SUPERNATURALS

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SUPERNATURALS
THE SPIRITUAL SELF
OBJECTIVES
O Identify various religious
practices and beliefs
O Understand the self in relation
with religious beliefs; and
O Explain ways of finding the
meaning of life.
INTRODUCTION
According to William James,
the spiritual self is the most
intimate, inner subjective
part of the self.
INTRODUCTION
The ability to use moral
sensibility and conscience
may be seen through the
expressions of religion, its
beliefs and practices.
INTRODUCTION
In the same manner, cultural
rituals and ceremonies are
some manifestations what
people believe in. Moreover,
seeking the meaning of life is a
journey that the spiritual self is
on.
Who and what is God for
you?
2. What made you believe that
there is God?
3. What is the effect of having
“God” (or “w/out God”) in
your life?
1.
Rebecca Stein (Stein 2011) works on the
definition of religion “as a set of cultural
beliefs and practices that usually
includes some or all of basic
characteristics”:
O A belief in anthropomorphic
supernatural being, such as
spirit and gods
OA
focus on the sacred
supernatural, where sacred
refers to a feeling of reverence
and awe
O The presence of supernatural
power or energy that is found
on supernatural beings as well
as physical beings and objects
O The performance of ritual
activities that involves the
manipulation of sacred
object to communicate to
supernatural beings and/or
to influence or control
events
O The articulation of worldview and
moral codes through narratives and
other means
O Provide
the
creation
and
maintenance of social bonds and
mechanism of social control within
a community; provide explanation
for unknown and a sense of control
for individuals.
An individual lives in a society
where there are many
practices of religion. The
choice of religious belief lies
within
the spiritual self.
Although the choice maybe
influenced by the society and
its culture.
Ritual is the performance of
ceremonial acts prescribed by
a tradition or sacred law
(Britannica 2017). Ritual is a
specific, observable mode of
behavior exhibited by all
known societies. It is thus
possible to view ritual as a way
of defining or describing
humans.
There
are
three
fundamental
characteristics of rituals according to
Penner (Britannica 2017). Ritual has the
characteristics of:
OA
feeling or emotion of
respect, awe, fascination, or
dread in relation to the
sacred
ODependence
upon a
belief system that is
usually expressed in the
language of myth
OIs symbolic in relation to
its reference
The self can be described as a ritual
being who exhibits a striking parallel
between their ritual and verbal
behaviour. Just as language is a
system of symbols that is based
upon arbitrary rules, ritual may be
viewed as a system of symbolic acts
that is based upon arbitrary rules.
Participation to rituals is
expressions of religious
beliefs.
SOME WORLD RELIGIOUS
BELIEFS AND PRACTICES
There are different religions
with different beliefs and
practices. Some of the major
world religions are Buddhism,
Christianity, Hinduism, Islam
and Judaism.
BUDDHISM
BUDDHISM
Buddhism believes that life is
not a bed of roses. Instead,
there are suffering, pain and
frustrations. When people,
they want to experience the
goodness of life and avoid
disappointments.
BUDDHISM
It becomes a habit known
as the reactive cycle of
wanting and hating, like
and dislike and craving and
aversion.
BUDDHISM
This reactive cycle can be
broken through the practice of
meditation, acquiring more
wisdom
and
deeper
understanding and acceptance
of things as they are.
BUDDHISM
This reactive cycle can be
broken through the practice of
meditation, acquiring more
wisdom
and
deeper
understanding and acceptance
of things as they are.
CUSTOMS AND
PRACTICES
BUDDHISM
CUSTOMS AND PRACTICES
There are two types of meditation
practices: samatha and vipassana.
CUSTOMS AND PRACTICES
Samatha is practiced as
mindfulness of breathing
and development of loving
kindness (Metta Bhavana).
CUSTOMS AND PRACTICES
Vipassana practices aim
at developing insight into
reality. Acquiring wisdom
is by studying Buddha’s
teaching, the Dharma.
CUSTOMS AND PRACTICES
Through the reflection of
Dharma, Buddhists can
achieve
a
deeper
understanding
of
life.
Buddhists believe in nonviolence principle.
CUSTOMS AND PRACTICES
Some of the Major Buddhist
celebrations are Parinirvana Day in
February; Buddha day (Wesak) in
May;
Dharma
Dy
in
July;
Padmasambhava Day October; and
Sangha Day in November.
CUSTOMS AND PRACTICES
Some of the Major Buddhist
celebrations are Parinirvana Day in
February; Buddha day (Wesak) in
May;
Dharma
Dy
in
July;
Padmasambhava Day October; and
Sangha Day in November.
CHRISTIANITY
CHRISTIANITY
This is the belief that
Jesus Christ is the Savior
of the Humanity from the
slavery of sins.
