Introduction-to-psychology.

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Introduction to Psychology
By: Amna Khan
Learning Outcomes

Define Psychology.

What are the basic goals of Psychology?

Describe the various fields of Psychology.

What are different methods of Psychology?

Describe the perspectives in modern Psychology.
What is Psychology?

Psychology
Greek words: ‘Psyche’ means ‘soul’
‘Logos’ means ‘study’

.
“Psychology” means ‘the study of soul’ or ‘science of soul’
Cont.

‘Psychology is the scientific study of behavior and mental
processes’

Behavior includes all of our outward or overt actions and
reactions.

Mental processes include all the internal and covert activity
of our mind.

Most people think of psychology as the study of
differences between people, but it also includes the
study of similarities between people.
Goals of Psychology
•
Psychology seeks to
–
describe
–
explain
–
predict, and
–
influence behavior and mental processes
What Psychologists Do Today
Branches of Psychology

Biopsychology

Developmental Psychology

Personality Psychology

Health Psychology

Clinical Psychology

Counselling Psychology

Educational Psychology

Social Psychology:

Industrial and Organizational
Psychology

Experimental Psychology

Environmental Psychology

Psychology of Women

Sports and Exercise Psychology

Cognitive Psychology

Forensic Psychology
Cont.

Biopsychology/physiological psychology


investigate the biological basis of behavior
Developmental Psychology
 study human mental and physical growth from conception to death

Personality Psychology

study the differences between individuals
Cont.



Cognitive Psychology

focuses on internal mental states.

conduct research on memory, language, problem-solving
Experimental Psychology

utilizes scientific methods to research the brain and behavior.

conduct research on sensation, perception, and basic learning
Social Psychology

study how people influence one another
Cont.

Educational Psychology

deals with issues such as learning disorders,

assist in children's educational, intellectual and social
development

designing programs for special need children

testing

teaching
Cont.

Industrial/Organizational Psychology

use psychological principles to improve work environment

predicting job performance, assessing leadership, factors
contributing to job satisfaction
Cont.

Environmental Psychology

the relationship between the physical environment and
psychological processes

functioning of workers in different environments

people's sense of personal space
Cont.

Forensic Psychology

interface between psychology and the law

assisting victims of crime

profiling criminals

might be clinical psychologists, school psychologists,
neurologists or counselors
Cont.

Clinical Psychology

diagnosis and treatment of psychological disorders

prevention, understanding and cure of psychological issues by
way of psycho-therapeutic treatment.

Counselling Psychology

educational, social and career adjustment problems.

provide help concerned with mild problems of social nature

provide help for healthy lifestyle, economical and emotional
adjustments.
Methods of Psychology

Some of the important scientific methods are:

Introspection method

Observation method

Experimental method

Case study method

Questionnaire method

Interview method

Survey method
Perspectives In Modern Psychology
•
The Psychodynamic Perspective
•
The Behavioral Perspective
•
The Cognitive Perspective
•
The Biological Perspective
•
The Cross-Cultural Perspective
•
The Evolutionary Perspective
•
The Humanistic Perspective
Cont.


Psychodynamic Perspective

role of the unconscious mind

early childhood experiences, and

interpersonal relationships
Behavioral Perspective


focuses on learned behaviors and observable behaviors.
Cognitive Perspective

focuses on mental processes such as memory, thinking, problemsolving, language, and decision-making.
Cont.

Biological Perspective

how genetics influence different behaviors?

how damage to specific areas of the brain influence behavior and
personality?

nervous system, genetics, the brain, the immune system, and the
endocrine systems are involved

Cross-Cultural Perspective

look at human behavior across different cultures.
Cont.

Evolutionary Perspective

how evolution explains physiological processes.

Psychologists and researchers take the basic principles of evolution,
including natural selection, and apply them to psychological
phenomena.

Humanistic Perspective

the role of motivation in thought and behavior.

self-actualization
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