SUPERNATURALS THE SPIRITUAL SELF OBJECTIVES O Identify various religious practices and beliefs O Understand the self in relation with religious beliefs; and O Explain ways of finding the meaning of life. INTRODUCTION According to William James, the spiritual self is the most intimate, inner subjective part of the self. INTRODUCTION The ability to use moral sensibility and conscience may be seen through the expressions of religion, its beliefs and practices. INTRODUCTION In the same manner, cultural rituals and ceremonies are some manifestations what people believe in. Moreover, seeking the meaning of life is a journey that the spiritual self is on. Who and what is God for you? 2. What made you believe that there is God? 3. What is the effect of having “God” (or “w/out God”) in your life? 1. Rebecca Stein (Stein 2011) works on the definition of religion “as a set of cultural beliefs and practices that usually includes some or all of basic characteristics”: O A belief in anthropomorphic supernatural being, such as spirit and gods OA focus on the sacred supernatural, where sacred refers to a feeling of reverence and awe O The presence of supernatural power or energy that is found on supernatural beings as well as physical beings and objects O The performance of ritual activities that involves the manipulation of sacred object to communicate to supernatural beings and/or to influence or control events O The articulation of worldview and moral codes through narratives and other means O Provide the creation and maintenance of social bonds and mechanism of social control within a community; provide explanation for unknown and a sense of control for individuals. An individual lives in a society where there are many practices of religion. The choice of religious belief lies within the spiritual self. Although the choice maybe influenced by the society and its culture. Ritual is the performance of ceremonial acts prescribed by a tradition or sacred law (Britannica 2017). Ritual is a specific, observable mode of behavior exhibited by all known societies. It is thus possible to view ritual as a way of defining or describing humans. There are three fundamental characteristics of rituals according to Penner (Britannica 2017). Ritual has the characteristics of: OA feeling or emotion of respect, awe, fascination, or dread in relation to the sacred ODependence upon a belief system that is usually expressed in the language of myth OIs symbolic in relation to its reference The self can be described as a ritual being who exhibits a striking parallel between their ritual and verbal behaviour. Just as language is a system of symbols that is based upon arbitrary rules, ritual may be viewed as a system of symbolic acts that is based upon arbitrary rules. Participation to rituals is expressions of religious beliefs. SOME WORLD RELIGIOUS BELIEFS AND PRACTICES There are different religions with different beliefs and practices. Some of the major world religions are Buddhism, Christianity, Hinduism, Islam and Judaism. BUDDHISM BUDDHISM Buddhism believes that life is not a bed of roses. Instead, there are suffering, pain and frustrations. When people, they want to experience the goodness of life and avoid disappointments. BUDDHISM It becomes a habit known as the reactive cycle of wanting and hating, like and dislike and craving and aversion. BUDDHISM This reactive cycle can be broken through the practice of meditation, acquiring more wisdom and deeper understanding and acceptance of things as they are. BUDDHISM This reactive cycle can be broken through the practice of meditation, acquiring more wisdom and deeper understanding and acceptance of things as they are. CUSTOMS AND PRACTICES BUDDHISM CUSTOMS AND PRACTICES There are two types of meditation practices: samatha and vipassana. CUSTOMS AND PRACTICES Samatha is practiced as mindfulness of breathing and development of loving kindness (Metta Bhavana). CUSTOMS AND PRACTICES Vipassana practices aim at developing insight into reality. Acquiring wisdom is by studying Buddha’s teaching, the Dharma. CUSTOMS AND PRACTICES Through the reflection of Dharma, Buddhists can achieve a deeper understanding of life. Buddhists believe in nonviolence principle. CUSTOMS AND PRACTICES Some of the Major Buddhist celebrations are Parinirvana Day in February; Buddha day (Wesak) in May; Dharma Dy in July; Padmasambhava Day October; and Sangha Day in November. CUSTOMS AND PRACTICES Some of the Major Buddhist celebrations are Parinirvana Day in February; Buddha day (Wesak) in May; Dharma Dy in July; Padmasambhava Day October; and Sangha Day in November. CHRISTIANITY CHRISTIANITY This is the belief that Jesus Christ is the Savior of the