Microsoft Project 2010 Task Management - Learning Guide

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I N F O RM A T I O N T EC H N O L O G Y S ERV I C ES
M I C RO S O FT PRO J EC T 2 0 1 0
T A S K M A N A G EM EN T
LEARNING
GUIDE
Massey University Information Technology Services
Microsoft Project 2010 Learning Guide
Workshop Information
Information Technology Services is happy to provide you with this training
opportunity. We hope you enjoy it and the time you invest in participating is
valuable to your work here at Massey University.
Learning
Outcomes
Microsoft Project 2010 is a project management software program which gives you a
visual way to plan projects, manage resources and collaborate with your project
team. It is designed to assist with developing a plan, assigning resources to tasks,
tracking projects, managing the budget and analysing workloads.
In this workshop you will:
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
Define Project Settings.
Enter and Link Tasks.
Understand Summary Tasks
Work with Constraints and Deadlines.
Gain a basic understanding of resources.
Track and Report on a Project
Format
Face to face workshop, duration approximately 3 hours.
Additional
Resources
Getting Started with Project 2010- Office.com Online Training Webinar
Help
For further assistance please contact ITS Service Desk on extension 82111.
Feedback
After this workshop please complete our online ITS Training Feedback form. Your
feedback is appreciated. Hearing from you about your training experience allows us
to improve the relevance and quality of this training.
http://office.microsoft.com/en-nz/project-help/getting-started-with-project-2010RZ101831071.aspx?CTT=5&origin=HA104039046
http://www.massey.ac.nz/itstraining/feedback/
A digital copy of this document is available online. ITS thanks you for considering the
environment before printing.
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Microsoft Project 2010 Learning Guide
Contents
Workshop Information ....................................................................................................................................................... 2
Introduction to Project Management ................................................................................................................................. 4
Store and Display Data........................................................................................................................................................ 5
Keyboard Shortcuts ............................................................................................................................................................ 7
View Project ........................................................................................................................................................................ 9
Define Project Settings ..................................................................................................................................................... 11
Exercise 1: Setup a Project ............................................................................................................................................... 15
Enter Tasks & Milestones ................................................................................................................................................. 16
Exercise 2: Enter Tasks ..................................................................................................................................................... 19
Enter Summary Tasks ....................................................................................................................................................... 21
Exercise 3: Enter Summary Tasks ..................................................................................................................................... 24
Link Tasks .......................................................................................................................................................................... 26
Exercise 4: Link Tasks ....................................................................................................................................................... 30
Constraints and Deadlines ................................................................................................................................................ 31
Exercise 5: Constraints and Deadlines ............................................................................................................................. 34
Manual and Auto Scheduling ............................................................................................................................................ 35
Work Resources ................................................................................................................................................................ 37
Understanding Duration, Work & Units ........................................................................................................................... 39
Assign Resources to Tasks ................................................................................................................................................ 40
Exercise 6: Assign Resources to Tasks .............................................................................................................................. 41
Split Tasks ......................................................................................................................................................................... 42
Track and Manage Project ................................................................................................................................................ 43
Exercise 7: Track and Manage Project ............................................................................................................................. 46
Reports ............................................................................................................................................................................. 47
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Microsoft Project 2010 Learning Guide
Introduction to Project Management
Using Microsoft Office Project 2010 for Windows
Learning
Outcomes
Any project has four basic steps:
1. Define the objectives
The objectives for the project need to be defined and agreed with all
concerned before starting to plan the project.
2. Planning the project
First it has to be decided what tasks need to be done. Then when and in what
sequence the tasks need to be done in. Finally it needs to be decided who is
going to do the tasks.
3. Managing the Project
This involves tracking the progress of the project and adjusting the plan when
necessary to meet the objectives.
4. Learning
The history of each project can contribute to the more successful planning of
subsequent events.
Microsoft Project can help with Planning, Managing and Learning. Project cannot tell
you what your objectives should be.
Microsoft Project is designed to be used both for task and resource management.
Launch Project
Launch Microsoft Project now from the start menu.
4
Store and Display Data
Using Microsoft Project 2010 for Windows
Introduction
Data is stored in three spreadsheets:
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
Task Sheet
Resource Sheet
Assignment Sheet
Data is displayed using:
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Views
Timescale
Tables
Filter
Grouping
Indicator
Note: This section is an introduction to the terminology. The functionality is explored
in more detail in other topics.
Task Sheet
The Task Sheet stores all information on tasks.
The information on each task is stored in one row. The sheet has columns storing
data such as Task Duration, Start and Finish dates, dependencies on other tasks,
progress on tasks, and so on.
To enable you to customise the sheet to your own requirements there are columns
where you can store other text or numeric data.
Resource Sheet
The Resource Sheet stores all information on resources.
As with the task sheet you can customise the Resource Sheet to your own
requirements.
Assignment Sheet The Assignment Sheet records the assignment of resources to tasks.
Views
Views are different ways of displaying the information. By default task information is
displayed as a Gantt Chart. However this information can also be displayed in a
Calendar, Pert Chart or other view. Regardless of which view you are using, any data
that you enter or change is held in the underlying sheet.
Massey University Information Technology Services
Views, continued
Microsoft Project 2010 Learning Guide
The default View in Project is the Gantt Chart consisting of the Entry Table (6 columns
from the Task Sheet) on the left, and the time scaled Gantt chart on the right.
