15 LectureOutline

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Chapter
15
The Nervous
System:
The Brain and
Cranial Nerves
PowerPoint® Lecture Slides
prepared by Jason LaPres
North Harris College
Houston, Texas
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.,
publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings
Introduction
The brain is far more complex than the spinal
cord.
The brain contains roughly 20 billion neurons.
 Excitatory and inhibitory interactions among the
extensively interconnected neuronal pools ensure
that the response can vary to meet changing
circumstances.
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An Introduction to the Organization of the Brain
Figure 15.1 Major Divisions of the Brain
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An Introduction to the Organization of the Brain
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An Introduction to the Organization of the Brain
Figure 15.2a Ventricles of the Brain (Lateral View)
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An Introduction to the Organization of the Brain
Figure 15.2b Ventricles of the Brain (Lateral View)
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An Introduction to the Organization of the Brain
Figure 15.2c Ventricles of the Brain (Anterior View)
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An Introduction to the Organization of the Brain
Figure 15.2d Ventricles of the Brain (Coronal Section)
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Protection and Support of the Brain
 Protection, support, and nourishment of the
brain involves:
 Bones of the skull
 Cranial meninges
 Dura mater
 Arachnoid mater
 Pia mater
 Cerebrospinal fluid
 Blood–brain barrier
 Vessels of the cardiovascular system
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Protection and Support of the Brain
Figure 15.3a Relationships among the Brain, Cranium, and Meninges (Lateral View)
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Protection and Support of the Brain
Figure 15.3b Relationships among the Brain, Cranium, and Meninges (Midsagittal View)
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Protection and Support of the Brain
Figure 15.4a The Cranial Meninges
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Protection and Support of the Brain
Figure 15.4b The Cranial Meninges
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Protection and Support of the Brain
Figure 15.4c The Cranial Meninges
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Protection and Support of the Brain
Figure 15.5 The Choroid Plexus and Blood–Brain Barrier
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Protection and Support of the Brain
Figure 15.6 Circulation of Cerebrospinal Fluid
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Protection and Support of the Brain
 Blood Supply to the Brain
Figure 22.13a Arteries of the Neck and Head
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Protection and Support of the Brain
 Blood supply to the brain
Figure 22.15a Arteries of the Brain (Inferior View)
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Protection and Support of the Brain
 Blood supply to the brain
Figure 22.22a Major Veins of the Head and Neck (Lateral View)
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Protection and Support of the Brain
 Blood Supply to the Brain
Figure 22.22b Venous Drainage of the Brain (Inferior view)
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Protection and Support of the Brain
Figure 15.8 Hydrocephalus
This infant has severe hydrocephalus, a condition usually caused by impaired
circulation and removal of cerebrospinal fluid. CSF buildup leads to distortion of the
brain and enlargement of the cranium.
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The Cerebrum
 The cerebrum is the largest, most superior portion of
the human brain.
 Each cerebral hemisphere receives sensory
information from and generates motor commands
to the opposite side of the body.
 The two hemispheres have some functional
differences, although anatomically they appear to
be identical.
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The Cerebrum
Figure 15.7a The Cerebral Hemispheres, Part I (Superior View)
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The Cerebrum
Figure 15.7b The Cerebral Hemispheres, Part I (Anterior View)
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The Cerebrum
Figure 15.7c The Cerebral Hemispheres, Part I (Posterior View)
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The Cerebrum
Figure 15.9a The Cerebral Hemispheres, Part II (Lateral View of Intact Brain)
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The Cerebrum
Figure 15.9b The Cerebral Hemispheres, Part II (The Left Cerebral Hemisphere)
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The Cerebrum
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The Cerebrum
Figure 15.10a The Central White Matter (Lateral View)
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The Cerebrum
Figure 15.10b The Central White Matter (Anterior View)
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The Cerebrum
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The Cerebrum
Figure 15.11a The Basal Nuclei (Lateral View)
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The Cerebrum
Figure 15.11b The Basal Nuclei (Horizonatal View, Dissected)
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The Cerebrum
Figure 15.11d The Basal Nuclei (Frontal Section)
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The Cerebrum
Figure 15.11c The Basal Nuclei (Horizontal Section)
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The Cerebrum