Humanity from the slavery of sins. CHRISTIANITY He died on the cross for the sin of the humanity but resurrected from the death, so that anyone who believes in Him will be saved and have eternal life. CHRISTIANITY The Holy Bible is a selection of books, which is divided into two: the Old Testament and New Testament. CUSTOMS AND PRACTICES CHRISTIANITY CUSTOMS AND PRACTICES The most common celebration/occassion of Christianity is Christmas Season. Christ death and resurrection are commemorated by only some Christians such as Catholics, Aglipayans, etc. HINDUISM HINDUISM Hinduism covers a wide range of traditional beliefs and religious groups; thus there is no single founder or leader. HINDUISM Hindus believe that existence is a cycle of birth, death and rebirth, governed by Karma. HINDUISM Karma is a concept where the reincarnated life will depend on how the past life was spent. HINDUISM Hindus believe that the soul passes through a cycle of successive lives and its next incarnation is always dependent on how the previous life was lived. HINDUISM Vedas are sacred scriptures of Hindus. Mahabharata & Ramayana are two other important texts of the Hindus. CUSTOMS AND PRACTICES BUDDHISM CUSTOMS AND PRACTICES Diwali and Navrati are the most celebrated festivals of the Hindus. CUSTOMS AND PRACTICES Diwali is the festival of lights while Navrati is the festival of nine nights, which celebrate the triumph of good over evil. ISLAM ISLAM Muslims believe in Allah, who is their “One God.” They believe in the unity and universality of God. ISLAM Muslims also have a strong sense of community or “ummah” and an awareness of their solidaity with all Muslims worlwide. ISLAM Islam means “willing submission to God.” ISLAM Muslims believed that Mohammed is the last and final prophet sent by God. Mohammed was born in Mecca in 570 CE and received revelations from God through the Angel Gabriel over a period of 23 years. ISLAM The Holy Book of Islam is called the Quran, which was taught to be recited in Arabic because of any translation is seen as inadequate. CUSTOMS AND PRACTICES Muslims believe in the five pillars of Islam, which are the foundation of Muslim life: CUSTOMS AND PRACTICES OShahadah OSalat OZakat OHajj OSawm CUSTOMS AND PRACTICES Shahadah – statement of faith: “There is no God but the one true God and Mohammed is his messenger.” CUSTOMS AND PRACTICES Salat – the prayer is practiced five times a day. CUSTOMS AND PRACTICES Zakat – the monetary offering for the benefit of the poor. It comprises the 2.5% of a Muslim’s assets. CUSTOMS AND PRACTICES Hajj – the yearly pilgrimage to Mecca. Muslims who can afford are asked to do the pilgrimage at least once in their lifetime. CUSTOMS AND PRACTICES Sawm – the fasting. Muslims do fasting, from food, drink and sexual act, during the celebration of Ramadan. CUSTOMS AND PRACTICES Ramadan is the ninth month of the Islamic lunar calendar. The fast is from dawn to sunset. CUSTOMS AND PRACTICES Two major festivals in Islam are Eidul-Fitr and Eidul-Adha. EidulFitr is the celebration at the end of Ramadan, while Eidul-Adha is celebrated within the completion of the pilgrimage, the Hajj. JUDAISM JUDAISM The Jews believe in God of Abraham, the same God that liberated the Hebrew slaves from Egypt to Canaan, the promised Land through the leadership of Moses and later, Joshua. JUDAISM The Jews believe in the coming of Messiah, the Savior. The sacred scripture of the Jews is called the Torah or the Law. JUDAISM Torah is the guide of the Jewish living. The study and interpretation of Torah is part of the Jewish culture. CUSTOMS AND PRACTICES There are five major festivals observed by the Jews: CUSTOMS AND PRACTICES O Rosh Hashanah – the New Year O Yom Kippur – the day of atonement O Pesach – Passover O Shavuot – Pentecost O Sukkot – tabernacles. The Jewish Sabbath begins on Friday evening at sunset and is an important time when families gather for the Shabbat meal. Religious beliefs, rituals, practices and customs are all part of the expression of the spiritual self. What to believe and how to manifest the belief is entirely dependent on the individual, to the self. A person might believe that there is a higher being, a supernatural being, usually termed as God, but not necessarily wants to be affiliated or identified with a certain religious groups. Others may have religious practices which are perceived to be contrary to the practices of other groups. Religious beliefs and practices, therefore are formed relative to its context and culture. FINDING AND CREATING MEANING OF LIFE DR. VIKTOR E. FRANKL Dr. Viktor E. Frankl was born on March 26, 1905 in Vienna, Austria, where famous pyschiatrists Sigmund Freud and Alfred Adler lived. A