The vertical split in the screen can be dragged to the left or the right to expose more
or less chart. At the bottom of the screen is the task form.
To select a different view, in the View Command tab in the Task Views group select
the arrow to the right of Other Views.
The Views listed in the menu can also be accessed using the View Bar at the left of
the screen. If the View Bar takes up too much space on your screen, right mouse click
on it. From the short cut menu select View Bar. This reduces it to a thin bar with the
name of the active view on it.
To re-display the View Bar, right click on it and select View Bar.
Timescale
Clicking on the Zoom bar changes the timescale associated with a view. You can also
change the timescale by clicking the View tab and in the Zoom group, click the drop
down arrow to the right of Days and then select a timescale.
Many views have a Timescale across the top of the view. The scale is easily varied to
show more or less detail.
Tables
Tables are groups of related columns from a Sheet. For example the Table called
Entry, displays only information that you need when you are entering tasks.
The Cost table shows only columns you need when you are working with costs. Unlike
charts, tables cannot be zoomed. Project does not provide the ability to zoom the
entire document (as in Word or Excel).
Filter
A Filter allows you to display a group of tasks that meet specified criteria (by hiding all
other tasks).
For example if you want to work with just critical tasks, you apply a Filter which hides
all tasks other than those that are critical.
Grouping
Grouping allows a project manager to view tasks in groups that they define and see
rolled up totals. This is especially useful when combined with custom field outline
codes.
Indicator
The Indicator column provides instant feedback on the status of your
tasks. It is visible by default, in the Gantt and Resource Sheet views.
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Microsoft Project 2010 Learning Guide
Keyboard Shortcuts
Using Microsoft Project 2010 for Windows
Introduction
Table Shortcuts
Many of the shortcut keys that work in Excel will also work in Project, including
shortcuts for; tables, charts, copying and moving, and selecting multiple tasks.
In a table to:
Use these keystrokes
Move one cell
Arrow key
One screen down
Page Down
One screen up
Page Up
Beginning of current row
Home
End of current row
End
Top left cell
Ctrl + Home
Bottom right cell
Ctrl + End
Moves the sheet across the page
Ctrl + Page Up/Page Down
Select entire Sheet
Ctrl + Shift + Space
Select entire Column
Ctrl + Space
Select entire Row
Shift + Space
Go to a Task and show start of Bar on Gantt
F5
Remove Filters – show all tasks
F3
Print
Ctrl + P
Save File
Ctrl + S
Fill Down
Ctrl D
Find
Ctrl + F
Insert a new task
Insert
Delete a cell/task
Delete
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Chart Shortcuts
Copying and
Moving Tasks
Microsoft Project 2010 Learning Guide
In a chart to
Use these keystrokes
Move the Chart
Alt + Arrow key
Zoom out
Ctrl + *
Zoom in
Ctrl + /
Go to the start/end date of the project
Alt + Home/End
One window right
Alt + Page Down
You can use any of the many Windows methods to Cut, Copy and Paste.
Project has the same Auto Copy feature as in Excel (i.e. using the fill handle).
Pasted tasks will adopt the indentation level of the paste to location and not keep the
originating indent level (i.e. the pasted task(s) become subtasks).
Selecting Multiple To select adjacent tasks, click the first task and then hold down the Shift key while
Tasks
you click on the last cell to be included in the selection.
To select two or more non-adjacent tasks select the first one, then hold the Ctrl key
down while you select the others.
Copying a summary task will copy all the sub-tasks as well.
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Microsoft Project 2010 Learning Guide
View Project
Using Microsoft Project 2010 for Windows
Introduction
Over a projects lifetime you look at the project from many different perspectives,
that is why Project has so many different views, including:
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Timeline View
Timeline View
Gant Chart with Timeline View
Details Pane
Task and Resource Tab
View Tab
This view allows you to see your entire project. On
the View tab in the Split View group select the
Timeline checkbox.
Once you have entered tasks and linked them you
can drag the blue timeline bar to scroll the Gantt
Chart’s timescale dates.
You can also drag one end to change the date range that you see in the timescale.
Gant Chart with
TimeLine View
This is a single pane view as it only contains only the Gantt Chart.
The left pane contains a table of data and the right side contains the Gantt chart.
To see two views at the same time, click the View tab and turn on the Timeline.
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Microsoft Project 2010 Learning Guide
Details Pane
Instead of the Timeline you can display the Details
pane below the primary pane. Click the View tab
and then turn on the Details checkbox.
Task and
Resource Tab
In the View group click the down arrow next to
Gantt Chart (Task tab) or the Team Planner
(Resource tab) and choose the view that you
want to display.
If you choose Move Views you will be able to see
all built in and custom views.
View Tab
The Task Views group has buttons for the Gantt Chart, Task Usage, Network Diagram,
and Calendar.
The Resource Views tab has buttons for Team Planner, Resource Usage and the
Resource Sheet.
The Team Planner makes it easy to assign resources to tasks.
Change Views on
the Status Bar
Active Pane View
You can click one of the icons to
display the Gantt Chart, Task Usage,
Team Planner or Resource Sheet.
Note
When both the primary and details pane are open, Project applies the
view you choose to the active pane.
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Microsoft Project 2010 Learning Guide
Define Project Settings
Using Microsoft Project 2010 for Windows
Introduction
There are a number of settings in Project that should be defined before capturing
tasks. These include:
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Project Start Date
Project Start Date
Default Calendar Settings
Working Calendar Settings
Scheduling the project from a start date or finish date
Set the project’s start date by following the steps below:
Step Action
1
On the Project tab in the
Properties group select
Project Information.