Figure 15.11e The Basal Nuclei (Frontal Section)
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The Cerebrum
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The Cerebrum
Figure 15.12a The Limbic System
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The Cerebrum
Figure 15.12b The Limbic System
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The Cerebrum
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The Diencephalon
 The diencephalon connects the cerebrum to the
brain stem both structurally and
functionally.
 The functions that occur in the diencephalon
are almost exclusively subconscious.
 Epithalamus — controls the circadian rhythm
 Thalamus — relays information
 Hypothalamus — coordinates the nervous and
endocrine systems
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The Diencephalon
Figure 15.15a Sectional Views of the Brain (Midsagittal Section)
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The Diencephalon
Figure 15.15b Sectional Views of the Brain (Coronal Section)
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The Diencephalon
Figure 15.16a The Diencephalon and Brain Stem (Lateral View)
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The Diencephalon
Figure 15.13a The Thalamus
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The Diencephalon
Figure 15.13b The Thalamus
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The Diencephalon
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The Diencephalon
Figure 15.14a The Hypothalamus (Midsagittal Section)
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The Diencephalon
Figure 15.14b The Hypothalamus
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The Diencephalon
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The Mesencephalon
 The mesencephalon, or midbrain, is the most
superior portion of the brain stem.
 Nuclei coordinate visual and auditory reflexes.
 Corpora quadregemina
 Superior colliculi — visual
 Inferior colliculi — auditory
 Limbic system nuclei
 Coordinate involuntary movements of skeletal muscles
 Cerebral peduncles
 Nerve bundles to and from the brain/spinal cord
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The Mesencephalon
Figure 15.16a The Diencephalon and Brain Stem (Lateral View)
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The Mesencephalon
Figure 15.16b The Diencephalon and Brain Stem (Sagittal Section)
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The Mesencephalon
Figure 15.16c The Diencephalon and Brain Stem (Posterior View)
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The Mesencephalon
Figure 15.16d The Diencephalon and Brain Stem (Posterior View)
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The Mesencephalon
Figure 15.17a The Mesencephalon (Transverse Section, Superior View)
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The Mesencephalon
Figure 15.17b The Mesencephalon (Posterior View)
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The Mesencephalon
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The Pons
 The pons mainly functions:
 As a house for cranial nerve nuclei V, VI, VII, and
VIII
 To help regulate respiration
 To help coordinate involuntary skeletal muscle
movements and muscle tone
 In relaying information to and from the
brain/spinal cord
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The Pons
Figure 15.18 The Pons
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The Pons
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The Cerebellum
 The cerebellum has two primary
functions:
 Adjusts the postural muscles of the body to
maintain balance
 Programs and fine-tunes voluntary and
involuntary movements
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The Cerebellum
Figure 15.19a The Cerebellum (Posterior, Superior Surface)
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The Cerebellum
Figure 15.19b The Cerebellum (Sagittal Section)
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The Cerebellum
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The Medulla Oblongata
 The medulla oblongata physically connects the
brain with the spinal cord.
It is so important that, if it is severely
compromised, the victim will likely die.
The medulla oblongata is a relay station, house
for cranial nerve nuclei, and most
importantly, controls visceral functions like
blood pressure, breathing, and heart rate.
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The Medulla Oblongata
Figure 15.20
The Medulla Oblongata
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The Medulla Oblongata
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M
Brain
Animation Review
The Brain
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The Cranial Nerves
Cranial nerves are components of the
peripheral nervous system that connect to
the brain rather than to the spinal cord.
 Twelve pairs of cranial nerves
 Cranial nerves are numbered using Roman
numerals
Each cranial nerve attaches to the brain near the
associated sensory or motor nuclei
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The Cranial Nerves
Figure 15.21a Origins of the Cranial Nerves
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The Cranial Nerves
Figure 15.21b Origins of the Cranial Nerves
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The Cranial Nerves
Figure 15.21c Origins of the Cranial Nerves (Superior View)
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The Cranial Nerves
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The Cranial Nerves
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The Cranial Nerves
Olfactory Nerve (N I)




