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STUFF I SHOULD KNOW FOR THE AP TEST BUT DO NOT KNOW YET
IONS LIST
acetate
aluminum
ammonium
barium
bicarbonate
bisulfate
bisulfide
bisulfite
bromate
bromide
bromite
calcium
carbonate
chlorate
chloride
chlorite
chromate
chromium
cupric
cuprous
cyanide
dichromate
C2H3O2–
Al3+
NH4+
Ba2+
HCO3–
HSO4–
HS–
HSO3–
BrO3–
Br–
BrO2–
Ca2+
CO32–
ClO3–
Cl–
ClO2–
CrO42– (yellow)
Cr3+
Cu2+ (blue)
Cu+ (blue)
CN–
Cr2O72– (orange)
ferric
ferrous
fluoride
hydrogen
hydronium
hydroxide
hypobromite
hypochlorite
hypoiodite
iodate
iodide
iodite
lead
lithium
magnesium
manganese
mercuric
mercurous
nickel
nitrate
nitride
nitrite
Fe3+
Fe2+
F–
H+
H3O+
OH–
BrO–
ClO–
IO–
IO3–
I–
IO2–
Pb2+
Li+
Mg2+
Mn2+
Hg2+
Hg22+
Ni2+ (green)
NO3–
N3–
NO2–
oxalate
oxide
perbromate
perchlorate
periodate
permanganate
peroxide
phosphate
phosphide
phosphite
potassium
silver
sodium
stannic
stannous
strontium
sulfate
sulfide
sulfite
thiocyanate
thiosulfate
zinc
C2O42–
O2–
BrO4–
ClO4–
IO4–
MnO4– (purple)
O22–
PO43–
P3–
PO33–
K+
Ag+
Na+
Sn4+
Sn2+
Sr2+
SO42–
S2–
SO32–
SCN–
S2O32–
Zn2+
SOLUBILITY RULES
STRONG ELECTROLYTES
Always soluble:
alkali metal ions (Li+, Na+, K+, Rb+, Cs+), NH4+,
NO3–, ClO3–, ClO4–, C2H3O2–
Strong Acids: halogens and some -ic acids
(Memorize the 7 strong acids… all others are weak)
Generally soluble:
Cl–, Br–, I– Soluble except Ag+, Pb2+, Hg22+
F–
Soluble except Ca2+, Sr2+, Ba2+, Pb2+ , Mg2+
2–
SO4
Soluble except Ca2+, Sr2+, Ba2+, Pb2+
Generally insoluble:
O2–, OH– Insoluble except and alkali metals, and NH4+
Ca2+, Sr2+, Ba2+
CO32–, PO43–, S2–, SO32–, C2O42–, CrO42–
Insoluble except alkali metals and NH4+
GASES THAT FORM
H2CO3  CO2 + H2O
H2SO3  SO2 + H2O
HCl
HBr
HI
hydrochloric
hydrobromic
hydroiodic
HNO3
HClO4
H2SO4
H3PO4
nitric
perchloric
sulfuric
phosphoric
Strong Bases: soluble hydroxides
(Memorize the 7 strong bases… all others are weak)
LiOH, NaOH, KOH, RbOH, CsOH, Ca(OH)2,
Ba(OH)2
DRIVING FORCES –– Double Replacement
NH4OH  NH3 + H2O
H 2S



Insoluble Solid (Precipitate)
Weak Electrolyte (H2O or Weak Acid)
Gas Formation
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