a MODULE 3 – DBA STUDY GUIDE (Module 2) What are the benefits of stretching? Flexibility: being flexible is important in sports and exercise, but it also allows you to be more comfortable in everyday activities like reaching up to a top shelf or bending over to tie your shoes Range of Motion: stretching improves your ability to rotate your arms through a swim stroke or move your leg joints to kick a ball Circulation: Stretching increases blood flow to various parts of the body and helps your body recover after physical exertion. Stress Relief: Stretching helps us to relax our muscles and our minds What is the purpose of muscles, tendons, and ligaments? Ligaments: tissues that attach to bone to bone or hole organs in place Muscles: tissues that attach to bone and are responsible for contraction and extension of bones Tendons: fibrous tissues that connect muscle to bone Explain the types of stretching and give an example of each. Static: common form of stretching, requires slowly stretching the muscle and joint to its farthest point without causing extreme pain and holding this position for 15-30 seconds. Ex) hamstring stretching x Dynamic: Involves taking a limb and moving it back and forth or side to side 8 to 15 times using gradual and controlled movement. Ex) lunge with a twist Isostatic: Requires a partner, machine, or wall to help you hold the stretch because it extends the joint beyond its regular range of motion. Ex) gymnastic, dancing, martial arts Ballistic: Stretching that involves bobbing bouncing, and jerky movements that use the body’s momentum and weight to stretch the muscle. Ex) lower back/hamstring What is the difference between positive peer pressure and negative peer pressure? Positive peer pressure includes encouragement (Encourage to do the same but in positive side), reasoning(Classmates are volunteering in the community to make a difference and build their resumes and suggest you should join them), acceptance(invites you to ride bikes to the pool on Saturday to hang out and swim), unspoken pressure(everyone at school seems to be eating healthy and working out, so you choose to do the same). Negative peer pressure includes insults(There’s a guy at school that everyone laughs at; they start making fun of you for not joining in), reasoning(you’re at a party where there is beer, and everyone tries to convince you why you should have some), rejection(your friends all make fun of the sports and clubs at school, you’re worried they won’t like you if you try out for a team), unspoken pressure(the girls at school just seem to care about how skinny they can be instead of trying to be healthy) Explain the benefits of muscular strength exercises. Increase your ability to do activities like opening doors, lifting boxes, chopping wood without getting tired. Help you keep a healthy body weight. Reduce the risk of injury. Lead to healthier, stronger muscles and bones. Improve confidence and how you fell about yourself. Give you a sense of accomplishment. Allow you to add new and different activities to your exercise program. Be familiar with the SPORT/FITT principles and how to apply them to muscular and flexibility training. Specific, Progression, Overload, Reversibility, Tedium. Frequency, Intensity, Type, Time. You want to improve muscular endurance in your shoulder (deltoid) muscle. You will perform shoulder shrugs as part of your muscular fitness routine and gradually increase the challenge of this activity. In week one, you do shoulder shrugs two times per week and gradually work up to three times per week over a four-week period. In week one, you will use three-pound weights and gradually work up to eight pound weights over a four week period. In week one, you will attempt to do eight repetitions and gradually work up to 12 to 18 repetitions over a four-week period. You will also incorporate some push-ups into your routine. You must continue to perform muscular training exercises, or your improvements will reverse. You will also swim laps in the pool and use the water as resistance. What is the different between muscular endurance and muscular strength? Muscular endurance: ability of a muscle or group of muscles to sustain repeated contractions against a resistance for an extended period of time. Muscular strength: the amount of force a muscle can produce and is usually measure by the maximum amount of force a muscle can produce in a single effort. List and describe the 6 skills of skill-related fitness. What factors impact an individual’s skill-related fitness? Agility: It helps you change directions quickly and efficiently. Agility helps you maneuver around an opponent on the field, avoid a pothole when riding your bike, and turn to hit a tennis ball or catch a baseball. Balance: It helps you remain upright no matter what obstacles or uncertainties you encounter. Balance helps you stay on the balance beam, stay on a horse when it runs down a trail. Coordination: It helps you use the senses together with various body parts during movement. Coordination helps you dribble a basketball, skate and pass the hockey puck, juggle three tennis balls, or dance on beat. Power: It allows you to move quickly while exerting the maximum force of your muscles. Power helps you jump at the net and spike the volleyball, push your way through other players to advance the football Reaction Time: Reaction time allows you to use information from all your senses and make fast decisions about how and where to move your body. Reaction time helps you quickly grab your little sister as she starts to fall, start to run as soon as you hear the starting gun in track Speed: It helps you move your body or parts of your body quickly. Speed helps you quickly move down the court for a layup, make a fast wrestling move to pin your opponent, run home before you’re tagged out, and move your hands quickly for tennis or racquetball. (Module 3) Be prepared to discuss your wellness plan in detail. List the benefits of an active lifestyle and the drawbacks of a sedentary lifestyle. Strengthens your heart and lungs Boosts immune system Healthy body composition Improved posture Exercise releases endorphins Improved mood Regulated appetite Have fun with friends Meet new people Drawbacks of a sedentary lifestyle Lots of sitting, not much movement Poor mental and physical health Low metabolism, high chance of obesity and illness Unable to keep up when invited to be active with friends List and describe all of the different types of advertising techniques. Bandwagon: Try to get you to do or buy something because others are doing it. Glittering Generalities: Use phrases with appealing suggestions or generalizations but may not tell you many specifics. Plain Folks: Imply that the product is trustworthy because it is for a normal, everyday person Scientific Evidence: Use scientific evidence, or the insinuation of science, to show the product’s effectiveness Testimonials: Use success stories from customers or celebrity endorsements to persuade you to buy it List the symptoms of fear or worry, happiness, anger, and sadness. Fear or Worry: sweating, increased heart rate, inability to focus, headache Happiness: smiling, laughing, increased energy Sadness: Crying, decreased energy, loss of appetite What are some things that are linked to stress? Overeating or binging Headaches Upset stomach Back pain Trouble sleeping Weakened immune system Moodiness Anxiety attacks Eating disorders Depression Suicide What are some helpful ways to manage stress? Exercise regularly— it is one of the best ways to manage stress and balance out the hormone signals being sent through your body. Take time away— hobbies and activities that help you slow down can take your mind off whatever is stressing you. Get plenty of sleep— it may seem like you should stay up late to get more done, but your body needs a regular sleep schedule to help you be flexible in tough situations. Eat well— your favorite sweet treat or junk food might cheer you up temporarily, but unhealthy food can make your body and mind feel worse in the long run. Talk it out— if you’re overwhelmed, writing in a journal or talking with a trustworthy person can help you get a better perspective. Stay organized— know your responsibilities and priorities, create lists or schedules, revisit goals, and set new ones to help life stay on track. See the big picture— when you feel like the challenges are more than you can handle, focus on the ultimate goals and the smaller steps to help get you there. Look at the up side— be positive, give yourself credit for your accomplishments, and don’t get down on yourself for minor setbacks.