In the Project Information dialogue box select a date from the Start Date
date-picker > click OK.
2
Calendar Settings
A calendar is used to specify working and non-working time for a project, including
holidays. There are two aspects of the calendar that need to be setup before tasks
are scheduled:
 Setting Calendar defaults (options)
 Setting up the working Calendar
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Default Calendar
Settings
Microsoft Project 2010 Learning Guide
Set the Calendar defaults by following the steps below:
Step Action
On the File tab select
Options.
In the Project Options
window
select
Schedule.
1
Set
the
default
scheduling options for
your Project.
Click OK to close the
Project
Options
window.
2
In the Project tab in the Properties group click Project Information.
In the Project Information dialogue box select a date from the Start Date
date-picker > click OK.
Caution
It is recommended that project novices and intermediate users,
use the standard calendars, with as few customisations as possible
(Using Exceptions for non-working days is fine).
Working Calendar Follow the steps below to make changes to a calendar.
Settings
Step Action
On the Project tab in the Properties
group select Change Working Time.
1
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Microsoft Project 2010 Learning Guide
Working Calendar Step Action
Settings, continued
In the Change Working Time window there are two tabs.
Work Weeks and Exceptions:
 Work Weeks – You can set up more than one work week if you work
different schedules during different times of the year (e.g.
summer/winter schedule).
 You can’t create a work week and apply it to different time periods.
 The [Default] work week is specified in the Calendar options. It sets
week days as Working days and weekends and Nonworking days.
 The Start and Finish has N/A which means that the work week
applies to all dates.
2
To set up a new work week select the first blank Name cell and type a name.
Then select the Start and Finish dates for the new workweek.
The next step is to setup the workdays and times.
With the name of the workweek selected click the Details button.
Click OK.
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Microsoft Project 2010 Learning Guide
Working Calendar Step Action
Settings, continued
In the Details for A New
Workweek dialogue box you
can set the working and nonworking days by selecting the
appropriate radio button.
1. To select adjacent
days you can click
and drag.
3
2. To
select
nonadjacent days, use
Ctrl + click.
3. In the From and To fields, enter the start and finish times for your
work day.
4. To delete a row drag across the From and To cells and then press
delete.
5. To add a new row, click the first blank From cell and enter a new From
and To time.
6. Click OK.
Note
Project will not accept overlapping times in different rows.
You use Exceptions
mostly for non-working
time. However some
working time may have
exceptions, such as Public
Holidays or company
holidays.
4
If an exception lasts
longer than a week then it
must either be nonworking time, or all the
days must have the same
working time.
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Microsoft Project 2010 Learning Guide
Exercise 1: Setup a Project
Using Microsoft Project 2010 for Windows
Introduction
These steps should be done before entering tasks in your new project.
Project Start Date
Set the project’s start date by following the steps below:
Step Action
1
Create a blank new project and save it as Massey Network Install.
Set the project start date to 16 September 2013:
2
On the Project tab in the Properties group, select Project Information.
In the Project Information dialogue box select the drop down arrow to the
right of Start Date and select 16 September 2013 from the calendar.
Enter the following public holidays into the calendar by clicking on the Project
tab in the Properties group and selecting Change Working Time.
3
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New Year’s Day – 1 January 2014.
Day after New Year’s – 2 January 2014.
Waitangi Day – 6 February 2014.
Good Friday – 18 April 2014.
Easter Monday – 21 April 2014.
ANZAC Day – 25 April 2014.
Queen’s Birthday – 2 June 2014.
Labour Day – 27 October 2014.
Christmas Day – 25 December 2014.
Boxing Day – 26 December 2014.
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Microsoft Project 2010 Learning Guide
Enter Tasks & Milestones
Using Microsoft Project 2010 for Windows
Introduction
In order to use MS Project each project has to be broken down into a number of
tasks. A Milestone is a significant event in a Project.
Tasks
The default view is the Gantt Chart and this view is useful in order to enter in the
basic Task information; Task Name and Duration.
Task Names
Should be descriptive without being too long and should be entered more or less in
the sequence they will be started.
Duration
Should be entered as a best guess of how much time it will take to complete a task.
By default each task is given a duration of 1 day. The duration can be changed
immediately or later. A bar representing each task’s duration will appear in the
Gantt Chart. Duration can be entered as units of Minutes (m), Hours (h), Days (d),
Weeks (w) and Months (mo).
In the past Project always calculated when tasks started and finished based on the
dependencies you created between tasks. If you wanted to fix a task’s start or finish
date, you could set a date constraint on the task.
Project 2010 has two scheduling modes:
Auto Scheduled
Makes tasks work the way they always have, with Project calculating their start and
finish dates automatically.
Manually Scheduled
Gives you control over task dates. You may want to use this mode if you don’t have
all the information you need to define a task. You can enter a task name and fill in
the details as they become available later. You can leave the date and duration fields
blank, you can fill in specific dates, or the duration, or you can even fill in a field with
a note.
You can also create manually scheduled summary tasks with a high level duration.
When you create tasks for the work in that summary task, you can see if you have
enough time.
Whether you use auto or manual scheduling, the only thing you need to do to enter
a task is to type in a task name.
