee pads are worn by beginning players and sometimes by the setter. These players do not traditionally dig, or dive, for the ball repeatedly. Defensive players, who dive frequently, often prefer the "bubble" style of knee pad. These full-coverage pads are often made of shock absorbing memory foam to prevent injury. Jumairah Jasmine M. Macalabo Grade 9 – Sodium assignment 01172019 POSITIONS Outside Hitter (also called wing spiker, left side) Outside Hitter is the player who carries the serve receive responsibility along with the libero. Right side hitter (also called wing spiker) Right side hitter has the similar role than outside hitter, they play front row and back row and are carrying pass, attack, block, serve and defense responsibilities. Opposite Hitter The opposite hitter is the player who most often scores the most points in the team. Setter The setter is the playmaker, point guard or the quarterback of the volleyball team. A setter’s responsibility is to run the team’s offense and build up offensive scoring opportunities for the team. Middle Blocker (Center, Middle, Middle Hitter) Middle blockers main responsibility is to stop the opponent’s offense. Libero The libero is fairly new position in volleyball. The libero is a back row specialist who is allowed to play back court only. OFFICIALS Volleyball officials that make up the officiating crew are first referee, second referee, scorekeeper, assistant scorer, and line judges. The first referee is in charge from the beginning of the match until the end. The first referee has authority over all other members of the officiating crew. The first referee should talk to all the officiating crew members before the match starts, going over any questions officials might have about their responsibilities. The first referee should have a talk with the second referee before the match starts discussing issues such as pre-match protocol and anything that will help the match run more smoothly. The second referee should establish a rapport with the scorekeeper and libero tracker. If the scorer and libero tracker have a problem or don’t understand something, they should be comfortable enough to ask the second referee for help. The scorekeeper’s main job is to make sure the score is correct at all times. The scorekeeper uses a score sheet to keep track of the game. The assistant scorer (or libero tracker) sits at the scorer’s table next to the scorekeeper. The assistant scorer’s main function is to record libero replacements on to a libero tracking sheet. If only two line judges are used, they stand at the corner of the endline that is closest to the right hand of each referee, diagonally from the corner. The line judges watch the endline and sideline of their respective corners. Jumairah Jasmine M. Macalabo Grade 9 – Sodium assignment 01172019 THE LINE JUDGES SIGNAL - Ball in and out whenever the ball lands near the lines - Touches of out balls by players receiving the ball - Ball touching the antennae - A served ball crossing the net outside the crossing space (the space between the antennaes) - Any player standing off the court at the moment of service - Server foot faults RULES AND REGULATIONS Basic Volleyball Rules 6 players on the floor at any one time - 3 in the front row and 3 in the back row Maximum of 3 hits per side Points are made on every serve for wining team of rally (rally-point scoring). Player may not hit the ball twice in succession. (A block is not considered a hit.) Ball may be played off the net during a volley and on a serve. A ball hitting a boundary line is in. A ball is out if it hits an antennae, the floor completely outside the court, any of the net or cables outside the antennae, the referee stand or pole, the ceiling above a non-playable area. It is legal to contact the ball with any part of a player’s body. It is illegal to catch, hold or throw the ball. A player cannot block or attack a serve from on or inside the 10-foot line. After the serve, front-line players may switch positions at the net. Matches are made up of sets; the number depends on level of play. 3-set matches are 2 sets to 25 points and a third set to 15. Each set must be won by two points. The winner is the first team to win 2 sets. 5-set matches are 4 sets to 25 points and fifth set to 15. The team must win by 2 unless tournament rules dictate otherwise. The winner is the first team to win three sets. Basic Volleyball Rule Violations Rule violations that result in a point for the opponent When serving, the player steps on or across the service line as while making contact with the ball. Failure to serve the ball over the net successfully. Ball-handling errors. Contacting the ball illegally (double touching, lifting, carrying, throwing, etc.) Touching the net with any part of the body while the ball is in play. When blocking a ball coming from the opponent’s court, it’s illegal to contact the ball when reaching over the net if both your opponent has not used 3 contacts AND they have a player there to make a play on the ball. When attacking a ball coming from the opponent’s court, contacting the ball when reaching over the net is a violation if the ball has not yet broken the vertical plane of the net. Crossing the court centerline with any part of your body is a violation. Exception: if it is the hand or foot. In this case, the entire hand or entire foot must cross for it to be a violation. Serving out of rotation/order. Back-row player blocking (deflecting a ball coming from the opponent) when, at the moment of contact, the back-row player is near the net and has part of his/her body above the top of the net. This is an illegal block. Back-row player attacking a ball inside the front zone (the area inside the 3M/10-foot line) when, at the moment of contact, the ball is completely above the net. This is an illegal attack. Jumairah Jasmine M. Macalabo Grade 9 – Sodium assignment 01172019 Rotation Positions are numbered, one through six, starting with the server in the back right corner. Then going in a counter-clockwise direction, the rest of the positions are numbered. The actual direction of the rotation is clockwise, however. After the server finishes, the other team gets the ball, and you get the ball back, everyone just shifts to the right one spot. Rotation, if not fully understood, can be a very confusing part of the game. In basic volleyball there are three players in the front row and three in the back, and each player just rotates to the next position as the plays go along. Any time a player is in the back row, he or she cannot “attack” the ball in front of the 10-foot line on the court. Attacks are also known as “hits” or “spikes”—usually the third hit of a possession. This rule is in effect to make sure that the strong hitters aren’t always able to dominate the game. When the strong hitters are in the back row, they can still attack the ball on the third hit, but they cannot jump in front of the 10-foot line.