survivor of the Holocaust, Dr. Frankl published a book about logotherapy. What is Logotheraphy? Logotheraphy is a psychotheraphy introduced by Dr. Viktor Frankl, who considered the Father of Logotheraphy. The main belief of logotheraphy aids individuals to find personal meaning of life, whatever life situation they may be. In logotheraphy, meaning can be discovered by creating a work or doing a deed, experiencing something or encountering someone and the attitude towad unavoidable suffering. According to the Victor Frankl Institute of Logotheraphy, it uses the philosophy of optimism in the face of tragedy, where people are capable of “turning suffering into human achievement; Deriving from guilt the opportunity to change oneself for the better; and deriving from life’s transitoriness an incentive to take responsible action.” BASIC CONCEPT OF FRANKLIAN PSYCHOLOGY O Life has meaning under all circumstances O Main motivation for living is our will to find meaning in life O Freedom to find meaning FRANKLIAN PSYCHOLOGY AIMS TO: O Become aware of spiritual resources O Make conscious spiritual resources O Use “defiant power of the human spirit” and stand up against adversity. LOGOTHERAPHY ASSUMPTIONS The Human Being is an entity consisting of body, mind and spirit O This first assumption deals with the body (soma), mind (psyche) and spirit (noos). According to Frankl, the body and mind are what we have and the spirit is what we are. Life has meaning under all circumstances, even the most miserable O Assumption two is “ultimate meaning.” This is difficult to grasp but it is something everyone experiences and it represents an order in a world with laws that go beyond human laws. People have a will to meaning O The third assumption is seen as our main motivation for living and acting. When we see meaning, we are ready for any type of suffering. This is considered to be different than our will to achieve power and pleasure. People have freedom under all circumstances to activate the will to find meaning O Assumption four is that we are free to activate our will to find meaning, and this can be done under any circumstances. This deals with change of attitudes about unavoidable fate. Frankl was able to test the first four assumptions when he was confined in the concentration camps. Life has a demand quality to which people must respond if decisions are to be meaningful O The 5th assumption, the meaning of the moment, is more practical in daily living than ultimate meaning. Unlike ultimate meaning, this meaning can be found and fulfilled. This can be done by following the values of society or by following the voice of our conscience. The individual is unique O The sixth assumption deals with one’s sense of meaning. This is enhanced by the realization that we are irreplaceable. In essence, all humans are unique with an entity of body, mind and spirit. We all go through unique situations and are constantly looking to find meaning. We are free to do these at all times in response to certain demands. FRANKL’S SOURCE OF MEANING Popova (2017) discussed Viktor Frankl’s work. There are three possible sources of the meaning of life: purposeful work, courage in the face of difficulty and love. Purposeful Work O To find the meaning of life starts with holding a future goal. Each individual has each own future goal to achieve or a task to perform. That task or goal to fulfill becomes the meaning of their life. Therefore, meaning of life is unique to every individual. Courage in the face of difficulty O A meaningful life is a life with suffering. Suffering is inevitable part of life. To find meaning of life is to recognize suffering, pain and death as part of life and to have the courage to face these difficulties. Love O Dr. Frankl’s wife, parents and some relatives were victims of gas chambers. His love for his wife kept him fight for his life. Love O Popova (2017) also quoted Dr. Frankl’s definition of love: “Love is the only way to grasp another human being in the innermost core of his personality. Love O No one can become fully aware of the very essence of another human being unless he loves him. By his love, he is enabled to see the essential traits and features in the beloved person; Love O And even more, he sees that which is potential in him… furthermore, by his love, the loving person enables the beloved person to actualize these potentialities. By making him aware of what he can be and of what he should become, he makes these comes true.” Love O Costello (2015), captured Viktor Frankl’s message: “The ultimate secret on the spiritual foundation of life is that love is salvation and joy eternity.” The ultimate factor to find the meaning of life is LOVE.