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Enter Tasks
Microsoft Project 2010 Learning Guide
Enter tasks by following the steps below:
Step Action
Ensure that the Gantt Chart is the current view, and that the Table called
Entry (View > Tables > Entry) is displayed. A task can however be entered
using any table.
1
2
Enter Task Names more or less in the sequence they will be started. It is easy
to change the sequence at any time. Type the task’s name and press Enter.
Project sets the Task mode to Manually Scheduled by default.
The pin to the left of the task name means that the task is manually
scheduled. The question mark means that the task date or duration is
incomplete.
If you enter a duration and Start date, Project will calculate the Finish date.
3
4
If you enter the Start and Finish date Project will calculate the Duration. Once
both dates are completed the question mark (?) symbol will disappear.
To create a new auto scheduled task, type the task name. In the Task Mode
cell click the down arrow and choose Auto Scheduled. Because the task is auto
scheduled, it has to have duration, start and finish date. By default each task is
given a duration of 1 day. The question mark indicates that this is an estimate.
It sets the start date to the Projects start date and calculates the finish date
for you. The taskbar for an auto scheduled task is blue instead of the teal
colour used for manually scheduled tasks.
Duration can be entered as units of Minutes (m), Hours (h), Days (d), Weeks
(w) and Months (mo).
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Milestones
Microsoft Project 2010 Learning Guide
A Milestone is a key point in a project. It could be the completion of an important
phase in a Project, or the achievement of a particular goal.
A Milestone has zero duration and cannot have resources assigned to it.
Enter Milestones
Enter a Milestone by following the steps below:
Step Action
1
First select the task that will appear after the Milestone.
2
On the Tasks tab in the Insert group select Milestone.
3
Type the name of the Milestone and press Enter. A Milestone is represented
by a diamond in the Gantt chart.
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Microsoft Project 2010 Learning Guide
Exercise 2: Enter Tasks
Using Microsoft Project 2010 for Windows
Introduction
In this exercise we are going to set the scheduling options and enter some tasks.
Auto-schedule
Set Project options so that new tasks that are created are auto scheduled:
Step Action
Enter Tasks
1
On the File tab, select Options.
2
In the Project Options dialogue box click Schedule.
3
In the Scheduling options for this project, click the arrow in the drop down to
the right of New tasks created and select Auto Scheduled.
4
Click OK.
Enter the following tasks into the Gantt Chart view.
No
Task Name
Duration
1
Finalise Design
2 weeks
2
Order Equipment
2 days
3
Hire Wiring Contractors
1 week
4
Receive Equipment
0 days
5
Pre-install Wiring
2 weeks
6
Install PCs
4 days
7
Connect Wiring to PCs
3 days
8
Test Individual PCs
2 days
9
Connect to Network
4 days
10
Network Tests
2 days
11
Acceptance
2 days
12
Opening Celebrations
1 day
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Enter Additional
Tasks
Add the following tasks to those that were entered above.
No
Attach a Note
Microsoft Project 2010 Learning Guide
Task Name
Duration
1
After Install PC’s add Install Printers
3 days.
2
After Test Individual PCs add Test Printers
1 day.
3
After Network Tests add Test Signoff
0 days
4
After Test Signoff add Contact Clients
1 day.
Using the notes task icon on the Task tab, in the Properties group, attach a note to
the task Order Equipment:
“Collate and place orders for multifunction devices and PC's.”
A Note icon will appear in the Indicator column. You can read the note by hovering
the mouse pointer over the icon.
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Microsoft Project 2010 Learning Guide
Enter Summary Tasks
Using Microsoft Project 2010 for Windows
Introduction
A summary task organises a task into smaller sub-tasks. A Summary task gives a
rolled up aggregate for subtasks. In this topic we will:




Create a summary task
Hide summary tasks
Use a project summary task
Use the outline numbering for Work Breakdown Structure
Create a Summary Create a summary task by following the steps bellows:
Task
Step Action
1
2
Click the first blank row in the task table.
On the Task tab in the Insert group select
Summary.
You now have a Summary task, with one new sub-task. Type the name for the
Summary Task. In the New Task cell type the name of the subtask.
3
Note
You can also use the Summary Task for several existing subtasks.
This will tell you if the time scheduled for a number of tasks is long
enough. Project can keep track of the duration you give a
summary task, and the total duration of all the subtasks, and
show you whether the work fits in the time you have.
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Create a Summary
Task, continued
Microsoft Project 2010 Learning Guide
To make several existing tasks subordinate to a new summary task, select the
tasks in the task table by clicking and dragging the task number.
5
6
On the Task tab click Summary.
Project inserts a summary task and
makes the existing tasks one level
lower in the outline.
Now you can type a name for the New Summary Task.
7
Note: If the duration of the summary task is less than the aggregate duration
of the subtasks, then the bar below the Summary task will display in red on
the Gantt Chart.
Note
Taking any sub-task and out-denting it, transforms it into a summary
task, and all the tasks below it and to the next summary task become
sub–tasks of the ‘new’ summary task.
Hide Summary
Tasks
To hide summary tasks:
On the Gantt Chart Tools, Format tab in the Show/Hide group, un-tick the Summary
Tasks check box.
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Use a Project
Summary Task
Microsoft Project 2010 Learning Guide
This is a good tool for checking project-wide values
like project duration, project finish, and project
total cost.
This is a top level summary task with a task ID of 0.