CHRISTIANITY
He died on the cross for the
sin of the humanity but
resurrected from the death,
so that anyone who
believes in Him will be
saved and have eternal life.
CHRISTIANITY
The Holy Bible is a
selection of books, which
is divided into two: the
Old Testament and New
Testament.
CUSTOMS AND
PRACTICES
CHRISTIANITY
CUSTOMS AND PRACTICES
The
most
common
celebration/occassion
of
Christianity is Christmas Season.
Christ death and resurrection are
commemorated by only some
Christians such as Catholics,
Aglipayans, etc.
HINDUISM
HINDUISM
Hinduism covers a wide
range
of
traditional
beliefs and religious
groups; thus there is no
single founder or leader.
HINDUISM
Hindus
believe
that
existence is a cycle of
birth, death and rebirth,
governed by Karma.
HINDUISM
Karma is a concept
where the reincarnated
life will depend on how
the past life was spent.
HINDUISM
Hindus believe that the soul
passes through a cycle of
successive lives and its
next incarnation is always
dependent on how the
previous life was lived.
HINDUISM
Vedas are sacred scriptures
of Hindus. Mahabharata &
Ramayana are two other
important texts of the
Hindus.
CUSTOMS AND
PRACTICES
BUDDHISM
CUSTOMS AND PRACTICES
Diwali and Navrati are the
most celebrated festivals
of the Hindus.
CUSTOMS AND PRACTICES
Diwali is the festival of
lights while Navrati is the
festival of nine nights,
which
celebrate
the
triumph of good over evil.
ISLAM
ISLAM
Muslims believe in Allah,
who is their “One God.”
They believe in the unity
and universality of God.
ISLAM
Muslims also have a strong
sense of community or
“ummah”
and
an
awareness of their solidaity
with all Muslims worlwide.
ISLAM
Islam
means
“willing
submission to God.”
ISLAM
Muslims believed that Mohammed
is the last and final prophet sent
by God. Mohammed was born in
Mecca in 570 CE and received
revelations from God through the
Angel Gabriel over a period of 23
years.
ISLAM
The Holy Book of Islam is
called the Quran, which
was taught to be recited in
Arabic because of any
translation is seen as
inadequate.
CUSTOMS AND PRACTICES
Muslims believe in the five
pillars of Islam, which are
the foundation of Muslim
life:
CUSTOMS AND PRACTICES
OShahadah
OSalat
OZakat
OHajj
OSawm
CUSTOMS AND PRACTICES
Shahadah – statement of
faith: “There is no God but
the one true God and
Mohammed
is
his
messenger.”
CUSTOMS AND PRACTICES
Salat – the prayer is
practiced five times a day.
CUSTOMS AND PRACTICES
Zakat – the monetary
offering for the benefit of
the poor. It comprises the
2.5% of a Muslim’s assets.
CUSTOMS AND PRACTICES
Hajj – the yearly pilgrimage
to Mecca. Muslims who can
afford are asked to do the
pilgrimage at least once in
their lifetime.
CUSTOMS AND PRACTICES
Sawm – the fasting. Muslims
do fasting, from food, drink
and sexual act, during the
celebration of Ramadan.
CUSTOMS AND PRACTICES
Ramadan is the ninth
month of the Islamic lunar
calendar. The fast is from
dawn to sunset.
CUSTOMS AND PRACTICES
Two major festivals in Islam are
Eidul-Fitr and Eidul-Adha. EidulFitr is the celebration at the end
of Ramadan, while Eidul-Adha
is
celebrated
within
the
completion of the pilgrimage,
the Hajj.
JUDAISM
JUDAISM
The Jews believe in God of
Abraham, the same God that
liberated the Hebrew slaves
from Egypt to Canaan, the
promised Land through the
leadership of Moses and later,
Joshua.
JUDAISM
The Jews believe in the
coming of Messiah, the
Savior. The sacred scripture
of the Jews is called the
Torah or the Law.
JUDAISM
Torah is the guide of the
Jewish living. The study and
interpretation of Torah is
part of the Jewish culture.
CUSTOMS AND PRACTICES
There are five major
festivals observed by
the Jews:
CUSTOMS AND PRACTICES
O Rosh Hashanah – the New Year
O Yom Kippur – the day of atonement
O Pesach – Passover
O Shavuot – Pentecost
O Sukkot – tabernacles. The Jewish Sabbath
begins on Friday evening at sunset and is an
important time when families gather for the
Shabbat meal.
Religious beliefs, rituals,
practices and customs are
all part of the expression of
the spiritual self. What to
believe and how to manifest
the belief
is entirely
dependent
on
the
individual, to the self.
A person might believe
that there is a higher
being, a supernatural
being, usually termed as
God, but not necessarily
wants to be affiliated or
identified with a certain
religious groups.