Primary function: special sensory (smell)
Origin: receptors of olfactory epithelium
Passes through: cribriform plate of ethmoid
Destination: olfactory bulbs
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The Cranial Nerves
Figure 15.22 The Olfactory Nerve
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The Cranial Nerves
The Optic Nerve (N II)




Primary function: special sensory (vision)
Origin: retina of eye
Passes through: optic canal of sphenoid
Destination: diencephalon by way of the optic
chiasm
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The Cranial Nerves
Figure 15.23 The Optic Nerve
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The Cranial Nerves
The Oculomotor Nerve (N III)




Primary function: motor, eye movements
Origin: mesencephalon
Passes through: superior orbital fissure of sphenoid
Destination:
 Somatic motor: superior, inferior, and medial rectus
muscles; the inferior oblique muscle; the levator
palpebrae superioris muscle
 Visceral motor: intrinsic eye muscles
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The Cranial Nerves
Figure 15.24 Cranial Nerves Controlling the Extra-Ocular Muscles
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The Cranial Nerves
The Trochlear Nerve (N IV)




Primary function: motor, eye movements
Origin: mesencephalon
Passes through: superior orbital fissure of sphenoid
Destination: superior oblique muscle
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The Cranial Nerves
Figure 15.24 Cranial Nerves Controlling the Extra-Ocular Muscles
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The Cranial Nerves
The Trigeminal Nerve (N V)
 Primary function: Mixed (sensory and motor)
 Ophthalmic and maxillary branches sensory
 Mandibular branch mixed
 Origin:
 Ophthalmic branch (sensory): orbital structures, nasal
cavity, skin of forehead, superior eyelid, eyebrow, and
part of the nose
 Maxillary branch (sensory): inferior eyelid, upper lip,
gums, and teeth; cheek; nose, palate, and part of the
pharynx
 Mandibular branch (mixed): sensory from lower gums,
teeth, and lips; palate and tongue (part); motor from
motor nuclei of pons
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The Cranial Nerves
The Trigeminal Nerve (N V)
 Passes through:
 Ophthalmic branch through superior orbital fissure
 Maxillary branch through foramen rotundum
 Mandibular branch through foramen ovale
 Destination:
 Ophthalmic, maxillary, and mandibular branches to
sensory nuclei in the pons
 Mandibular branch also innervates muscles of
mastication
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The Cranial Nerves
Figure 15.25 The Trigeminal Nerve
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The Cranial Nerves
The Abducens Nerve (N VI)




Primary function: motor, eye movements
Origin: pons
Passes through: superior orbital fissure of sphenoid
Destination: lateral rectus muscle
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The Cranial Nerves
Figure 15.24 Cranial Nerves Controlling the Extra-Ocular Muscles
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The Cranial Nerves
The Facial Nerve (N VII)
 Primary function: mixed (sensory and motor)
 Origin:
 Sensory from taste receptors on anterior two thirds of tongue
 Motor from motor nuclei of pons
 Passes through: internal acoustic meatus of temporal bone,
along facial canal to reach stylomastoid foramen
 Destination:
 Sensory to sensory nuclei of pons
 Somatic motor: muscles of facial expression
 Visceral motor: lacrimal (tear) gland and nasal mucous glands via
pterygopalatine ganglion; submandibular and sublingual salivary
glands via submandibular ganglion
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The Cranial Nerves
Figure 15.26a The Facial Nerve
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The Cranial Nerves
Figure 15.26b The Facial Nerve
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The Cranial Nerves
The Vestibulocochlear Nerve (N VIII)
 Primary function: special sensory: balance and
equilibrium (vestibular branch) and hearing
(cochlear branch)
 Origin: receptors of the inner ear (vestibule and
cochlea)
 Passes through: internal acoustic meatus of the
temporal bone
 Destination: vestibular and cochlear nuclei of pons
and medulla oblongata
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The Cranial Nerves
Figure 15.27 The Vestibulocochlear Nerve
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The Cranial Nerves
The Glossopharyngeal Nerve (N IX)
 Primary function: mixed (sensory and motor)
 Origin:
 Sensory from posterior one third of the tongue, part of the pharynx
and palate, the carotid arteries of the neck
 Motor from motor nuclei of medulla oblongata
 Passes through: jugular foramen between occipital and
temporal bones
 Destination:
 Sensory fibers to sensory nuclei of medulla oblongata
 Somatic motor: pharyngeal muscles involved in swallowing
 Visceral motor: parotid salivary gland, after synapsing in the otic
ganglion
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The Cranial Nerves
Figure 15.28 The Glossopharyngeal Nerve
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The Cranial Nerves
The Vagus Nerve (N X)
 Primary function: mixed (sensory and motor)
 Origin:
 Visceral sensory from pharynx (part), auricle, external acoustic
meatus, diaphragm, and visceral organs in thoracic and
abdominopelvic cavities
 Visceral motor from motor nuclei in the medulla oblongata
 Passes through: jugular foramen between occipital and
temporal bones
 Destination:
 Sensory fibers to sensory nuclei and autonomic centers of medulla
oblongata
 Somatic motor to muscles of the palate and pharynx
 Visceral motor to respiratory, cardiovascular, and digestive organs
in the thoracic and abdominal cavities.
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The Cranial Nerves
Figure 15.29 The Vagus Nerve
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The Cranial Nerves
The Accessory Nerve (N XI)
 Primary function: motor
 Origin: motor nuclei of spinal cord and medulla
oblongata
 Passes through: jugular foramen between occipital
and temporal bones
 Destination:
 Internal branch innervates voluntary muscles of palate,
pharynx, and larynx
 External branch controls sternocleidomastoid and
trapezius muscles
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The Cranial Nerves
The Hypoglossal Nerve (XII)
 Primary function: motor, tongue movements
 Origin: motor nuclei of the medulla oblongata
 Passes through: hypoglossal canal of occipital
bone
 Destination: muscles of the tongue
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The Cranial Nerves
Figure 15.30 The Accessory and Hypoglossal Nerves
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The Cranial Nerves
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