On the Gantt Chart Tools, Format tab in the
Show/Hide group, tick the Project Summary Task
check box.
Work Breakdown
Structure
The Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) codes
identify each task’s unique place in the outline
structure of the project.
They can be used for reporting schedules and
tracking costs.
On the Gantt Chart Tools > Format tab in the
Show/Hide group, tick the Outline Number check box.
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Microsoft Project 2010 Learning Guide
Exercise 3: Enter Summary Tasks
Using Microsoft Project 2010 for Windows
Introduction
We are going to create summary tasks and learn how to promote and demote tasks.
Exercise
Step Action
Create a summary task called Planning for the two tasks Finalise Design and
Order Equipment.
1
Select the two tasks Finalise Design and Order Equipment.
On the Task tab in the Insert group, select Summary.
Rename the new summary task to Planning.
Select the tasks:
2

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


Hire Wiring Contractors
Receive Equipment
Pre-Install wiring
Install PCs
Install printers
Now create a summary task called Preparation for all the tasks selected
above.
3
Create a new task above the task Connect Wiring to PC’s and call it Test.
Outdent Test so that it is not part of
the Preparation summary group.
4
On the Task tab, in the Schedule
group click Outdent Task (alt + shift +
left arrow).
Select the tasks:
5

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

Connect Wiring to PC’s
Test Individual PCs
Test Printers
Connect to Network
Network Tests
Test Signoff
On the Task tab, in the Schedule group click Indent Task (alt + shift + right
arrow). Test is now a summary task.
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Exercise, continued
Microsoft Project 2010 Learning Guide
Select the tasks:
6
 Contact Clients
 Acceptance
 Opening Celebrations
Create a summary task for the above selected tasks called Presentation to
Clients.
7
Display a Project summary task at the top of the project and identify each task
with a hierarchical code:
On the Format tab, in the Show/Hide group tick Project Summary Task and
Outline Number.
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Microsoft Project 2010 Learning Guide
Link Tasks
Using Microsoft Project 2010 for Windows
Introduction
In Project a task’s Start or Finish Date is often determined by the Start or Finish date
of other tasks. A task link is about one task controlling the timing of the other.
 A predecessor task determines when a successor task starts or finishes.
 A successor task depends on the start or finish of a preceding task.
After you’ve decided the order of your tasks, you’re ready to link related tasks as
predecessor and successor tasks.
Note
FF and SS relationships (see below) are rare, and should be avoided by
novices, as they can be difficult to understand. Often these relationships
can be better represented by a conventional FS relationship, and a
conventional FS relationship with lead or lag times.
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Link by Selection
Microsoft Project 2010 Learning Guide
Create a Finish – Start (default) link by following the steps below:
Step Action
1
2
If the two tasks are
adjacent click and drag
from
the
first
(predecessor) task to the
second (successor) task.
If the two tasks are not adjacent select the first task and then type Ctrl + Click
to select the second task.
On the Task tab in the Schedule group
select the Link Tasks icon.
Note
You can also click and drag tasks in the Gantt
Chart to create a Finish – Start link.
To unlink tasks, first select them in the Task
Entry table and then in the Schedule group select the UnLink Tasks
button.
Creating Nondefault Links
To create links other than the standard Finish – Start type follow the steps below:
Step Action
1
Make sure you can see the Task Form in the details
pane. On the View tab in the Split View group
select the Details check box.
Right click the Task Form and choose Predecessors & Successors.
2
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Creating Nondefault Links,
continued
Microsoft Project 2010 Learning Guide
In the Entry Table select the predecessor task.
3
4
In the Task Form, click the Successor Name cell, click the down arrow, and
choose a successor task.
5
In the Type cell, click the down arrow and select the type of link that will be
created.
6
Click OK.
To use the Task Information dialogue box to create non-default links, follow the
Creating Nondefault Links Using steps below.
Task Information
1 Select the Successor task in the Task Entry table.
On the Task tab in the Properties group click
Information.
3
4
On the Task tab in the Properties group click Information.
In the Task Information dialogue box select the Predecessor tab.
5
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Creating Nondefault Links Using
Task Information,
continued
Microsoft Project 2010 Learning Guide
Click the down arrow to the right of the Task Name cell and select a
Predecessor task from the list.
6
Lag & Lead times
7
Click the down arrow to the right of the Type cell and select the type of link to
create.
8
Click OK.
To provide a delay between linked tasks, enter a Lag. To provide an overlap between
tasks, enter a negative lag or Lead time.
1
Select the task for which there will be a lag.
In the Task Form, in the Lag cell type the duration of the lag (e.g. 2d).
2
Note
You can overlap tasks (lead time), by entering a negative value in the
Lag field.
3
Click OK.
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Microsoft Project 2010 Learning Guide
Exercise 4: Link Tasks
Using Microsoft Project 2010 for Windows
Introduction
In Project a task’s Start or Finish Date is often determined by the Start or Finish date
of other tasks. A task link is about one task controlling the timing of the other.
 A predecessor task determines when a successor task starts or finishes.
 A successor task depends on the start or finish of a preceding task.
After you’ve decided the order of your tasks, you’re ready to link related tasks as
predecessor and successor tasks.
Exercise
Step Action
1
2
3
Assume that you cannot order the equipment before you have finalised the
design.
Using the link icon on the toolbar, create a link between the tasks Finalise
Design and Order Equipment.