Others may have religious
practices
which
are
perceived to be contrary to
the practices of other
groups. Religious beliefs
and practices, therefore are
formed relative to its
context and culture.
FINDING AND CREATING
MEANING OF LIFE
DR. VIKTOR E. FRANKL
Dr. Viktor E. Frankl was
born on March 26, 1905 in
Vienna, Austria, where
famous
pyschiatrists
Sigmund Freud and Alfred
Adler lived.
A survivor of the Holocaust,
Dr. Frankl published a book
about logotherapy.
What is Logotheraphy?
Logotheraphy
is
a
psychotheraphy
introduced
by
Dr.
Viktor
Frankl,
who
considered the Father
of Logotheraphy.
The main belief of
logotheraphy
aids
individuals
to
find
personal meaning of
life,
whatever
life
situation they may be.
In logotheraphy, meaning
can be discovered
by
creating a work or doing a
deed,
experiencing
something
or
encountering
someone
and the attitude towad
unavoidable suffering.
According to the Victor
Frankl
Institute
of
Logotheraphy, it uses the
philosophy of optimism in
the face of tragedy, where
people are capable of
“turning suffering into
human achievement;
Deriving from guilt the
opportunity to change
oneself for the better; and
deriving
from
life’s
transitoriness an incentive
to
take
responsible
action.”
BASIC CONCEPT OF
FRANKLIAN PSYCHOLOGY
O Life has meaning under all
circumstances
O Main motivation for living is
our will to find meaning in
life
O Freedom to find meaning
FRANKLIAN PSYCHOLOGY
AIMS TO:
O Become aware of spiritual
resources
O Make conscious spiritual
resources
O Use “defiant power of the
human spirit” and stand up
against adversity.
LOGOTHERAPHY
ASSUMPTIONS
The Human Being is an entity
consisting of body, mind and spirit
O This first assumption deals
with the body (soma), mind
(psyche) and spirit (noos).
According to Frankl, the body
and mind are what we have
and the spirit is what we are.
Life has meaning under all
circumstances, even the most miserable
O Assumption two is “ultimate
meaning.” This is difficult to
grasp but it is something
everyone experiences and it
represents an order in a world
with laws that go beyond human
laws.
People have a will to meaning
O The third assumption is seen as our
main motivation for living and
acting. When we see meaning, we
are ready for any type of suffering.
This is considered to be different
than our will to achieve power and
pleasure.
People have freedom under all
circumstances to activate the will to find
meaning
O Assumption four is that we are
free to activate our will to find
meaning, and this can be done
under any circumstances. This
deals with change of attitudes
about unavoidable fate.
Frankl was able to test the
first
four
assumptions
when he was confined in
the concentration camps.
Life has a demand quality to which people
must respond if decisions are to be
meaningful
O The 5th assumption, the meaning of
the moment, is more practical in
daily living than ultimate meaning.
Unlike ultimate meaning, this
meaning can be found and fulfilled.
This can be done by following the
values of society or by following the
voice of our conscience.
The individual is unique
O The sixth assumption deals with
one’s sense of meaning. This is
enhanced by the realization that
we are irreplaceable.
In essence, all humans are
unique with an entity of body,
mind and spirit. We all go
through unique situations and
are constantly looking to find
meaning. We are free to do
these at all times in response
to certain demands.
FRANKL’S SOURCE OF
MEANING
Popova (2017) discussed
Viktor Frankl’s work. There
are three possible sources
of the meaning of life:
purposeful work, courage
in the face of difficulty and
love.
Purposeful Work
O To find the meaning of life starts
with holding a future goal. Each
individual has each own future goal
to achieve or a task to perform.
That task or goal to fulfill becomes
the meaning of their life. Therefore,
meaning of life is unique to every
individual.
Courage in the face of difficulty
O A meaningful life is a life with
suffering. Suffering is inevitable
part of life. To find meaning of
life is to recognize suffering,
pain and death as part of life
and to have the courage to face
these difficulties.
Love
O Dr. Frankl’s wife, parents and
some relatives were victims of
gas chambers. His love for his
wife kept him fight for his life.
Love
O Popova (2017) also quoted Dr.
Frankl’s definition of love: “Love
is the only way to grasp another
human being in the innermost
core of his personality.
Love
O No one can become fully aware
of the very essence of another
human being unless he loves
him. By his love, he is enabled to
see the essential traits and
features in the beloved person;
Love
O And even more, he sees that which
is potential in him… furthermore, by
his love, the loving person enables
the beloved person to actualize
these potentialities. By making him
aware of what he can be and of
what he should become, he makes
these comes true.”
Love
O Costello (2015), captured Viktor
Frankl’s message: “The ultimate
secret on the spiritual
foundation of life is that love is
salvation and joy eternity.”
The ultimate factor to find
the meaning of life is LOVE.
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