We cannot hire wiring contractors until the design has been finalised. Use the
click and drag method on the Gantt Chart to link from the bar for Finalise
Design to Hire Wiring Contractors.
Our supplier has told us there is a 4 week delivery time on the equipment that
we will be ordering.
Link Order Equipment and Receive Equipment and enter a lag of 4ew (4
elapsed weeks).
4
Link Receive Equipment and Pre-Install Wiring. Change the link type to FinishFinish.
5
For all the remaining tasks, create links and lags that you feel are appropriate.
Remember that you can have more than one link to or from a task.
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Microsoft Project 2010 Learning Guide
Constraints and Deadlines
Using Microsoft Project 2010 for Windows
Introduction
You can use constraints to control the start or finish dates of important tasks. You
can use manually scheduled tasks or date constraints to do this.
If you use manually scheduled tasks you can set both the start and finish date. If you
use a date constraint then you can either set the start or the finish date, but not
both. The reason why you would use a date constraint in preference to a manually
scheduled task is to create a partially flexible constraint. (e.g. a task can start any
time after a specific date).
Microsoft Project automatically assigns the As Soon As Possible constraint when you
enter a task. In order to prevent from having to micro manage a Project, you should
only set constraints when necessary.
Constraints limit your schedules flexibility so it’s best to use the most flexible types.
These include As Soon As Possible, Start No Earlier Than, Finish No Later Than.
These constraints allow resources to start working on a task as soon as they are
available. Inflexible types include Must Start On, Must Finish On.
If there is a scheduling conflict between a constraint and a task dependency, Project
will schedule the task according to the constraint.
Constraints may be imposed on a task start or finish date.
Note
Constraints may be added unintentionally by entering a start or finish
date for a task, or by dragging the task on the Gantt chart. To remove a
constraint reset it back to the default As Soon As Possible.
Set a Date
Constraint
Set a date constraint by following the steps below:
Step Action
1
Select the task you want to work on.
2
On the Task tab in the Properties group click Information.
3
In the Task Information dialogue box, click the Advanced tab.
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Set a Date
Constraint,
continued
Microsoft Project 2010 Learning Guide
Click the down arrow to the right of Constraint type and select it from the list.
Some constraint types (e.g. Start no Earlier Than) will also require a constraint
date.
4
Follow the steps below to set a date constraint in the task details form:
Set a Date
Constraint in Task
Details Form
Step Action
On the View tab in the Split View group
choose More Views from the Details
dropdown list.
1
In the More Views dialog box, double-click
Task Details Form and click Apply
2
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Set a Date
Constraint in Task
Details Form,
continued
Microsoft Project 2010 Learning Guide
In the Constraint box you can choose the constraint that you want
3
Select the date for the constraint and then click OK.
4
Multiple Task
Constraints
Follow the steps below to set the constraints for multiple tasks:
Step Action
In the Entry table right click a column heading and
choose Insert Column on the shortcut menu.
1
2
In the drop down list choose Constraint
Type. You can start typing the name of the
field and then choose it appears in the list.
You can now go and set the constraint
type for a task by selecting the down
arrow in the Constraint Type cell.
3
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Microsoft Project 2010 Learning Guide
Exercise 5: Constraints and Deadlines
Using Microsoft Project 2010 for Windows
Introduction
In this exercise we look at adding and removing a constraint.
Exercise
Step Action
The delivery company have informed us that it
will only take 2 weeks to ship the equipment to
us. Change the lag between Order Equipment
and Receive Equipment from 4ew to 2ew.
1
On the View tab in the Split View group, tick
the Details check box and make sure Task Form is selected.
In the Gantt Chart view click on the Receive Equipment task,
In the task form change the lag for the predecessor task (Order Equipment)
from 4ew to 2ew.
Change the start date for the Receive Equipment task to 1 day later.
2
Notice
field.
how
the
constraint
symbol appears in the indicator
Remove the constraint for Receive Equipment.
3
Open the Task Details Form in the Split View,
by selecting the View tab, and in the Split View
group, clicking the down arrow on the far right
of the Details check box.
4
From the drop down list select More Views and then the Task Details Form.
5
In the Gantt Chart view select the Receive Equipment task.
6
In the Task Details Form change the constraint
type back to As Soon As Possible and click OK.
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Microsoft Project 2010 Learning Guide
Manual and Auto Scheduling
Using Microsoft Project 2010 for Windows
Introduction
A Project can have a combination of manual and auto scheduled task.
Switch Scheduling Follow the steps below to switch the scheduling mode:
Mode
Step Action
1
The Entry, Schedule and Summary tables include a Task
Mode column. To switch to one of these tables, right click
the all cells box at the intersection of the column heading
and task ID rows and choose the one you want.
Note:
You can add the Task Mode field to any table by
right clicking a column heading and choosing Insert
Column. Then start typing the field name Task
Mode. Once it displays, select it to add to the table.
2
To change the Task mode for an existing task, click the
task’s, Task Mode cell, click the down arrow and select
the mode that you want.
To change the scheduling mode for all new tasks, on the File tab, choose
Options and in the Project Options dialogue box select Schedule.
Click the down arrow to the right of New tasks created and choose an option.
3
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Switch Scheduling
Mode, continued
Microsoft Project 2010 Learning Guide
To change the scheduling mode for new tasks, in the status bar, click New
Tasks and choose the scheduling mode.
44
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Microsoft Project 2010 Learning Guide
Work Resources
Using Microsoft Project 2010 for Windows
Introduction
A work resource like a person or piece of equipment is limited by the time it’s
available. You can tell Project how much a resource is available and the resource’s
work schedule. The Resource Sheet is the best place to do this.
Create a Resource Follow the steps below to add a work resource.
Step
Click the View tab and in the Resource View
group select Resource Sheet.
1
Click the first blank Resource Name cell and type the name of the resource.
You can either type in a person’s last name and then first name or a generic
name such as the job description.
You can’t use commas or square brackets in the name.
In the Initials field type in the persons first and last initials or an abbreviation
of the job description.
Initials will display in the Gantt Chart when the resource has been assigned to
a task.
2
The Group field can represent any type of category you want (e.g.
department).
You can use the group field to filter the task list to tasks performed by a
specific group
The Maximum Units field is where you tell Project what percentage of time
the resource is available for the project. (e.g. if you only work 4 hours a day
this can be set to 50%).
You could also tell Project that this resource consists of 3 people by setting the
Maximum Units to 300%.
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Create a Resource,
continued
Microsoft Project 2010 Learning Guide
Note
If you assign a resource
without creating it first,
Project will create a
resource with default
values for you.
To turn off this option, in the File tab, select Options and then
Advanced.
Under General options for this project untick the box Automatically
add new resources and tasks, and click OK.
Enter Resource
Information
You can also enter or edit resource information in the Resource Information dialog
box. Follow the steps below to open the Resource Information dialog box.
With the Resource Sheet open, click the
Resource tab and in the Properties group select
Information
1
The Resource Information dialogue box displays.
2
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Microsoft Project 2010 Learning Guide
Understanding Duration, Work & Units
Using Microsoft Project 2010 for Windows
Introduction
To ensure that resource assignment is done correctly it’s important to understand
the relationship between Duration, Work and Units.
 Units is the percentage or decimal amount the assigned resource works on
the task.
 Duration is expressed in terms of the working week.
 Work is the actual hours or days worked.
Duration
Duration =
80 hours = 40 hours ÷ 50% (if you only work 4 hours a day)
Work
Work = Duration x Units
2 days = 5 days x 40%
Units
Units = Work ÷ Duration
.25 = 40 hours ÷ 160 hours
The percentage of time the resource works on the task is 25%.
Project Calculation For resource assignment Project calculates duration first, then work and lastly units.
Rules
Duration
Work
Units
Project calculates
Work you input
Units you input
Project calculates
Work you input
If blank, Project uses 100%
or resource Max units
Duration you input
Project calculates
Units you input
Duration you input
Project calculates
If blank, Project uses 100%
or resource Max units
Duration you input
Work you input
Project calculates
Duration you input
Project calculates
If blank, Project uses 100%
or resource Max units
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Microsoft Project 2010 Learning Guide
Assign Resources to Tasks
Using Microsoft Project 2010 for Windows
Introduction
Microsoft Project allows you to manage resources through a range from very
detailed to broad. How many resources you assign, their work schedule, and
availability for your project all affect how long tasks take. Use any of the methods
below to assign resources.
If you know the resources that you want to assign, the Task Form at the bottom of
the Gantt Chart is a good way to assign a resource
Step Action
In the Task Entry table, select the task that you want to assign the resource to.
The task form then shows information for the task that’s currently selected in
the top pane view.
1
2
Click the first blank Resource Name cell.
3
Click the down arrow and from the dropdown list choose the resource that
you want to assign.
4
To use the resource’s maximum units from the resource sheet, you can leave
the units cell blank and click OK.
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Microsoft Project 2010 Learning Guide
Exercise 6: Assign Resources to Tasks
Using Microsoft Project 2010 for Windows
Introduction
In this exercise we will learn to add and assign resources to tasks.
Exercise
Step Action
Add the following resources by clicking the View tab, and in the Resource
Views group, select the resource sheet.
1
2





Sharon Tate
Tod Jones
Joe Smith
Selwyn Teal
Jacinta Merck
Assign Sharon Tate to the task Finalise Design.
In the Gantt Chart view, click
the Finalise Design task.
3
4
Click onto the Task Form at the
bottom of the Split View and
click the drop down arrow to
the right of Resource Name.
Select Sharon Tate from the
drop down box. Click OK.
Assign Joe Smith to the Order Equipment task.
Assign Tod Jones to the tasks:
5
6


Hire Wiring Contractors
Install PCs.
Have Selwyn Teal assigned to Pre-install wiring.
Assign Joe Smith to three tasks:
7
8



Connect wiring to PC’s.
Test Individual PC’s
Connect to Network.
Save the file.
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Microsoft Project 2010 Learning Guide
Split Tasks
Using Microsoft Project 2010 for Windows
Introduction
You can split tasks to indicate periods of time when work isn’t being done. Splitting
means that you break the task into pieces, and then you can schedule each piece
separately.
The task Pre-install Wiring might be stopped, if for example the installers ran out of
wire. The task could then be split into two, to indicate that no work was being done.
Note
Splitting tasks could complicate management of your project. Novice
users may find it easier to create two separate tasks (with slightly
differing names) rather than splitting an existing task.
To split the Pre-Install Wiring task follow the steps below.
Split Task
Split a task by following the steps below.
Step Action
On the Task tab in the Schedule group, click Split Task.
1
2
The cursor changes to a split
pointer.
Click onto the task where you
want the split.
Drag the split to where you want that part of the task to resume.
3
Project splits the taskbar in two and moves the second part.
4
The dotted line between the two pieces showes the split.
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Microsoft Project 2010 Learning Guide
Track and Manage Project
Using Microsoft Project 2010 for Windows
Introduction
By regularly reviewing the status of your project you can make sure that it stays on
track. Project views and reports help you evaluate your project status. The project
Summary Task is an easy way to keep high-level status visible.
Summary Task
Follow the steps below to use the Summary Task view.
Step Action
1
The project summary task
shows up with a special task ID
of 0. On the Format tab select
the check box for Project
Summary Task.
The project summary task summarizes your entire project. You can see the
duration of the project and the start and finish dates.
2
3
You can apply different tables and
look at the values in the project
summary task. On the View tab,
click Tables and then choose
Variance.
In the example below, the Finish Variance is 13 days. That means the project is
going to finish 13 days later than planned.
4
In the example below, If you select the cost table, then the graphic below
shows that the variance is -$3240 (under budget).
5
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Project
Information
Microsoft Project 2010 Learning Guide
Another way of viewing status is in the Project Information dialogue box.
Click the Project tab and then Project Information.
In the Project Information dialogue box at the bottom, click Statistics.
The Project Statistics dialogue box show the Current, Baseline, Actual and Remaining
values for your project.
You can also see the percentage of duration and work that is complete.
Status Reports
To view or print Reports in Project, follow the steps below.
Step Action
On the Project tab in the Reports group click on
Reports.
1
In the Reports dialogue box,
double click Overview and then
double-click Project Summary.
2
3
If variance values for Start, Finish and Duration are greater than 0, then the
project may be behind schedule.
Cost variances greater than zero mean the project is over budget. If the work
variance is greater than zero the project could be behind schedule.
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Status Reports,
continued
Microsoft Project 2010 Learning Guide
Another way to see status for
tasks is with status indicators.
4
In the Gantt Chart view right
click a column heading and
select Insert Column.
Then start typing Status Select Status Indicator from the list.
A clock with a check mark shows
tasks that are on time.
5
If there are tasks that aren’t finished but are running late, you will see a clock
with an exclamation point inside a red diamond.
To draw taskbars for a baseline, go to the Format
tab, click Baseline and then choose the baseline
that you want to see.
6
Format Gantt Chart To format the Gantt Chart, follow the steps below.
Step Action
1
2
To see how much slack tasks have, turn
on the Slack check box. A narrow black
line sticking out from the right end of a
taskbar shows how much a task can
delay before it delays its successors.
Click the Slippage down arrow and then select a baseline to show slippage
with narrow black lines, from the baseline start dates to the current,
scheduled start date. The length of the Slippage line shows how far tasks have
slipped from the baseline start date.
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Microsoft Project 2010 Learning Guide
Exercise 7: Track and Manage Project
Using Microsoft Project 2010 for Windows
Introduction
In this exercise we are going to learn how to update tasks.
Exercise
Step Action
1
Set a baseline for the project. On the Project tab in the Schedule group, select
Set Baseline and then again Set Baseline.
2
View the Tracking Gantt chart (Task tab, View group and Tracking Gantt).
Note
The task bars now consist of a coloured bar representing the Schedule and a grey
bar representing the Baseline. Because no updating has been done, the Baseline
will exactly match the Schedule, and the % complete figure at the end of each bar
on the chart will be zero.
Update Task 2 the Finalise Design task as 100% complete.
4
Click onto the Finalise Design task in the Gantt
Entry table.
On the Task tab in the Schedule group click on
the 100% button.
Update Task 3 Order Equipment (scheduled to take 2 days) so that 1 day has
been completed but that there are still 2 days to go.
5
Select Task 2 Order Equipment on the Task tab in the Schedule group.
Click the arrow next to Mark on Track and select Update
Tasks.
Enter Actual dur as 1d and Remaining Dur as 2d then click OK.
6
7
Task 5 Hire Wiring Contractors actually started 2 working days before it was
scheduled to start, and is 50% complete.
Assume you have been away for a few days
and when you return you are advised that
everything that was scheduled to be done by
today’s date has been done.
Select the whole sheet and click the Mark on Track icon, then again Mark on
Track. Look at the result, and then click the Undo icon.
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Reports
Using Microsoft Project 2010 for Windows
Introduction
Text based reports are easy to run and are useful for producing a checklist of
upcoming assignments, or send people a quick summary of where a project stands.
Unlike visual reports, text reports show data in a specific way. If you want a different
perspective you have to run a different report or create a custom report with the
layout that you want.
Visual reports let you change them on the fly because they use Excel PivotCharts and
Visio Pivot Diagrams to look at data in different ways.
Text Based
Reports
To run a text based report, follow the steps below.
Step Action
On the Project tab in the Reports group click
Reports.
1
Then select the report category.
2
Finally select the report that you
want.
3
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Visual Report
Microsoft Project 2010 Learning Guide
To run a visual report, follow the steps below.
Step Action
On the Project tab in the Reports group click
Visual Reports.
1
In the Visual Reports
dialogue box, select the
visual report that you want
to run.
2
You will be able to see a
preview of how the report
will look, as well as choose to
view the data by day, week,
month, quarter or year. Click
on View to run the report.
48
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